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399 terms

Med Terms - Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
cyst/o
bladder

cyst/o/scopy (sĭs-TŎS-kō-pē): visual examination of the urinary tract using a cystoscope inserted through the urethra
-scopy: visual examination
vesic/o
vesic/o/cele (VĔS-ĭ-kō-sēl): hernial protrusion of urinary
bladder; also called cystocele
-cele: hernia, swelling
glomerul/o
glomerulus

glomerul/ar (glō-MĔR-ū-lăr): pertaining to the glomerulus
-ar: pertaining to
meat/o
opening, meatus

meat/us (mē- -tŭs): opening or tunnel through any part of the body, such as the external opening of the urethra
-us: condition, structure
nephr/o
kidney

nephr/oma (nĕ-FRŌ-mă): tumor of the kidney
oma: tumor
ren/o
ren/al (RĒ-năl): pertaining to the kidney
-al: pertaining to
pyel/o
renal pelvis

pyel/o/plasty (PĪ-ĕ-lō-plăs-tē): surgical repair of renal pelvis
-plasty: surgical repair
ur/o
urine, urinary tract

ur/emia (ū-RĒ-mē-ă): excessive urea and other nitrogenous waste products in blood; also called azotemia
-emia: blood condition
urin/o
urin/ary (Ū-rĭ-nār-ē): pertains to urine or formation of
urine; also refers to the urinary tract
-ary: pertaining to
ureter/o
ureter

ureter/o/stenosis (ū-rē-tĕr-ō-stĕ-NŌ-sĭs): narrowing or stricture of a ureter
-stenosis: narrowing, stricture
urethr/o
urethra

urethr/o/cele (ū-RĒ-thrō-sēl): hernial protrusion of the urethra
-cele: hernia, swelling

Urethrocele may be congenital or acquired and secondary to obesity, childbirth, and poor muscle tone.
-emia
blood condition

azot/emia (ăz-ō-TĒ-mē-ă): excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood
azot: nitrogenous compounds

Azotemia is a toxic condition caused by the kidneys' failure to remove urea from the blood.
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

lith/iasis (lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs): abnormal condition of stones or calculi
lith: stone, calculus

The calculi occur most commonly in the kidney, lower urinary tract, and gallbladder.
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening

dia/lysis (dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs): process of removing toxic wastes from blood when kidneys are unable to do so
dia-: through, across
-pathy
disease

nephr/o/pathy (nĕ-FRŎP-ă-thē): disease of the
kidneys
nephr: kidney
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)

nephr/o/pexy (NĔF-rō-pĕks-ē): surgical procedure to affix a displaced kidney
nephr/o: kidney
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement

nephr/o/ptosis (nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs): downward displacement or dropping of a kidney
nephr/o: kidney
-tripsy
crushing

lith/o/tripsy (LĬTH-ō-trĭp-sē): crushing of a stone
lith/o: stone, calculus

Lithotripsy is a surgical procedure that employs sound waves to crush a stone in the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder. The fragments may then be expelled or washed out.
-uria
urine

