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411 terms

Med Terms - Chapter 8

STUDY
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amni/o
amnion (amniotic sac)
amni/o/centesis (ăm-nē-ō-sĕn-TĒ-sĭs): surgical puncture of the amniotic sac
-centesis: surgical puncture
cervic/o
neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)

cervic/itis (sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs): inflammation of cervix uteri
-itis: infl ammation
colp/o
vagina

colp/o/scopy (kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē): examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
-scopy: visual examination
vagin/o
vagina

vagin/o/cele (VĂJ-ĭn-ō-sēl): herniation into the vagina; also called a colpocele
-cele: hernia, swelling
galact/o
milk

galact/o/rrhea (gă-lăk-tō-RĒ-ă): discharge or fl ow of milk
-rrhea: discharge, fl ow
lact/o
lact/o/gen (LĂK-tō-jĕn): production and secretion of milk
-gen: forming, producing, origin
gynec/o
woman, female

gynec/o/logist (gī-nĕ-KŎL-ō-jĭst): physician specializing in treating disorders of the female reproductive system
-logist: specialist in study of
hyster/o
uterus (womb)

hyster/ectomy (hĭs-tĕr-ĔK-tō-mē): excision of uterus
-ectomy: excision, removal
uter/o
uterus (womb)

uter/o/vagin/al (ū-tĕr-ō-VĂJ-ĭ-năl): pertaining to the
uterus and vagina
vagin: vagina
-al: pertaining to
mamm/o
breast

mamm/o/gram (MĂM-ō-grăm): radiograph of the breast
-gram: record, writing
mast/o
breast

mast/o/pexy (MĂS-tō-pĕks-ē): surgical fixation of the breast(s)
-pexy: fixation (of an organ)
men/o
menses, menstruation

men/o/rrhagia (mĕn-ō-RĀ-jē-ă): excessive amount of menstrual fl ow over a longer duration than normal
-rrhagia: bursting forth (of)
metr/o
uterus (womb); measure

endo/metr/itis (ĕn-dō-mē-TRĪ-tĭs): inflammation of the endometrium
endo-: in, within
-itis: infl ammation
nat/o
birth

pre/nat/al (prē-NĀ-tl ): pertaining to (the period)
before birth
pre-: before, in front of
-al: pertaining to
oophor/o
oophor/oma (ō-ŏf-ōr-Ō-mă): ovarian tumor
-oma: tumor
ovari/o
ovary

ovari/o/rrhexis (ō-văr-rē-ō-RĔK-sĭs): rupture of an ovary
-rrhexis: rupture
perine/o
perineum

perine/o/rrhaphy (pĕr-ĭ-nē-OR-ă-fē): suture of the
perineum
-rrhaphy: suture
salping/o
tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

salping/ectomy (săl-pĭn-JĔK-tō-mē): excision of a
fallopian tube
-ectomy: excision, removal
vulv/o
vulva

vulv/o/pathy (vŭl-VŎP-ă-thē): disease of the vulva
-pathy: disease
episi/o
vulva

episi/o/tomy (ĕ-pēs-ē-ŎT-ō-mē): incision of the perineum
Episiotomy is performed to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the fetus.
-tomy: incision
-arche
beginning

men/arche (mĕn-ĂR-kē): initial menstrual period
men: menses, menstruation
Menarche usually occurs between ages 9 and 17.
-cyesis
pregnancy

pseudo/cyesis (soo-dō-sī-Ē-sĭs): false pregnancy
In pseudocyesis, a woman believes she is pregnant when she is not.
pseudo-: false
-gravida
pregnant woman

primi/gravida (prī-mĭ-GRĂV-ĭ-dă): woman during her first pregnancy
primi-: first
-para
to bear (offspring)

multi/para (mŭl-TĬP-ă-ră): woman who has delivered
more than one viable infant
multi-: many, much
-salpinx
tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

hemat/o/salpinx (hĕm-ă-tō-SĂL-pinks): collection of blood in a fallopian tube; also called hemosalpinx.
hemat/o: blood
Hematosalpinx is commonly associated with a tubal pregnancy.
-tocia
childbirth, labor

dys/tocia (dĭs-TŌ-sē-ā): childbirth that is painful and difficult
dys-: bad; painful; difficult
-version
turning

