infl ammation of the kidney: __________ / __________
Nephr/o/lith and ren/al calculus mean the patient suffers from a kidney ___________.
A disorder that literally means abnormal condition of a kidney stone is: __________ / _____ / __________ / __________.
incision, stone or calculus
Stones trapped in the kidney or ureter may be removed surgically. Nephr/o/lith/o/tomy is an ____________________ to remove a ren/al ____________________.
pertaining to the kidney(s): __________ / __________
narrowing, stricture: ____________________
inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney: ____________________ / _____ / __________ / __________
high blood pressure: __________ / ____________________
A chronic loss of protein in the urine is called ____________________ / __________.
The term edema indicates ____________________.
When body tissues contain excessive amounts of fl uid that cause swelling, the term designated in a medical report for this condition would be noted as ___________.
Diuretics are agents or drugs prescribed to control edema and also to stimulate the flow of urine. Edema around the ankles and feet may also be due to a diet high in sodium. When this condition occurs, the physician may recommend a low-sodium diet and prescribe an agent known as a ____________________.
Coffee increases production of urine, which means that coffee is a ____________________ agent.
supra- ren -al
Supra/ren/al is a directional term that means above the kidney. Identify elements in this frame that mean above, excessive, superior: ___________ kidney: ___________ pertaining to: __________
The CF scler/o is used in words to indicate hardening of a body part. It also refers to the sclera (white of eye).
To indicate a hardening, use the CF __________ / _____.
abnormal condition of a kidney: __________ / __________
Locate the two pencil-like tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. These structures are the ____________________.
enlargement, ureter(s) Ū-rĕ-tĕr
The CF ureter/o means ureter. Ureter/o/megaly is an ____________________ of the ____________________.
Ureter/ectasis is a dilation of the ureter. The CF for ureter is ____________________ / _____. The element that denotes dilation or expansion is ____________________.
When there is one stone, it is referred to as a calculus, but multiple stones are referred to as ____________________.
The term lith/o/tripsy means crushing of a stone, or ____________________.
stone or calculus in the ureter: ____________________ / _____ / __________
abnormal condition (produced by something specified) of a ureter(al) stone: ____________________ / _____ / __________ / __________
incision, ureter, stone or calculus Ū-rĕ-tĕr, KĂL-kū-lŭs
Ureter/o/lith/o/tomy is an ____________________ of a ____________________ to remove a ____________________.
dilation, ureter DĪ-lā-shŭn, Ū-rĕ-tĕr
Ureter/ectasis is an expansion or ____________________ of a ____________________.
When ren/al calculi get trapped in the ureter, urine is blocked, causing pressure on the walls of the ureter. This blockage results in an expansion or dilation of the ureter, which is called ____________________ / ____________________.
stone in the bladder: __________ / _____ / __________
abnormal condition of a bladder stone: __________ / _____ / __________ / __________
incision of the bladder to remove a stone: __________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
instrument, ureter ū-rē-tĕr
A ureter/o/cyst/o/scope is a special ________________ for examining the ____________________ and bladder.
When ureter/o/liths become trapped in the ureter, a person may experience ureter/o/dynia or ____________________ / __________.
stones in the ureter: ____________________ / _____ / __________
instrument to view the ureter and bladder: ______________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
visual examination of the ureter and bladder: ______________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
The surgical suffix -rrhaphy is used in words to mean ____________________.
suture of the ureter: ____________________ / _____ / ____________________
suture of the bladder: __________ / _____ / ____________________
The CFs for bladder are __________ / _____ and __________ / _____.
Vesic/o/enter/ic means pertaining to the ____________________ and ____________________.
Pyel/o/graphy in which a contrast medium is injected into the urethra is called __________ / __________ __________ / _____ /____________________ (__________).
inflammation of renal pelvis: __________ / __________
surgical repair of renal pelvis: __________ / _____ / ____________________
surgical repair of ureter and renal pelvis: ___________ / ___ / _____ / ___ / ___________
instrument for examining the kidney: __________ / _____ / __________
visual examination of the kidney: __________ / _____ / __________
Incision of the renal pelvis is performed when the physician inserts a nephr/o/scope, usually to assess the kidney's interior. A visual examination of the kidney is known as __________ / _____ / __________.