poly/uria (pōl-ē-Ū-rē-ă): excessive urination
poly-: many, much
glomerul/o/scler/osis
-osis: abnormal condition, increase (used primarily with blood cells); glomerulus; hardening, sclera (white of eye)
cyst/o/scopy
-scopy: visual examination; bladder
poly/uria
-scopy: visual examination; bladder
lith/o/tripsy
-tripsy: crushing; stone, calculus
dia/lysis
-lysis: separation; destruction; loosening; through, across
ureter/o/stenosis
-stenosis: narrowing, stricture; ureter
meat/us
-us: condition, structure; opening, meatus
ur/emia
-emia: blood condition; urine
nephr/oma
-oma: tumor; kidney
ureter/o/cele
-cele: hernia; swelling; ureter
kidney(s)
The CFs nephr/o and ren/o refer to the kidneys. Whenever you see terms such as nephr/itis and ren/al, you will know they refer to the
____________________.
kidney(s)
The term ren/al is commonly used as an adjective used to modify a noun. Some examples are ren/al dialysis and ren/al biopsy. Both of these terms mean pertaining to the ____________________.
nephr/ectomy
nĕ-FRĔK-tō-mē
A diseased kidney, or renal cancer, may necessitate its removal. Use nephr/o to form a word that means excision of a kidney. __________ / ____________________
nephr/ectomy
nĕ-FRĔK-tō-mē
When ren/al cancer occurs, the diseased kidney must be removed. The surgical procedure to remove a kidney is known as a __________ / ___________________.
nephr/o/megaly
nĕf-rō-MĔG-ă-lē
When nephr/ectomy is performed, the remaining kidney most likely will become enlarged. Build a word that means enlargement of a kidney.
__________ / _____ / ____________________
lith/iasis
lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs
The suffi x -iasis is used to describe an abnormal condition (produced by something specified).
An abnormal condition of stones is called
__________ / __________.
nephr/o/lith
NĔF-rō-lĭth
Use nephr/o to construct medical words that mean
stone (in the) kidney: __________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/lith/iasis
nĕf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs
abnormal condition of kidney stone(s):
___________ / _____ / __________ / __________
nephr/algia
nĕ-FRĂL-jē-ă
pain in the kidney: __________ / __________
nephr/itis
nĕf-RĪ-tĭs
infl ammation of the kidney: __________ / __________
stone
Nephr/o/lith and ren/al calculus mean the patient suffers from a kidney ___________.
nephr/o/lith/iasis
nĕf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs
A disorder that literally means abnormal condition of a kidney stone is:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________.
incision, stone or calculus
Stones trapped in the kidney or ureter may be removed surgically. Nephr/o/lith/o/tomy is an ____________________ to remove a ren/al
____________________.
ren/al
RĒ-năl
pertaining to the kidney(s): __________ / __________
stenosis
stĕ-NŌ-sĭs
narrowing, stricture: ____________________
glomerul/o/nephr/itis
glō-mĕr-ū-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs
inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney:
____________________ / _____ / __________ / __________
hyper/tension
hī-pĕr-TĔN-shŭn
high blood pressure: __________ / ____________________
protein/uria
prō-tē-ĭn-Ū-rē-ă
A chronic loss of protein in the urine is called
____________________ / __________.
swelling
The term edema indicates ____________________.
edema
ĕ-DĒ-mă
When body tissues contain excessive amounts of fl uid that cause swelling, the term designated in a medical report for this condition would be noted as ___________.
diuretic
dī-ū-RĔT-ĭc
Diuretics are agents or drugs prescribed to control edema and also to stimulate the flow of urine. Edema around the ankles and feet may also be due to a diet high in sodium. When this condition occurs, the physician may recommend a low-sodium diet and prescribe an agent known as a ____________________.
diuretic
dī-ū-RĔT-ĭc
Coffee increases production of urine, which means that coffee is a ____________________ agent.
supra-
ren
-al
Supra/ren/al is a directional term that means above the kidney.
Identify elements in this frame that mean
above, excessive, superior: ___________
kidney: ___________
pertaining to: __________
scler/o
The CF scler/o is used in words to indicate hardening of a body part. It also refers to the sclera (white of eye).