retro/version (rĕt-rō-VĔR-shŭn): tipping back of an organ
retro-: backward, behind
Uterine retroversion is measured as first, second, or third degree, depending on the angle of tilt in relationship to the vagina.
primi/gravida
-gravida: pregnant woman; first
colp/o/scopy
-scopy: visual examination; vagina
gynec/o/logist
-logist: specialist in study of; woman, female
perine/o/rrhaphy
-rrhaphy: suture; perineum
hyster/ectomy
-ectomy: excision, removal; uterus (womb)
oophor/oma
-oma: tumor; ovary
dys/tocia
-tocia: childbirth, labor; bad, painful, difficult
endo/metr/itis
-itis: inflammation; in, within; uterus (womb); measure
mamm/o/gram
-gram: record, writing; breast
amni/o/centesis
-centesis: surgical puncture; amnion (amniotic sac)
tumor
TOO-mŏr
An oophor/oma is an ovarian ____________. Pronounce the initial o and the second o in words with oophor/o.
oophor/o
The main purpose of the ovaries is to produce ovum, the female reproductive cell. This process is called ovulation. Another important function
of the ovaries is to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. From oophor/oma, construct the CF for ovary.
____________________ / _____
oophor/o/pathy
ō-ŏf-ŏr-ŎP-ă-thē
disease of the ovaries:
____________________ / _____ / __________
oophor/o/plasty
ō-ŎF-ŏr-ō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of an ovary:
_______________ / _____ / _______________
oophor/o/pexy
ō-ŏf-ō-rō-PĔK-sē
fixation of a displaced ovary: ____________________ / _____ / __________
salping/o/plasty
săl-PĬNG-gō-plăs-tē
Surgical repair of a fallopian tube (also known as oviduct) is called
________________ / _____ / ________________.
salping/o
To form words for the fallopian tube(s), uterine tube(s), or oviduct(s), use the CF ____________________ / _____.
salping/ectomy
săl-pĭn-JĔK-tō-mē
When a fallopian tube is removed, the surgical procedure is called
__________________ / ____________________.
instrument
A salping/o/scope is an ____________________ for viewing the fallopian tube(s).
salping/o/scopy
săl-pĭng-GŎS-kō-pē
Visual examination of the fallopian tube(s) is called
____________________ / _____ / __________.
salping/o/cele
săl-PĬNG-ō-sēl
Herniation of a fallopian tube(s) is known as
____________________ / _____ / __________.
oviducts
Ŏ-vĭ-dŭkts
Locate the two small tubes leading to each ovary that are called fallopian tubes, uterine tubes, or ____________________.
hernia or herniation, uterus
HĔR-nē-ă or hĕr-nē-Ā-shŭn,
Ū-tĕr-ŭs
The CF hyster/o is used to form words about the uterus as an organ. A hyster/o/cele is a ____________________ of the ____________________.
hyster/o/pathy
hĭs-tēr-ŎP-ă-thē
disease of the uterus:
____________________ / _____ / __________
hyster/algia, hyster/o/dynia
hĭs-tĕr-ĂL-jē-ā, hĭs-tĕr-ō-DĬN-ē-ă
pain in the uterus:
____________________ / __________ or
____________________ / _____ / __________
hyster/o/spasm
HĬS-tĕr-ō-spăzm
involuntary contraction, twitching of uterus:
____________________ / _____ / __________
hyster/ectomy
hĭs-tĕr-ĔK-tō-mē
excision of uterus:
__________________ / ____________________
hyster/o/tomy
hĭs-tĕr-ŎT-ō-mē
incision of uterus:
____________________ / _____ / __________
dictionary
When in doubt about forming medical words with hyster/o, uter/o, or metr/o, refer to your medical ____________________.
hyster/o/scopy
hĭs-tĕr-ŎS-kō-pē
Use hyster/o to form a word that means visual examination of the uterus.
____________________ / _____ / __________
uter/o/scopy
Ū-tĕr-ŏs-kō-pē
Use uter/o to form another word that means visual examination of the uterus.
__________ / _____ / __________
hyster/o/ptosis
hĭs-tĕr-ŏp-TŌ-sĭs
Combine hyster/o and -ptosis to form a word that means a prolapse or downwarddisplacement of the uterus.
________________ / _____ / ________________
uterus
Ū-tēr-ŭs
A diagnosis (Dx) of uter/ine hemorrhage denotes bleeding from the ____________________.
-ine
The element in this frame that means pertaining to is ___________.
hyster/o, uter/o
-pexy
A prolapsed uterus may be caused by heavy physical exertion, pregnancy, or an inherent weakness. The surgical procedure to correct a
prolapsed uterus is known as hyster/o/pexy or uter/o/pexy.