Four common types of hernias that occur as downward displacements are:
cyst/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________ urethr/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________ rect/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________ enter/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________
Practice building medical terms that mean herniation of the: bladder: __________ / _____ / __________ urethra: ______________ / _____ / __________ rectum: __________ / _____ / __________
The CF for cell is cyt/o. The suffix -cyte also means cell. Erythr/o/cyte is a red blood ___________. Leuk/o/cyte is a white blood ___________.
Ur/o/toxin is a poisonous substance in ___________.
From ur/o/toxin, determine the element that means poisonous. ___________
A toxic substance in the body is a substance that resembles or is caused by __________________.
study of the urinary tract: _ _________ / _____ / __________
specialist in study of the urinary tract: __________ / _____ / ____________________
surgical repair of renal pelvis: __________ / _____ / ____________________
record (x-ray) of renal pelvis: __________ / _____ / __________
discharge or fl ow of pus: __________ / _____ / __________
abnormal condition of pus from the kidney: __________ / _____ / __________ / __________
Hemat/uria is a condition of blood in the urine. Form a word meaning pus in the urine. __________ / __________
Construct a word that literally means without urine. __________ / __________
Identify the terms in this frame that mean nearest the point of attachment: ____________________ / __________ farthest from the point of attachment: __________ / __________
When calculi obstruction causes cessation of urine fl ow, it may result in a condition called __________ / _____ / __________ / __________.
Presence of ren/al calculi increases the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) because they obstruct the free fl ow of urine. Untreated obstruction of a stone in any of the urin/ary structures can also result in retention of urine and damage to the kidney. This condition, known as __________ / _____ / __________ / __________, eventually results in cessation of urine production.
pus in the urine: __________ / __________
blood in the urine: __________ / __________
The CF olig/o means scanty. Combine olig/o and -uria to form a word that means scanty urination. __________ / __________
Diminished or scanty amount of urine formation is known as __________ / __________.
________ is the presence of an excessive number of white blood cells in urine. It is generally a sign of a urinary tract infection. A viral infection of the bladder and urethra may result in the condition called ____________ / __________.
The prefix poly- means many, much. Combine poly- and -uria to build a word that means excessive urination. __________ / __________
pertaining to many cysts: __________ / __________ / __________
increase in concentration of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood: ____________ / __________
Use azot/o to form a word meaning increase of nitrogenous wastes in urine. _____________ /_______________.
Noct/uria refers to urination at night. If a child has a tendency to urinate at night, the condition is known as __________ / __________.
urination or urine ū-rĭ-NĀ-shŭn
Continence is the ability to control urination and defecation. A person who has urinary continence is able to control urination. A person with urinary in/continence is not able to control ____________________.
Elderly patients in nursing homes may experience uncontrolled loss of urine from the bladder. They may suffer from the condition known as urinary __________ / ____________________.
Persons with urin/ary disorders see the medical specialist called a __________ / _____ / ____________________.
Persons with kidney disorders, including transplantations and dia/lysis see the medical specialist called a ________ /____ /____________________.
If cyst/itis results in traces of blood in urine, the medical term for this condition is __________ / __________.
When a patient has inflammation of the bladder, the condition is diagnosed as __________ / __________.
Identify words in this frame that mean pus in urine: __________ / __________ painful urination: __________ / __________ bacteria in urine: _______________ / __________ inflammation of bladder: ________ / __________
Build medical terms that mean excision of a stone: __________ / ____________________ crushing a stone: __________ / _____ / ____________________ abnormal condition (produced by something specified) of kidney stone(s): __________ / _____ / __________ / __________
Painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of cystitis and other urinary tract conditions
end-stage renal disease (ESRD) RĒ-năl
Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood and, ultimately, requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure (CRF)
enuresis ĕn-ū-RĒ-sĭs en-: in, within ur: urine -esis: condition
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established; also called bed-wetting at night or nocturnal enuresis In children, voluntary control of urination is usually present by age 5.
Condition associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent, such as a drug or chemical, which results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
renal hypertension RĒ-năl hī-pĕr-TĔN-shŭn ren: kidney -al: pertaining to hyper-: excessive, above normal -tension: to stretch
High blood pressure that results from kidney disease
uremia ū-RĒ-mē-ă ur: urine -emia: blood
Elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, as occurs in renal failure; also called azotemia
Wilms tumor VĬLMZ TOO-mor
Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5.