To indicate a hardening, use the CF __________ / _____.
nephr/osis
nĕf-RŌ-sĭs
abnormal condition of a kidney:
__________ / __________
nephr/o/scler/osis
nĕf-rō-sklĕ-RŌ-sĭs
abnormal condition of kidney hardening:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
nephr/o/lith
NĔF-rō-lĭth
calculus in a kidney: __________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/lith/iasis
nĕf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs
abnormal condition of kidney stone(s):
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
-megaly
The suffix for enlargement is ____________________.
nephr/o/megaly
nĕf-rō-MĔG-ă-lē
Use nephr/o to create a word that means enlargement of a kidney. __________ / _____ / ____________________
kidney, stone or calculus
KĂL-kū-lŭs
Lith/o/tomy is an incision to remove a stone or calculus. A nephr/o/lith/o/tomy is an incision of the ____________________ to remove a ____________________.
nephr/ectomy
nĕ-FRĔK-tō-mē
excision of a kidney: __________ / ____________________
nephr/o/rrhaphy
nĕf-ROR-ă-fē
suture of a kidney: __________ / _____ / _______________
nephr/o/tomy
nĕ-FRŎT-ō-mē
incision of the kidney: __________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/lith/o/tomy
nĕf-rō-lĭth-ŎT-ō-mē
incision (to remove a) kidney stone:
__________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/ptosis
nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs
A prolapsed kidney is noted in a medical chart as
__________ / _____ / ____________________.
-ptosis
nephr/o
Determine the element in nephr/o/ptosis that means
prolapse, downward displacement: ___________________
kidney: __________ / _____
nephr/o/ptosis
nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs
Downward displacement of a kidney that results from a congenital defect or an injury is called
__________ / _____ / ____________________.
nephr/o/pexy
NĔF-rō-pĕks-ē
Nephr/o/ptosis can be treated surgically. Use -pexy to build a surgical term that means fixation of the kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________.
-osis
____________________ abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-iasis
____________________ abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
supra-
____________________ above; excessive; superior
-pathy
____________________ disease
-megaly
____________________ enlargement
dia-
____________________ through, across
-pexy
____________________ fixation (of an organ)
scler/o
____________________ hardening; sclera (white of eye)
-tome
____________________ instrument to cut
-tomy
____________________ incision
nephr/o, ren/o
____________________ kidney
-ptosis
____________________ prolapse, downward displacement
lith/o
____________________ stone, calculus
-rrhaphy
____________________ suture
poly-
____________________ many, much
ureters
Ū-rĕ-tĕrs
Locate the two pencil-like tubes that transport urine
from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. These structures are the ____________________.
enlargement, ureter(s)
Ū-rĕ-tĕr
The CF ureter/o means ureter. Ureter/o/megaly is an ____________________ of the ____________________.
ureter/o
-ectasis
Ureter/ectasis is a dilation of the ureter.
The CF for ureter is ____________________ / _____.
The element that denotes dilation or expansion is ____________________.
calculi
KĂL-kū-lī
When there is one stone, it is referred to as a calculus, but multiple stones are referred to as ____________________.
calculus
KĂL-kū-lŭs
The term lith/o/tripsy means crushing of a stone, or ____________________.
ureter/o/lith
ū-RĒ-tĕr-ō-lĭth
stone or calculus in the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / __________
ureter/o/lith/iasis
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs
abnormal condition (produced by something specified) of a ureter(al) stone:
____________________ / _____ / __________ / __________
incision, ureter, stone or calculus
Ū-rĕ-tĕr, KĂL-kū-lŭs
Ureter/o/lith/o/tomy is an ____________________ of a
____________________ to remove a ____________________.
dilation, ureter
DĪ-lā-shŭn, Ū-rĕ-tĕr
Ureter/ectasis is an expansion or ____________________ of a ____________________.
ureter/ectasis
ū-rē-tĕr-ĔK-tă-sĭs
When ren/al calculi get trapped in the ureter, urine is blocked, causing pressure on the walls of the ureter. This blockage results in an expansion or dilation of the ureter, which is called
____________________ / ____________________.
cyst/o/lith
SĬS-tō-lĭth
stone in the bladder: __________ / _____ / __________
cyst/o/lith/iasis
sĭs-tō-lĭ-THĪ-ă-sĭs
abnormal condition of a bladder stone:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
cyst/o/lith/o/tomy
sĭs-tō-lĭth-ŎT-ō-mē
incision of the bladder to remove a stone:
__________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
instrument, ureter
ū-rē-tĕr
A ureter/o/cyst/o/scope is a special ________________ for examining the ____________________ and bladder.
ureter/algia
ū-rē-tĕr-ĂL-jē-ă
When ureter/o/liths become trapped in the ureter, a person may experience ureter/o/dynia or ____________________ / __________.
ureter/o/liths
ū-RĒ-tĕr-ō-lĭths
stones in the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / __________
ureter/o/cyst/o/scope
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-SĬS-tō-skōp
instrument to view the ureter and bladder:
______________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
ureter/o/cyst/o/scopy
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-sĭs-TŎS-kō-pē
visual examination of the ureter and bladder:
______________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________
suture
SŪ-chūr
The surgical suffix -rrhaphy is used in words to mean
____________________.
ureter/o/rrhaphy
ū-rē-tĕr-OR-ră-fē
suture of the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / ____________________
cyst/o/rrhaphy
sĭs-TOR-ă-fē
suture of the bladder:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
vesic/o, cyst/o
The CFs for bladder are __________ / _____ and
__________ / _____.
bladder, intestine
Vesic/o/enter/ic means pertaining to the ____________________ and ____________________.
bladder
hernia, swelling
rectum
RĔK-tŭm
cyst/o: ____________________
-cele: ________________, _________________
rect/o: ____________________
cyst/o/cele
SĬS-tō-sēl
When the physician's diagnosis is a herniation of the bladder, you know the Dx will be stated as a __________ / _____ / __________.
rect/o/cele
RĔK-tō-sēl
Can you determine the Dx of herniation of the rectum into the vagina?
__________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/ptosis
nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs
prolapse or downward displacement of a kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/pexy
NĔF-rō-pĕks-ē
surgical fi xation of kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________
cyst/o/scope
SĬST-ō-skōp
The endo/scope used to perform cyst/o/scopy is called a __________ / _____ / __________.
cyst/o/scope
SĬST-ō-skōp
To excise polyps from the bladder, the ur/o/logist uses the special instrument called a
__________ / _____ / __________.
cyst/o
-scope
radi/o
-graphy
Determine elements in this frame that mean:

bladder: __________ / _____
instrument for examining: ___________
radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side): __________ / _____
process of recording: ____________________
cyst/ectomy
sĭs-TĔK-tō-mē
cyst/o/plasty
SĬS-tō-plăs-tē
cyst/o/scope
SĬST-ō-skōp
Construct surgical terms that mean