Write the elements in this frame that mean
uterus:
_______________ / _____, __________ / _____
fixation (of an organ): __________
surgical repair, uterus
Ū-tĕr-ŭs
Surgical repair is denoted by the suffi x -plasty. Hyster/o/plasty, uter/o/plasty, and metr/o/plasty all refer to ____________________
____________________ of the ____________________.
hyster/o/cele
HĬS-tĕr-ō-sēl
A Dx of herniation of the uterus would be documented in the medical chart as ____________________ / _____ / __________.
estrogen, progesterone
ĔS-trō-jĕn, prō-JĔS-tĕr-ōn
When ovaries are diseased and necessitate removal, the body becomes deficient in the hormones known as ____________________ and
____________________.
men/o/pause
MĔN-ō-pawz
Identify terms in this frame that mean cessation of the menses: __________ / _____ / __________
post/men/o/pause
pōst-MĔN-ō-pawz
The term pre/men/o/pause refers to a time period before men/o/pause. Can you build a word that refers to a time period after men/o/pause?
__________ / __________ / _____ / __________
bursting forth
The suffi xes -rrhage and -rrhagia are used in words to mean bursting forth (of). Hem/o/rrhage denotes a ____________________
___________ (of) blood.
hem/o
The CF in hem/o/rrhage that denotes blood is __________ / _____.
blood
The elements hemat/o, hem/o, and -emia refer to ___________.
blood
Hemat/o/logy is the study of ___________.
blood
tumor
TOO-mŏr
Analyze hemat/oma by defi ning the elements.
hemat/o: ___________
-oma: ___________
hemat/o/logist
hē-mă-TŎL-ō-jĭst
hemat/o/pathy
hē-mă-TŎP-ă-thē
hemat/emesis
hĕm-ăt-ĔM-ĕ-sĭs
Use hemat/o to build medical words that mean
specialist in the study of blood:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
disease of the blood:
__________ / _____ / __________
vomiting blood:
__________ / ____________________
cervic/itis
sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs
The medical term for inflammation of the cervix uteri is ____________________ / __________.
curet
kū-RĔT
The instrument used to scrape the endo/metri/um is known as a ___________.
uterine sound
What type of instrument is used to measure the uterus?
____________________ ___________
serrated
What type of curet is used to scrape the uterine lining? ____________________
inflammation, vagina
vă-JĪ-nă
The CFs colp/o and vagin/o refer to the vagina. Colp/itis is an ____________________ of the ____________________.
vagin/itis
văj-ĭn-Ī-tĭs
Form another word in addition to colp/itis that means inflammation of the vagina.
__________ / __________
colp/algia
kŏl-PĂL-jē-ā
Colp/o/dynia is pain in the vagina. Use colp/o to build another term for pain in the vagina.
__________ / __________
colp/o/spasm
KŎL-pō-spăzm
spasm or twitching of the vagina:
__________ / _____ / __________
colp/o/ptosis
kŏl-pŏp-TŌ-sĭs
prolapse or downward displacement of the vagina:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
colp/o/pexy
KŎL-pō-pĕk-sē
fixation of the vagina:
__________ / _____ / __________
vagin/o/plasty
vă-JĪ-nō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of the vagina:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
vagin/o/scope
VĂJ-ĭn-ō-skōp
instrument to view the vagina:
___________ / _____ / ___________
vagin/o/tomy
văj-ĭ-NŎT-ō-mē
incision of the vagina:
__________ / _____ / __________
suture, vagina
SŪ-chŭr, vă-JĪ-nă
A prolapsed vagina usually is sutured to the abdominal wall. Colp/o/rrhaphy is a _________________of the _________________.
vesic/o/vagin/al fistula
vĕs-ĭ-kō-VĂJ-ĭ-năl, FĬS-tū-lă
An abnormal connection that develops between the bladder and vagina is known as a
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
____________________.
vagina
vă-JĪ-nă
The term fistula refers to an abnormal passage from one epithelial surface to another epithelial surface. It can occur in any body system. Thus, a
vesic/o/vagin/al fistula is only one type of fistula. A ureter/o/vagin/al fistula occurs between the lower ureter and the ____________________.
vagina
vă-JĪ-nă
A rect/o/vagin/al fi stula is one that develops between the rectum and the ________________.
-rrhagia, -rrhage
Colp/o/rrhagia is an excessive vagin/al discharge or a vagin/al hem/o/rrhage. The elements in these words that mean bursting forth (of) are ____________________ and ____________________.
hem/o/rrhage
HĔM-ĕ-rĭj
Form a word that means bursting forth (of) blood.
__________ / _____ / ____________________
hernia, swelling
HĔR-nē-ă
Recall that -cele means ____________________ or. ____________________.
vagina
vă-JĪ-nă
A colp/o/cyst/o/cele is swelling or herniation of the bladder into the ____________________.
vagina
bladder
hernia, swelling
Identify the elements in colp/o/cyst/o/cele.
colp/o: ____________________
cyst/o: ____________________
-cele: _______________ or _________________
vagin/al
VĂJ-ĭn-ăl
pertaining to the vagina: __________ / __________
hyster/ectomy
hĭs-tĕr-ĔK-tō-mē
excision of the uterus:
____________________ / ___________________
muc/ous
MŪ-kŭs
Use the adjective ending -ous to form a word that means pertaining to mucus.
__________ / __________
-oid
The adjective element that means resembling is ___________.
resembling fat
Lip/oid means ________________ ___________.
adip/oid
ĂD-ĭ-poyd
Use adip/o to form another term that means resembling fat. __________ / __________
cyst/o
____________________ bladder
hemat/o, hem/o
____________________ blood
-rrhage, -rrhagia
____________________ bursting forth (of)
hyster/o, uter/o, metr/o
____________________ uterus (womb)
-cele
____________________ hernia, swelling
-tomy
____________________ incision
-tome
____________________ instrument to cut
-scope
____________________ instrument for
examining
salping/o, -salpinx
____________________ tube (usually fallopian
or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
-pexy
____________________ fixation (of an organ)
muc/o
____________________ mucus
oophor/o, ovari/o
____________________ ovary
-arche
____________________ beginning
metr/o
____________________ uterus (womb);
measure
-ptosis
____________________ prolapse, downward
displacement
-oid
____________________ resembling
-logist
____________________ specialist in study of
-logy
____________________ study of
-plasty
____________________ surgical repair
colp/o, vagin/o
____________________ vagina
vulva
VŬL-vă
Vulv/o/uter/ine refers to the uterus and ___________.
clitoris, Bartholin glands
KLĬT-ō-rĭs, BĂR-tō-lĭn
The external structures, or genitalia (also known as the vulva), include the labia majora, labia minora, ____________________ , and
____________________ ____________________.
muc/ous
MŪ-kŭs
Use -ous to build a word that means pertaining to mucus. __________ / __________ (adjective ending)
vulv/itis
vŭl-VĪ-tĭs
inflammation of the vulva: ________ / __________
vulv/o/pathy
vŭl-VŎP-ă-thē
disease of the vulva:
__________ / _____ / __________
cervic/itis
sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs
The CF cervic/o denotes the cervix uteri or the neck. Inflammation of the cervix uteri is called ____________________ / __________.
vagina, uteri
vă-JĪ-nă, Ū-tĕ-rī
When cervic/o is used in a word, you can determine whether it refers to the neck or the cervix uteri by reviewing the other parts of the word. Colp/o/cervic/al refers to the _________________ and cervix ___________.
colp/o/scopy
kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē
A colp/o/scope, an instrument with a magnifying lens, is used to examine vagin/al and cervic/al tissue. Visual examination of vagin/al and
cervic/al tissue using a colposcope is called
__________ / _____ / __________.
colp/o/scope
KŎL-pō-skōp
instrument for examining the vagina and cervix uteri: __________ / _____ / __________
colp/o/scopy
kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē
visual examination of the vagina and cervix uteri using a colp/o/scope:
__________ / _____ / __________
vagin/al
VĂJ-ĭn-ăl
pertaining to the vagina:
__________ / __________
cervic/al
SĔR-vĭ-kăl
pertaining to the cervix uteri: ____________________ / __________
uterus
Ū-tĕr-ŭs
Cervix uteri refers to the neck of the ____________________.
gynec/o/logist
gī-nĕ-KŎL-ō-jĭst
The term gynec/o/logy means study of females or women and is the medical specialty for treating female reproductive disorders. A specialist in
study of female reproductive disorders is called a
__________ / _____ / ____________________.
gynec/o
The CF in gynec/o/logy that means woman or female is __________ /_____.
gynec/o/pathy
gī-nĕ-KŎP-ă-thē
Use -pathy to form a word that means disease of a female. __________ / _____ / __________
gynec/o/logy
gī-nĕ-KŎL-ō-jē
GYN is the abbreviation for gynec/o/logy. OB-GYN refers to obstetrics and ______ / ___ / ________.
menses, menstruation
MĔN-sēz, mĕn-stroo-Ā-shŭn
The CF men/o means menses or menstruation, which is the monthly fl ow of blood and tissue from the uterus.