The most common early signs of Wilms tumor are hypertension, a palpable mass, pain, and hematuria.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ū-RĒ-ă NĪ-trō-jĕn
Radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part
kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)
Radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder KUB radiography may also detect stones and calcified areas.
pyelography pī-ĕ-LŎG-ră-fē pyel/o: renal pelvis -graphy: process of recording
Radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent
intravenous pyelography (IVP) ĭn-tră-VĒ-nŭs pī-ĕ-LŎG -ră-fē intra: in, within ven: vein -ous: pertaining to pyel/o: renal pelvis -graphy: process ofrecording
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract; also called intravenous urography (IVU) or excretory urography (EU)
In IVP, the x-ray image produced is known as a pyelogram or urogram.
retrograde pyelography (RP) RĔT-rō-grād pī-ĕ-LŎG -ră-fē retro-: backward, behind -grade: to go pyel/o: renal pelvis -graphy: process of recording
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters using smallcaliber catheters
renal scan RĒ-năl ren: kidney -al: pertaining to
Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the kidney
Physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of urine
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) sĭs-tō-ū-rē-THRŎG-ră-fē cyst/o: bladder urethr/o: urethra -graphy: process of recording
Radiography of the bladder and urethra after filling the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
Insertion of a catheter (hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly. through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine
dialysis dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs dia-: through, across -lysis: separation; destruction; loosening
Mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly
Process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting (diverting) the patient's blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering, and then returning the clean blood to the patient's body via tubes connected to the circulatory system
peritoneal dialysis pĕr-ĭ-tō-NĒ-ăl dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs
Dialysis in which the patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane
renal transplantation RĒ-năl trăns-plăn-TĀ-shŭn ren: kidney -al: pertaining to
Organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease; also called kidney transplantation
____________________ refers to physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine.
____________________ is a malignant neoplasm in the kidney that occurs in young children.
____________________ is an increase in nitrogenous compounds in urine.
____________________ means painful or diffi cult urination, symptomatic of numerous conditions.
____________________ means increased formation and secretion of urine.
____________________ is a radiologic technique in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope to provide detailed visualization of urinary collecting system.
____________________ is an abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.
____________________ is nephritis associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue, which may be primary or due to a toxic agent.
____________________ is a test that measures the amount of urea excreted by kidneys into the blood.
____________________ means urinary incontinence, including bed-wetting.
____________________ refers to insertion of a hollow, flexible tube into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid.
____________________ is radiography of the bladder and urethra after introduction of a contrast medium and during the process of urination.
____________________ refers to an elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in blood.
____________________ refers to high blood pressure that results from kidney disease.
____________________ is the mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products.
intestine (usually small intestine)
hardening; sclera (white of eye)
fixation (of an organ)
forming an opening (mouth)
instrument to cut
process of recording
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
specialist in study of
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
prolapse, downward displacement
instrument for examining
-al, -ic, -ous
bad; painful; diffi cult
above; excessive; superior
____________________ means tending or threatening to produce death; refers to cancerous growths.
____________________ are microscopic filtering units in the kidney that are responsible for keeping body fluids in balance.
____________________ refers to formation of gallstones.
____________________ is a funnel-shaped reservoir that is the basin of the kidney.
____________________ is an x-ray film of the kidneys after injection of dye.
____________________ are drugs that stimulate fl ow of urine.
____________________ means swelling (of body tissues).
____________________ means noncancerous.
____________________ is an incision into a kidney to remove a stone.
acute renal failure
____________________ is a condition that results from lack of blood flow to the kidneys.
____________________ is downward displacement of a kidney.
____________________ is surgical repair of a ureter and renal pelvis.
____________________ means pertaining to two sides.
____________________ means excessive urination at night.
____________________ refers to inability to hold urine.
____________________ refers to presence of blood cells in urine.
____________________ means excessive discharge of urine.
____________________ is a diminished amount of urine formation.
____________________ is absence of urine formation.
____________________ is herniation of the urinary bladder.