excision of the bladder:
__________ / ____________________
surgical repair of the bladder:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
instrument to view the bladder:
__________ / _____ / __________
urethr/o
CF for urethra is __________________ / _____.
urethr/itis
ū-rē-THRĪ-tĭs
infl ammation of the urethra: ____________________ / __________
urethr/ectomy
ū-rē-THRĔK-tō-mē
excision of the urethra:
____________________ / ___________________
urethr/o/pexy
ū-RĒ-thrō-pĕks-ē
surgical fixation of the urethra: ____________________ / _____ / __________
urethr/o/plasty
ū-RĒ-thrō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of the urethra: __________________ / _____ / ______________
pain, urethra
ū-RĒ-thră
Urethr/o/dynia is a ___________ in the ____________________.
urethr/algia
ū-rē-THRĂL-jē-ă
Besides urethr/o/dynia, construct another word that means pain in the urethra: ____________________ / __________.
cyst/itis
sĭs-TĪ-tĭs
urethr/itis
ū-rē-THRĪ-tĭs
UTI
Cyst/itis and urethr/itis are two common lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) that frequently occur in women.

Write terms that mean infl ammation of the
bladder: __________ / __________
urethra: ____________________ / __________
Write the abbreviation for urinary tract infection.
___________
urethr/al
ū-RĒ-thrăl
pertaining to the urethra:
____________________ / __________
lumen
LŪ-mĕn
tubular space within a structure: ___________
urethra, rectum
ū-RĒ-thră, RĔK-tŭm
Urethr/o/rect/al means pertaining to the ____________________ and
____________________.
urethr/o/cyst/itis
ū-rē-thrō-sĭs-TĪ-tĭs
Construct a medical word that means inflammation of urethra and bladder.
___________ / _____ / ________ / __________
urethr/o/scope
ū-RĒ-thrō-skōp
instrument for examining the urethra:
____________________ / _____ / __________
urethr/o/scopy
ū-rē-THRŎS-kō-pē
visual examination of the urethra: ____________________ / _____ / __________
cyst/o/urethr/o/scope
sĭs-tō-ū-RĒ-thrō-skōp
Cyst/o/urethr/o/scopy is a visual examination of the urethra and bladder. The instrument used to perform a cyst/o/urethr/o/scopy is a
_____ / ___ / _____________ / ____ / _______.
-ia
Identify the element in -algia, -dynia, -pepsia, and -phagia that means condition. ___________
malignant
mă-LĬG-nănt
Use malignant or benign to complete the following statements.
Cancerous tumors are ____________________ tumors.
benign
bĕ-NĪN
Noncancerous tumors are ____________________ tumors.
noncancerous
Benign tumors are (cancerous, noncancerous) ____________________ growths.
cancerous
Malignant tumors are (cancerous, noncancerous) ____________________.
pain, gland
The CF aden/o is used in words to denote a gland. Aden/o/dynia is ___________ in a ___________.
gland
cancer
tumor
Urin/ary tract tumors may be benign or malignant. The most common malignant ren/al tumor is an aden/o/carcin/oma.