Men/o/rrhea is a flow of ____________________ or ____________________.
dys/men/o/rrhea
dĭs-mĕn-ō-RĒ-ă
Use dys- and men/o/rrhea to develop a word that means painful or difficult menstrual fl ow.
__________ / __________ / _____ / __________
dys/men/o/rrhea
dĭs-mĕn-ō-RĒ-ă
The symptomatic term that literally means bad, painful, difficult menstruation is
__________ / __________ / _____ / __________.
bursting forth, menses or menstruation
MĔN-sēz,
mĕn-stroo-Ā-shŭn
Men/o/rrhagia is excessive bleeding at the time of a menstrual period.
Literally, it means ____________________ ___________ of ____________________.
menstruation
mĕn-stroo-Ā-shun
Men/o/pause terminates the reproductive period of life and is a permanent cessation of menses or ____________________.
menstruation
mĕn-stroo-Ā-shun
A/men/o/rrhea is absence or abnormal stoppage of menstruation.

Men/o/rrhea is a flow of the menses or ____________________.
-pause
Identify the element in men/o/pause that means cessation. ___________
after, before
Post- means ___________, or behind. Pre- means ____________________, or in front of.
mamm/o, mast/o
The CFs that refer to the breast are __________ / _____ and __________ / _____.
excision or removal
ĕk-SĬ-zhŭn
Mast/ectomy is a(n) ____________________ of a breast.
mast/ectomy
măs-TĔK-tō-mē
To prevent spread of CA, a malignant breast tumor may be treated with a partial or complete excision. When a breast has to be removed, the
patient has a __________ / _________________.
lactation
lăk-TĀ-shŭn
During pregnancy, the breasts enlarge and remain so until lactation ceases. At menopause, breast tissue begins to atrophy. The ability of mammary glands to secrete milk for the nourishment of the infant is a process called ___________________.
-graphy
mamm/o
Mamm/o/graphy, an x-ray examination of the breast, is used in the Dx of CA.
Determine the elements in this frame that mean
process of recording: ____________________
breast: ___________ / _____
mamm/o/plasty
MĂM-ō-plăs-tē
Use mamm/o to construct a word that means surgical reconstruction or surgical repair of a breast._________ / _____ / _________________
mast/o/plasty
MĂS-tō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of the breast:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
mast/o/pexy
MĂS-to-pĕk-sē
fi xation of the breast: __________ / _____ / __________
mast/o, mamm/o
The CFs for breast are __________ / _____ and
__________ / _____.
inflammation, breast(s)
Breast-feeding may cause a blockage of the milk ducts and mast/itis, which is an ____________________ of the ___________.
mast/o/dynia, mast/algia
măst-ō-DĬN-ē-ă,
măst-ĂL- jē-ă
Use mast/o to form a word that means pain in the breast. __________ / _____ / __________ or __________ / __________
before, after
The term nat/al means pertaining to birth. Pre/nat/al refers to the time period ____________________ birth; post/nat/al refers to the time period ___________ birth.
neonat/
o
-logy
Identify elements in neo/nat/o/logy that mean
new: ___________
birth: __________ / _____
study of: ___________
neo/nat/o/logist
nē-ō-nā-TŎL-ō-jĭst
Neo/nat/o/logy is the study and treatment of the neonate (newborn infant). A physician who specializes in the care and treatment of the
neonate is called a
________ / ________ / _____ / ______________.
woman
Whenever you see gravida in a word, you will know it denotes a pregnant _________________.
fourth
second
Gravida 4 is a woman in her _______ pregnancy.
Gravida 2 is a woman in her _______ pregnancy.
gravida 3
GRĂV-ĭ-dă
gravida 5
GRĂV-ĭ-dă
A woman in her third pregnancy is a ____________________ ___________.
A woman in her fifth pregnancy is a ____________________ ___________.
two, five
Para 2 means ___________ deliveries; para 5 means ___________ deliveries.
para 6
PĂR-ă
A woman who has delivered three infants would be described as para 3. A woman who has delivered six infants would be described as ___________ ___________.
PID
The abbreviation for pelvic inflammatory
disease is ___________.
path/o/gen
PĂTH-ō-jĕn
A term in this frame that means forming, producing, or origin of disease is
__________ / _____ / __________.
sexually transmitted disease
The abbreviation STD refers to
_____________ ____________ ______________.
pelvic inflammatory disease
The abbreviation PID refers to
_____________ ____________ ______________.
ovary or ovaries
Ō-vă-rē, Ō-vă-rēz
The CF oophor/o refers to the ____________________.
oophor/itis
ō-ŏf-ō-RĪ-tĭs
inflammation of the ovaries: ____________________ / __________
oophor/oma
ō-ŏf-ō-RŌ-mă
tumor of the ovaries:
____________________ / __________
diagnosis
When the abbreviation Dx is used in
a medical report, it means _________________.
salping/ectomy
săl-pĭn-JĔK-tō-mē
Build a surgical term that means excision of one or both fallopian tubes.
____________________ / ___________________
uterus
Ū-tĕr-ŭs
A hyster/o/tome is an instrument for incising the
____________________.
incision, uterus
Hyster/o/tomy is an ____________________ into the ____________________.
CS, C-section
Abbreviations for cesarean section are ___________ and ____________________.
post-
____________________ after, behind
gynec/o
____________________ woman, female
pre-
____________________ before, in front of
mamm/o, mast/o
____________________ breast
-pathy
____________________ disease
-ectomy
____________________ excision, removal
-rrhea
____________________ discharge, flow
-itis
____________________ inflammation
-tome
____________________ instrument to cut
-scope
____________________ instrument for examining
-scopy
____________________ visual examination
men/o
____________________ menses, menstruation
cervic/o
____________________ neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
-algia, -dynia
____________________ pain
-ary, -ous
____________________ pertaining to
-logist
____________________ specialist in study of
salping/o
____________________ tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
colp/o, vagin/o
____________________ vagina
vulv/o, episi/o
____________________ vulva
dys-
____________________ bad; painful; difficult
andr/o
male

andr/o/gen (ĂN-drō-jĕn): forming or producing male (hormones)
-gen: forming, producing, origin
balan/o
glans penis

balan/itis (băl-ă-NĪ-tĭs): infl ammation of the glans penis
-itis: infl ammation
gonad/o
gonads, sex glands

gonad/o/tropin (gŏn-ă-dō-TRŌ-pĭn): hormone that
stimulates the gonads
-tropin: stimulate