See if you can define the following elements:
aden/o: ___________
carcin: ____________________
-oma: ___________
aden/oma
ăd-ĕ-NŌ-mă
benign glandular tumor: __________ / _________
aden/o/carcin/oma
ăd-ĕ-nō-kăr-sĭn-Ō-mă
malignant glandular tumor:
________ / ___ / _______________ / __________
aden/itis
ăd-ĕ-NĪ-tĭs
inflammation of a gland:
__________ / __________
aden/oma
ăd-ĕ-NŌ-mă
tumor of a gland: __________ / __________
aden/o/pathy
ăd-ĕ-NŎP-ă-thē
disease of a gland:
__________ / _____ / __________
urinary tract infections
What does the abbreviation UTIs stand for?
______________ ________ ________________
nephrons
NĔF-rŏnz
Complex structures designed to efficiently filter waste materials from blood are known as ____________________.
inflammation
The CF pyel/o means renal pelvis. Pelvis is a word denoting any bowl-shaped structure. The symptomatic term pyel/itis refers to an
____________________ of the renal pelvis.
pyel/o/pathy
pī-ĕ-LŎP-ă-thē
disease of the renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________
pyel/o/tomy
pī-ĕ-LŎT-ō-mē
incision of the renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________
pyel/o/stomy
pī-ĕ-LŎS-tō-mē
forming an opening (mouth) into the renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________
-iasis
____________________ abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
cyst/o, vesic/o
____________________ bladder
carcin/o
____________________ cancer
-pathy
____________________ disease
-megaly
____________________ enlargement
-ectomy
____________________ excision, removal
-ectasis
____________________ dilation, expansion
aden/o
____________________ gland
-tomy
____________________ incision
-itis
____________________ inflammation
-scope
____________________ instrument for examining
enter/o
____________________ intestine (usually small intestine)
pyel/o
____________________ renal pelvis
rect/o
____________________ rectum
-lith
____________________ stone, calculus
-lith
____________________ surgical repair
-rrhaphy
____________________ suture
-oma
____________________ tumor
ureter/o
____________________ ureter
urethr/o
____________________ urethra
hyper/tension
hī-pĕr-TĔN-shūn
high blood pressure:
__________ / ____________________
olig/uria
ŏl-ĭg-Ū-rē-ă
diminished capacity to pass urine:
__________ / __________
edema
ĕ-DĒ-mă
swelling (of a body part): ___________
glomerul/o/nephr/itis
glō-mĕr-ū-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs
inflammation of the glomerulus:
____________ / ___ / _____________ / _______
glomerul/itis
glō-mĕr-ū-LĪ-tĭs
inflammation of a glomerulus: ____________________ / __________
glomerul/o/pathy
glō-mĕr-ū-LŎP-ă-thē
disease of a glomerulus:
____________________ / _____ / __________
glomerulus or glomeruli, hardening
glō-MĔR-ū-lŭs, glō-MĔR-ū-lī
Glomerul/o/scler/osis literally means an abnormal condition of
____________________ ____________________.
pyel/itis
pī-ĕ-LĪ-tĭs
The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped dilation that
drains urine from the kidney into the ureter. Inflammation of the renal pelvis is called __________ / __________.
KUB
The diagnostic test of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder is recorded in the medical chart with the abbreviation ___________.
IVP
To confirm a Dx of ren/al calculi or other urin/ary disorders, a radi/o/graph involving IV injection of a contrast dye may be ordered. The abbreviation for this type of radiograph is ___________.
intra/ven/ous
ĭn-tră-VĒ-nŭs
within a vein:
_________ / __________ / __________
pyel/o/gram
PĪ-ĕ-lō-grăm
record (x-ray) of renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/liths
NĔF-rō-lĭths
stones in kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________
ureter/o/liths
ū-RĒ-tĕr-ō-lĭths
stones in the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / __________
intra/ven/ous pyel/o/graphy (IVP)
ĭn-tră-VĒ-nŭs pī-ĕ-LŎG-ră-fē
Pyel/o/graphy in which a contrast medium is injected within a vein is called
__________ / __________ / __________ __________ / _____ /____________________ (__________).
retro/grade pyel/o/graphy (RP)
RĔT-rō-grād pī-ĕ-LŎG-ră-fē
Pyel/o/graphy in which a contrast medium is injected into the urethra is
called __________ / __________
__________ / _____ /____________________ (__________).
pyel/itis
pī-ĕ-LĪ-tĭs
inflammation of renal pelvis:
__________ / __________
pyel/o/plasty
PĪ-ĕ-lō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
ureter/o/pyel/o/plasty
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-PĪ-ĕl-ō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of ureter and renal pelvis:
___________ / ___ / _____ / ___ / ___________
nephr/o/scope
NĔF-rō-skōp
instrument for examining the kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/scopy
nĕ-FRŎ-skŏ-pē
visual examination of the kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________
nephr/o/scopy
nĕ-FRŎ-skŏ-pē
Incision of the renal pelvis is performed when the physician inserts a nephr/o/scope, usually to assess the kidney's interior. A visual examination
of the kidney is known as
__________ / _____ / __________.
pyel/itis
pī-ĕ-LĪ-tĭs
pyel/o/nephr/itis
pī-ĕ-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs
Form medical words that mean inflammation of the renal pelvis: __________ / __________
renal pelvis and kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
pyel/o/nephr/itis
pĭ-ĕ-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs
The medical term for bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidneys is
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________.
bladder
urethra
ū-RĒ-thră
rectum
RĔK-tŭm
intestine
ĭn-TĔS-tĭn
Four common types of hernias that occur as
downward displacements are:

cyst/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________
urethr/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________
rect/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________
enter/o/cele, herniation of the ____________________
cyst/o/cele
SĬS-tō-sēl
urethr/o/cele
ū-RĒ-thrō-sēl
rect/o/cele
RĔK-tō-sēl
Practice building medical terms that mean herniation of the:
bladder: __________ / _____ / __________
urethra: ______________ / _____ / __________
rectum: __________ / _____ / __________
white
red
The CF for cell is cyt/o. The suffix -cyte also means cell.
Erythr/o/cyte is a red blood ___________.
Leuk/o/cyte is a white blood ___________.
urine
Ū-rĭn
Ur/o/toxin is a poisonous substance in ___________.
toxin
TŎKS-ĭn
From ur/o/toxin, determine the element that means poisonous. ___________
poison
A toxic substance in the body is a substance that resembles or is caused by __________________.
ur/o/logy
ū-RŎL-ō-jē
study of the urinary tract: _
_________ / _____ / __________
ur/o/logist
ū-RŎL-ō-jĭst
specialist in study of the urinary tract:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
pyel/o/plasty
PĪ-ĕ-lō-plăs-tē
surgical repair of renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
pyel/o/gram
PĪ-ĕ-lō-grăm
record (x-ray) of renal pelvis: __________ / _____ / __________
py/o/rrhea
pī-ō-RĒ-ă
discharge or fl ow of pus: __________ / _____ / __________
py/o/nephr/osis
pī-ō-nĕf-RŌ-sĭs
abnormal condition of pus from the kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
py/uria
pī-Ū-rē-ă
Hemat/uria is a condition of blood in the urine. Form a word meaning pus in the urine.
__________ / __________
an/uria
ăn-Ū-rē-ă
Construct a word that literally means without urine. __________ / __________
proxim/al
dist/al
Identify the terms in this frame that mean
nearest the point of attachment: ____________________ / __________
farthest from the point of attachment:
__________ / __________
hydr/o/nephr/osis
hī-drō-nĕf-RŌ-sĭs
When calculi obstruction causes cessation of urine fl ow, it may result in a condition called __________ / _____ / __________ / __________.
hydr/o/nephr/osis
hī-drō-nĕf-RŌ-sĭs
Presence of ren/al calculi increases the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) because they obstruct the free fl ow of urine. Untreated obstruction of a stone in any of the urin/ary structures can also result in retention of urine and damage to the kidney. This condition, known as __________ / _____ / __________ / __________,
eventually results in cessation of urine production.
py/uria
pī-Ū-rē-ă
pus in the urine: __________ / __________
hemat/uria
hĕm-ă-TŪ-rē-ă
blood in the urine: __________ / __________
olig/uria
ŏl-ĭg-Ū-rē-ă
The CF olig/o means scanty. Combine olig/o and -uria to form a word that means scanty urination.
__________ / __________
olig/uria
ŏl-ĭg-Ū-rē-ă
Diminished or scanty amount of urine formation is known as __________ / __________.
py/uria
pī-Ū-rē-ă
________ is the presence of an excessive number of white blood cells in urine. It is generally a sign of a urinary tract infection. A viral infection of the bladder and urethra may result in the condition called ____________ / __________.
poly/uria
pŏl-ē-Ū-rē-ă
The prefix poly- means many, much. Combine poly- and -uria to build a word that means excessive urination. __________ / __________
poly/cyst/ic
pŏl-ē-SĬS-tĭk
pertaining to many cysts: __________ / __________ / __________
ur/emia
ū-RĒ-mē-ă
increase in concentration of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood:
____________ / __________
azot/uria
ăz-ō-TŪ-rē-ă
Use azot/o to form a word meaning increase of nitrogenous wastes in urine.
_____________ /_______________.
noct/uria
nŏk-TŪ-rē-ă
Noct/uria refers to urination at night. If a child has a tendency to urinate at night, the condition is known as __________ / __________.
urination or urine
ū-rĭ-NĀ-shŭn
Continence is the ability to control urination and defecation. A person who has urinary continence is able to control urination. A person with urinary in/continence is not able to control ____________________.
in/continence
ĭn-KŎN-tĭ-nĕns
Elderly patients in nursing homes may experience uncontrolled loss of urine from the bladder. They may suffer from the condition known
as urinary __________ / ____________________.
ur/o/logist
ū-RŎL-ō-jĭst
Persons with urin/ary disorders see the medical specialist called a
__________ / _____ / ____________________.
nephr/o/logist
nĕ-FRŎL-ō-jĭst
Persons with kidney disorders, including transplantations and dia/lysis see the medical specialist called a
________ /____ /____________________.
hemat/uria
hĕm-ă-TŪ-rē-ă
If cyst/itis results in traces of blood in urine, the medical term for this condition is
__________ / __________.
cyst/itis
sĭs-TĪ-tĭs
When a patient has inflammation of the bladder, the condition is diagnosed as
__________ / __________.
py/uria
pī-Ū-rē-ă
dys/uria
dĭs-Ū-rē-ă
bacteri/uria
băk-tē-rē-Ū-rē-ă
cyst/itis
sĭs-TĪ-tĭs
Identify words in this frame that mean
pus in urine: __________ / __________
painful urination: __________ / __________
bacteria in urine: _______________ / __________
inflammation of bladder: ________ / __________
nephr/itis
nĕf-RĪ-tĭs
pyel/o/nephr/itis
pī-ĕ-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs
Build a medical term that means inflammation of the
kidney: __________ / __________
renal pelvis and kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
hemat/uria
hĕm-ă-TŪ-rē-ă
protein/uria
prō-tē-ĭn-Ū-rē-ă
nephr/itis
nĕf-RĪ-tĭs
Determine medical words in this frame that mean
blood in urine: __________ / __________
protein in urine: ________________ / __________
inflammation of the kidney: ________ / ________
glomerul/o/nephr/itis
glō-mĕr-Ū-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs
A form of nephr/itis that involves the glomeruli is called ___________ / _____ / _______ / _______.
acute renal failure
The abbreviation ARF refers to
___________ __________ __________________.
lith/ectomy
lĭ-THĔK-tō-mē
lith/o/tripsy
LĬTH-ō-trĭp-sē
nephr/o/lith/iasis
nēf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs
Build medical terms that mean
excision of a stone:
__________ / ____________________
crushing a stone:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
abnormal condition (produced by something specified) of kidney stone(s):
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________
US
Identify abbreviation
ultrasound: ___________
ESWL
Identify abbreviation
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: ________
cyst/o, vesic/o
____________________ bladder
hemat/o
____________________ blood
cyt/o, -cyte
____________________ cell
glomerul/o
____________________ glomerulus
scler/o
____________________ hardening; sclera (white
of eye)
-ist
____________________ specialist
nephr/o, ren/o
____________________ kidney
py/o
____________________ pus
erythr/o
____________________ red
pyel/o
____________________ renal pelvis
olig/o
____________________ scanty
ureter/o
____________________ ureter
urethr/o
____________________ urethra
ur/o
____________________ urine; urinary tract
leuk/o
____________________ white
-cele
____________________ hernia, swelling
poly-
____________________ many, much
-ptosis
____________________ prolapse, downward
displacement
-ptosis
____________________ in, within
a-, an-
____________________ without, not
ARF
acute renal failure
BNO
bladder neck obstruction
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia;
benign prostatic hypertrophy
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
CRF
chronic renal failure
CT
computed tomography
cysto
cystoscopy
DRE
digital rectal examination
ED
erectile dysfuntion; emergency department
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
ESWL
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
EU
excretory urography
IVP
intravenous pyelogram;
intravenous pyelography
IVU
intravenous urogram;
intravenous urography
KUB
kidney, ureter, bladder
PKD
polycystic kidney disease
PSA
prostate-specifi c antigen
RP
retrograde pyelography
TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate
UA
urinalysis
US
ultrasonography, ultrasound
UTI
urinary tract infection
VCUG
voiding cystourethrogram;
voiding cystourethrography
azoturia
ăz-ō-TŪ-rē-ă
azot: nitrogenous compounds
-uria: urine
Increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine
diuresis
dī-ū-RĒ-sĭs
di-: double
ur: urine
-esis: condition
Increased formation and secretion of urine
dysuria
dĭs-Ū-rē-ă
dys-: bad; painful; difficult
-uria: urine
Painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of cystitis and other urinary tract conditions
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
RĒ-năl
Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood and, ultimately, requires dialysis or renal
transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure (CRF)
enuresis
ĕn-ū-RĒ-sĭs
en-: in, within
ur: urine
-esis: condition
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established; also called bed-wetting at night or nocturnal enuresis
In children, voluntary control of urination is usually present by age 5.
hypospadias
hī-pō-SP Ā-dē-ăs
hypo-: under, below,
deficient
-spadias: slit, fissure
Abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis
interstitial nephritis
ĭn-tĕr-STĬSH-ăl nĕf-RĪ-tĭs
nephr: kidney
-itis: inflammation
Condition associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent, such as a drug or chemical,
which results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
renal hypertension
RĒ-năl hī-pĕr-TĔN-shŭn
ren: kidney
-al: pertaining to
hyper-: excessive, above normal
-tension: to stretch
High blood pressure that results from kidney disease
uremia
ū-RĒ-mē-ă
ur: urine
-emia: blood
Elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, as occurs in renal failure; also called azotemia
Wilms tumor
VĬLMZ TOO-mor
Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5.