Gonadotropin is a hormone that stimulates the function of the testes and ovaries (gonads).
orch/o
testis (plural, testes)

crypt/orch/ism (krĭpt-OR-kĭzm): condition of a hidden testicle
crypt: hidden
-ism: condition
orchi/o
testis (plural, testes)

orchi/o/pexy (ŌR-kē-ō-pĕk-sē): surgical fixation of a testis
-pexy: fixation (of an organ)

An orchiopexy is performed to mobilize an undescended testis,
bring it into the scrotum, and attach it so that it will not retract.
orchid/o
testis (plural, testes)

orchid/ectomy (or-kĭ-DĔK-tō-mē): excision of one or both testes
-ectomy: excision, removal
test/o
testis (plural, testes)

test/algia (tĕs-TĂL-jē-ă): pain in the testes
-algia: pain
spermat/o
spermatozoa, sperm cells

spermat/o/cyte (spĕr-MĂT-ō-sīt) sperm cell
cyte: cell
sperm/i
sperm/i/cide (SPĔR-mĭ-sīd): agent that kills spermatozoa
-cide: killing
sperm/o
a/sperm/ia (ă-SPĔR-mē-ă): without semen
a-: without, not
-ia: condition
In aspermia, semen fail to form or ejaculate.
varic/o
dilated vein

varic/o/cele (VĂR-ĭ-kō-sēl): dilated or enlarged vein of the spermatic cord
-cele: hernia, swelling
vas/o
vessel; vas deferens; duct

vas/ectomy (văs-ĔK-tō-mē): removal of all or part of the vas deferens
-ectomy: excision, removal
vesicul/o
seminal vesicle

vesicul/itis (vĕ-sĭk-ū-LĪ-tĭs): inflammation of the seminal vesicle
-itis: inflammation
vas/ectomy
-ectomy: excision, removal; vessel, vas deferens, duct
balan/itis
-itis: inflammation; glans penis
spermat/i/cide
-cide: killing; spermatozoa, sperm cells
gonad/o/tropin
-tropin: stimulate; gonads, sex glands
orchi/o/pexy
-pexy: fixation (of an organ); testis (plural, testes)
a/sperm/ia
-ia: condition; without, not; spermatozoa, sperm cells
vesicul/itis
-itis: inflammation; seminal vesicle
orchid/ectomy
-ectomy: excision, removal; testis (plural, testes)
andr/o/gen
-gen: forming, producing, origin; male
crypt/orch/ism
-ism: condition; hidden; testis (plural, testes)
disease, testes or testicles
TĔS-tēs, TĔS-tĭ-klz
The CF test/o refers to the testis. Test/o/pathy is a
____________________ of the ____________________ (plural).
testis
TĔS-tēs
The singular form of testes is ____________________.
testicle
TĔS-tĭ-kl
The singular form of testicles is ____________________.
test/itis
tĕs-TĪ-tĭs
test/ectomy
tĕs-TĔK-tō-mē
test/o/pathy
tĕs-TŎP-ă-thē
Use test/o to form medical words that mean
inflammation of testis: __________ / __________
excision of testis: __________ /______________
disease of testis: _______ / _____ / __________
spermatozoa
spĕr-măt-ō-ZŌ-ă
Spermat/o/genesis is the beginning or formation of sperm cells, or ____________________.
stone, calculus
KĂL-kū-lŭs
A spermat/o/lith is a ___________ or ____________________ in the spermatic duct.
spermat/o/genesis
spĕr-măt-ō-JĔN-ĕ-sĭs
Construct a word that means producing or forming sperm.
______________ / _____ / _________________
spermat/o/cyte
spĕr-MĂT-ō-sīt
Use spermat/o to form a word that means sperm cell. __________________ / _____ / __________
spermat/oid
SPĔR-mă-toyd
Build a word that means resembling spermatozoa. ________________ / __________
spermat/uria
spĕr-mă-TŪ-rē-ă
A discharge of semen with urine is also called
____________________ / __________.
without
A/spermat/ism literally means ______________ sperm.
scanty
A man who produces a scanty amount of sperm in the semen has a condition called olig/o/sperm/ia. Olig/o means ____________________.
olig/o/sperm/ia
ŏl-ĭ-gō-SPĔR-mē-ă
When the physician detects an insufficient number of spermatozoa in the semen, the Dx is noted in the medical record as
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________.
muc/o
Ducts of Cowper glands open into the urethra and secrete thick mucus that acts as a lubricant during sexual stimulation.
Write the CF that refers to mucus.
__________ / _____
adjective
Muc/us is a noun. Muc/ous is a (n) (noun, adjective) ____________________.
muc/oid
MŪ-koyd
Use -oid to construct a medical term that means resembling mucus. __________ / __________
orchi/o/plasty
OR-kē-ō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of the testicle:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
orchi/o/rrhaphy
or-kē-OR-ă-fē
suture of a testicle:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
orchi/o/pexy
or-kē-ō-PĔK-sē
fixation of a testicle:
__________ / _____ / __________
enlargement
Prostat/o/megaly is a(n) ____________________ of the prostate gland.
prostat/o/megaly
prŏs-tă-tō-MĔG-ă-lē
Construct a medical word that means enlargement of the prostate gland.
______________ / _____ / _________________
growth; nourishment
Benign prostat/ic hyper/plasia (BPH) is also known as benign prostat/ic hyper/trophy (BPH). The suffix -plasia means formation, ____________________.
The suffix -trophy means development, ____________________.
trans/urethr/al
trăns-ū-RĒ-thrăl
Common symptoms of BPH include hesitancy and dribbling on urination and a weak urine stream. Treatment for BPH includes drugs to
decrease prostate size or the surgical procedure known as trans/urethr/al resection of the prostate (TURP)in which the obstructing tissue is removed. TURP makes it possible to perform surgery on certain organs that lie near
the urethra without having an abdominal incision.

Because this surgery is performed by passing a resect/o/scope through the urethra, it is called __________ / ________________ / __________
resection of the prostate.
resect/o/scope
rē-SĔK-tō-skōp
The endo/scop/ic instrument used by the urologist to perform TURP is called a ____________________ / _____ / __________.
PSA
The abbreviation for prostatespecific antigen test is ___________.
prostat/itis
prŏs-tă-TĪ-tĭs
inflammation of the prostate gland: ____________________ / __________
prostat/o/cyst/itis
prŏs-tă-tō-sĭs-TĪ-tĭs
inflammation of the prostate gland and bladder:
_____________ / _____ / __________ /________
prostate, bladder
PRŎS-tāt
Prostat/o/cyst/o/tomy is an incision of the _________________ and __________________.
water
hernia, swelling
HĔR-nē-ă
Hydr/o/cele is a collection of fluid in a saclike cavity, specifically the testis.
Analyze hydr/o/cele by defi ning the elements.
hydr/o: ___________
-cele: ______________, ____________________
prostat/ectomy
prŏs-tă-TĔK-tō-mē
Develop a surgical term that means excision of the prostate gland.
____________________ / ___________________
cancer
Currently PSA is considered the most sensitive tumor marker for prostate __________________.
threatening
Tumors may be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not malignant (cancerous) and not life-threatening. A malignant tumor, however,
is cancerous and life-____________________.
benign
bē-NĪN
Tumors are also called neo/plasms (new growths or formations). Similar to tumors, neo/plasms can be malignant or ____________________.
cancer/ous
KĂN-sĕr-ŭs
A benign tumor is non/cancer/ous. A malignant tumor is ____________________ / __________.
neo/plasm
NĒ-ō-plăzm
Carcin/omas also are known as malignant neo/plasms. Form a word that means formation or growth that is new. __________ / __________
prostate
PRŎS-tāt
Prostate CA also is called carcinoma of the ____________________.
prostat/itis
prŏs-tă-TĪ-tĭs
Build a symptomatic term that means inflammation of the prostate gland.
____________________ / __________
growth
The suffixes -plasm and -plasia refer to formation or _____________.
dys-
-plasia
Dys/plasia is an abnormal development of tissue. Identify the element in dys/plasia that means
bad, painful, or difficult: _____________
formation, growth: ____________________
without, not
formation, growth
A/plasia means without formation, and it is a condition that is due to failure of an organ to develop or form normally.
Analyze a/plasia by defining the elements.
a-: ____________________, _____________
-plasia: _______________ or _______________
hyper-
-plasia
Hyper/plasia is an excessive increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ.
Determine the element in hyper/plasia that means
excessive: _____________
formation or growth: ____________________
vas/o
From the term vas/ectomy, construct the combining form that means vessel, vas deferens, or duct. __________ / _____
an/esthesia
ăn-ĕs-THĒ-zē-ă
without feeling: __________ / ________________
bi/later/al
bī-LĂT-ĕr-ăl
pertaining to two sides:
__________ / __________ / __________
vas/ectomy
văs-ĔK-tō-mē
excision of the vas deferens:
__________ / ____________________
prostat/itis
prŏs-tă-TĪ-tĭs
Inflammation of the prostate gland is called
____________________ / __________.
vas/ectomy reversal
văs-ĔK-tō-mē
Another term for vas/o/vas/o/stomy is
__________ / ___________ ________________.
ur/o/genit/al
ū-rō-JĔN-ĭ-tăl
Identify the term that means pertaining to urine and the organs of reproduction.
__________ / _____ / __________
vas/o/vas/o/stomy
văs-ō-vă-SŎS-tō-mē
Identify the surgical term that is synonymous with vas/ectomy reversal.
_______ / _____ / __________ / _____ / _______
-rrhaphy
____________________ suture
dys-
____________________ bad; painful; difficult
cyst/o
____________________ bladder
carcin/o
____________________ cancer
-cyte
____________________ cell
-pathy
____________________ disease
-megaly
____________________ enlargement
-cele
____________________ hernia, swelling
-itis
____________________ inflammation
-tome
____________________ instrument to cut
vas/o
____________________ vessel; vas deferens; duct
muc/o
____________________ mucus
neo-
____________________ new
-genesis
____________________ forming, producing, origin
prostat/o
____________________ prostate gland
test/o, orchi/o, orchid/o
____________________ testes
olig/o
____________________ scanty
spermat/o, sperm/o
____________________ spermatozoa, sperm cells
-pexy
____________________ fixation (of an organ)
hyper-
____________________ excessive, above normal
CS, C-section
cesarean section
D&C
dilatation (dilation) and curettage
Dx
diagnosis
G
gravida (pregnant)
GYN
gynecology
HRT
hormone replacement therapy
IUD
intrauterine device
IVF
in vitro fertilization
LMP
last menstrual period
OB-GYN
obstetrics and gynecology
OCPs
oral contraceptive pills
Pap
Papanicolaou (test)
para 1, 2, 3
unipara, bipara, tripara
(number of viable births)
PID
pelvic infl ammatory disease
PIH
pregnancy-induced
hypertension
PMP
previous menstrual period
PSA
prostate-specific antigen
TAH
total abdominal hysterectomy
TRAM
transverse rectus abdominis muscle
TSS
toxic shock syndrome
TVH
total vaginal hysterectomy
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia,
benign prostatic hypertrophy
DRE
digital rectal examination
GU
genitourinary
TURP, TUR
transurethral resection of the prostate
XY
male sex chromosomes
GC
gonorrhea
HPV
human papillomavirus
HSV
herpes simplex virus
STD
sexually transmitted disease
VD
venereal disease
candidiasis
kăn-dĭ-DĪ-ă-sĭs
Vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans; characterized by a curdy or cheeselike discharge and extreme itching
cervicitis
sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs
cervic: neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
-itis: infl ammation
Infl ammation of the uterine cervix Cervicitis is usually the result of infection or a sexually transmitted disease. It may also become chronic, because the cervical lining is not renewed each month as is the uterine lining during menstruation.
ectopic pregnancy
ĕk-TŎP-ik
Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity
endometriosis
ĕn-dō-mē-trē-Ō-sĭs
endo: in, within
metri: uterus (womb)
-osis: abnormal condition; increase
(used primarily with blood cells)
Presence of endometrial tissue outside (ectopic) the uterine cavity, such as the pelvis or abdomen
fibroid
FĪ-broyd
fibr: fiber, fibrous tissue
-oids: resembling
Benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue; also called leiomyoma
Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women.

If fibroids grow too large and cause symptoms such as pelvic pain or menorrhagia, hysterectomy may be indicated.
leukorrhea
loo-kō-RĒ-ă
leuk/o: white
-rrhea: discharge, flow
White discharge from the vagina
oligomenorrhea
ŏl-ĭ-gō-mĕn-ō-RĒ-ă
olig/o: scanty
men/o: menses,menstruation
-rrhea: discharge, fl ow
Scanty or infrequent menstrual fl ow
pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
Potentially life-threatening disorder that usually develops after the 20th week of pregnancy and is characterized by edema and proteinuria.

PIH may occur in nonconvulsive or convulsive forms.
preeclampsia
prē-ē-KLĂMP-sē-ă
Nonconvulsive form of PIH

If left untreated, preeclampsia may progress to eclampsia. Treatment includes bed rest and blood pressure monitoring.
eclampsia
ē-KLĂMP-sē-ă
Convulsive form of PIH

Treatment for eclampsia includes bed rest, blood pressure monitoring, and antiseizure drugs.
pyosalpinx
pī-ō-SĂL-pĭnks
py/o: pus
-salpinx: tube (usually fallopian or
eustachian [auditory] tube)
Pus in the fallopian tube
retroversion
rĕt-rō-VĔR-shŭn
retro-: backward, behind
-version: turning
Turning, or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ being tipped from its normal position (such as the uterus)
sterility
stĕr-ĬL-ĭ-tē
Inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman
toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
TŎK-sĭk SHŎK SĬN-drōm
tox: poison
-ic: pertaining to
Rare and sometimes fatal staphylococcus infection that generally occurs in menstruating women, most of whom use vaginal tampons for menstrual protection
trichomoniasis
trĭk-ō-mō-NĪ-ă-sĭs
Protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra, or prostate
anorchism
ăn-ŎR-kĭzm
an: without, not
orch: testis (plural, testes)
-ism: condition
Congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia
balanitis
băl-ă-NĪ-tĭs
balan: glans penis
-itis: inflammation
Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
cryptorchidism
krĭpt-OR-kĭd-ĭzm
crypt: hidden
orchid: testis (plural, testes)
-ism: condition
Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on upper side of the penis near the glans penis instead of the tip
hypospadias
hī-pō-SPĀ-dē-ăs
hypo: under, below, deficient
-spadias: slit, fissure
Congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on undersurface of the penis instead of the tip
impotence
ĬM-pŏ-tĕns
Inability of a man to achieve or maintain a penile erection; commonly called erectile dysfunction
phimosis
fī-MŌ-sĭs
phim: muzzle
-osis: abnormal condition; increase
(used primarily with blood cells)
Stenosis or narrowness of the preputial orifi ce so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
Any disease that may be acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with an infected individual and affects the male and female reproductive systems; also called venereal disease
chlamydia
klă-MĬD-ē-ă
STD caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis
genital warts
JĔN-ĭ-tăl WORTZ
genit: genitalia
-al: pertaining to
Wart(s) in the genitalia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) In women, genital warts may be associated with cervical cancer.
gonorrhea
gŏn-ō-RĒ-ă
gon/o: seed (ovum or spermatozoon)
-rrhea: discharge, flow
Contagious bacterial infection that most commonly affects the genitourinary tract and, occasionally, the pharynx or rectum
herpes genitalis
HĔR-pēz jĕn-ĭ-TĂL-ĭs
Infection in females and males of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa with herpes simplex virus type 2
syphilis
SĬF-ĭ-lĭs
Infectious, chronic STD characterized by lesions that change to a chancre and may involve any organ or tissue
amniocentesis
ăm-nē-ō-sĕn-TĒ-sĭs
amni/o: amnion
(amniotic sac)
-centesis: surgical puncture
Obstetric procedure that involves surgical puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid
colposcopy
kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē
colp/o: vagina
-scopy: visual examination
Examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
hysterosalpingography
hĭs-tĕr-ō-săl-pĭn-GŎG-ră-fē
hyster/o: uterus (womb)
salping/o: tube (usually fallopian or
eustachian [auditory] tube)
-graphy: process of recording
Radiography of the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium
laparoscopy
lăp-ăr-ŎS-kō-pē
lapar/o: abdomen
-scopy: visual examination
Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
mammography
măm-ŎG-ră-fē
mamm/o: breast
-graphy: process of recording
Radiography of breast; used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors
Papanicolaou (Pap) test
pă-pă-NĪ-kō-lŏw
Microscopic analysis of cells taken from the cervix and vagina to detect the presence of carcinoma

Cells are obtained for a Pap test via insertion of a vaginal speculum and the use of a swab to scrape a small tissue sample from the cervix and vagina.
ultrasonography (US)
ŭl-tră-sŏn-ŎG-ră-fē
ultra-: excess, beyond
son/o: sound
-graphy: process of recording
Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue
digital rectal examination (DRE)
DĬJ-ĭ-tăl RĔK-tăl
rect: rectum
-al: pertaining to
Examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and the rectum
prostate-specifi cantigen (PSA) test
ĂN-tĭ-jĕn
Blood test to screen for prostate cancer
Elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate enlargement and cancer.
cerclage
sār-KLŎZH
Obstetric procedure in which a nonabsorbable suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix
dilation and curettage (D&C)
DĬ-lā-shŭn, kū-rĕ-TĂZH
Surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal of the uterus (dilation) so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped (curettage)
hysterosalpingooophorectomy
hĭs-tĕr-ō-săl-pĭng-gō-ō-ŏ-forĔK-tō-mē
hyster/o: uterus (womb)
salping/o: tube (usually fallopian or
eustachian [auditory] tube)
oophor: ovary
-ectomy: excision
Surgical removal of a uterus, a fallopian tube, and an ovary
lumpectomy
lŭm-PĔK-tō-mē
Excision of a small primary breast tumor ("lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
mastectomy
măs-TĔK-tō-mē
mast: breast
-ectomy: excision, removal
Complete or partial excision of one or both breasts, most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor

Mastectomy may be simple, radical, or modified depending on the extent of the malignancy and amount of breast tissue excised.
total mastectomy
Excision of an entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin; also called simple mastectomy In total mastectomy, lymph nodes are remove
modified radical mastectomy
Excision of an entire breast, including lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection)
radical mastectomy
Most women who have mastectomies today have modified radical mastectomies. Excision of an entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
reconstructive breast surgery
Reconstruction of a breast that has been removed due to cancer or other disease

Reconstruction is commonly possible immediately following mastectomy so the patient
awakens from anesthesia with a breast mound already in place.
tissue (skin) expansion
Common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced with a more permanent implant
transverse rectus abdominis muscle
(TRAM) flap
Surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen), which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped
into a natural-looking breast, and sutured into place
tubal ligation
TŪ-băl lī-GĀ-shŭn
Sterilization procedure that involves blocking both fallopian tubes by cutting or burning them and tying them off
circumcision
sĕr-kŭm-SĬ-zhŭn
Surgical removal of the foreskin or prepuce of the penis, usually performed on the male as an infant
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
Surgical procedure to relieve obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (excessive overgrowth of normal tissue) by insertion of a resectoscope into the penis and through the urethra to "chip away" at prostatic tissue and flush out chips (using an irrigating solution)
gonadotropin
gŏn-ă-dō-TRŌ-pĭn
gonad/o: gonads, sex glands
-tropin: stimulate
Hormonal preparation used to increase sperm count in infertility cases
cryptorchidism
____________________ refers to failure of testicles to descend into scrotum.
pyosalpinx
____________________ is pus in the fallopian tube.
sterility
____________________ refers to inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman.
anorchism
____________________ refers to congenital absence of one or both testes.
candidiasis
____________________ is a vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans and marked by a curdy discharge and extreme itching.
chlamydia
____________________ is caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and occurs in both sexes.
circumcision
____________________ is surgical removal of foreskin or prepuce of the penis.
cerclage
____________________ is an obstetric procedure to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix.
leukorrhea
____________________ is a discharge from the vagina; common reason for women to seek gynecological care.
endometriosis
____________________ is a condition in which endometrial tissue is found in various abnormal sites throughout the pelvis or in the abdominal wall.
mammography
____________________ refers to radiography of the breast and is used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors.
gonorrhea
____________________ is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that most commonly affects the
genitourinary tract and, occasionally, the pharynx or rectum.
syphilis
____________________ is a sexually transmitted disease that is characterized by lesions that change to a chancre, may involve any organ or tissue, and usually exhibits cutaneous manifestations.
toxic shock
____________________ is a rare and sometimes fatal staphylococcal infection that occurs in menstruating women who use vaginal tampons.
trichomoniasis
____________________ is a protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra, or prostate.
D&C
____________________ refers to widening of the uterine cervix so that the surface lining of the uterus can be scraped.
phimosis
____________________ means stenosis of the preputial orifice so that the foreskin does not retract over the glans penis.
impotence
____________________ refers to the inability of a man to achieve a penile erection.
oligomenorrhea
____________________ refers to scanty or infrequent menstrual fl ow.
gonadotropins
____________________ are hormonal preparations used to increase the sperm count in cases of infertility.
prostatomegaly
____________________ means enlargement of prostate gland.
testopathy
____________________ refers to disease of the testes.
testosterone
____________________ is a male hormone produced by testes.
amenorrhea
____________________ is absence or abnormal stoppage of the menses.
estrogen, progesterone
____________________ is a (are) female hormone(s) produced by the ovaries.
oophoritis
____________________ is an inflamed condition of the ovaries.
aspermatism
____________________ is a condition in which there is a lack of male sperm.
gravida 4
____________________ refers to a woman in her fourth pregnancy.
uterus
____________________ is an organ that nourishes the embryo.
prostatic cancer
____________________ is a malignant neoplasm of the prostate.
epididymis
____________________ is a tube that temporarily stores sperm.
hydrocele
____________________ is a collection of fluid in a saclike cavity.
vas deferens
____________________ is a duct that transports sperm from the testes to the urethra.
para 4
____________________ refers to a woman who has delivered four infants.
cervix uteri
____________________ means neck of the uterus.
dysmenorrhea
____________________ refers to painful menstruation.
postmenopausal
____________________ means occurring after menopause.
aplasia
____________________ is failure or lack of formation or growth.
vasectomy
____________________ is a procedure to sterilize a man by cutting the vas deferens, preventing the release of sperm.
PID
____________________ is a collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the pelvic organs, especially the uterus, uterine tubes, or ovaries.