The most common early signs of Wilms tumor are hypertension, a palpable mass, pain, and hematuria.
blood urea nitrogen
(BUN)
ū-RĒ-ă NĪ-trō-jĕn
Radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a
computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part
kidney, ureter, bladder
(KUB)
Radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder KUB radiography may also detect stones and calcified areas.
pyelography
pī-ĕ-LŎG-ră-fē
pyel/o: renal pelvis
-graphy: process of recording
Radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent
intravenous pyelography (IVP)
ĭn-tră-VĒ-nŭs pī-ĕ-LŎG
-ră-fē
intra: in, within
ven: vein
-ous: pertaining to
pyel/o: renal pelvis
-graphy: process ofrecording
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract; also called intravenous urography (IVU) or excretory urography (EU)

In IVP, the x-ray image produced is known as a pyelogram or urogram.
retrograde pyelography (RP)
RĔT-rō-grād pī-ĕ-LŎG
-ră-fē
retro-: backward, behind
-grade: to go
pyel/o: renal pelvis
-graphy: process of recording
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters using smallcaliber
catheters
renal scan
RĒ-năl
ren: kidney
-al: pertaining to
Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the kidney
urinalysis
ū-rĭ-NĂL-ĭ-sĭs
Physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of urine
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
sĭs-tō-ū-rē-THRŎG-ră-fē
cyst/o: bladder
urethr/o: urethra
-graphy: process of recording
Radiography of the bladder and urethra after filling the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
catheterization
kăth-ĕ-tĕr-ĭ-ZĀ-shŭn
Insertion of a catheter (hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly. through the urethra
into the bladder to withdraw urine
dialysis
dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs
dia-: through, across
-lysis: separation; destruction; loosening
Mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly
hemodialysis
hē-mō-dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs
Process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting (diverting) the patient's blood from the body into a dialysis
machine for filtering, and then returning the clean blood to the patient's body via tubes connected to the circulatory system
peritoneal dialysis
pĕr-ĭ-tō-NĒ-ăl dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs
Dialysis in which the patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane
renal transplantation
RĒ-năl trăns-plăn-TĀ-shŭn
ren: kidney
-al: pertaining to
Organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease; also called kidney transplantation
urinalysis
____________________ refers to physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine.
Wilms tumor
____________________ is a malignant neoplasm in the kidney that occurs in young children.
azoturia
____________________ is an increase in nitrogenous compounds in urine.
dysuria
____________________ means painful or diffi cult urination, symptomatic of numerous conditions.
diuresis
____________________ means increased formation and secretion of urine.
retrograde pyelography
____________________ is a radiologic technique in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope to provide detailed visualization of urinary collecting system.
hypospadias
____________________ is an abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.
interstitial nephritis
____________________ is nephritis associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue, which may be primary or due to a toxic agent.
BUN
____________________ is a test that measures the amount of urea excreted by kidneys into the blood.
enuresis
____________________ means urinary incontinence, including bed-wetting.
catheterization
____________________ refers to insertion of a hollow, flexible tube into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid.
VCUG
____________________ is radiography of the bladder and urethra after introduction of a contrast medium
and during the process of urination.
uremia
____________________ refers to an elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in blood.
renal hypertension
____________________ refers to high blood pressure that results from kidney disease.
dialysis
____________________ is the mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products.
cyst/o, vesic/o
bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus
nephr/o, ren/o
kidney
pyel/o
renal pelvis
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
aden/o
gland
carcin/o
cancer
enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
erythr/o
red
gastr/o
stomach
hemat/o
blood
hepat/o
liver
lith/o
stone, calculus
noct/o
night
olig/o
scanty
py/o
pus
rect/o
rectum
scler/o
hardening; sclera
(white of eye)
ur/o, urin/o
urine
ven/o
vein
-ectomy
excision, removal
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
suture
-stomy
forming an opening
(mouth)
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
incision
-tripsy
crushing
-algia, -dynia
pain
-cele
hernia, swelling
-cyte
cell
-ectasis
dilation, expansion
-edema
swelling
-emesis
vomiting
-grade
to go
-gram
record, writing
-graphy
process of recording
-iasis
abnormal condition
(produced by something specified)
-itis
inflammation
-lith
stone, calculus
-logist
specialist in study of
-logy
study of
-megaly
enlargement
-oma
tumor
-osis
abnormal condition;
increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-pathy
disease
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
swallowing, eating
-phobia
fear
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-scope
instrument for examining
-scopy
visual examination
-uria
urine
-al, -ic, -ous
pertaining to
-ia
condition
-ist
specialist
a-, an-
without, not
dys-
bad; painful; diffi cult
in-
in, not
Intra-
in, within
poly-
many, much
retro-
backward, behind
supra-
above; excessive; superior
malignant
____________________ means tending or threatening to produce death; refers to cancerous growths.
nephrons
____________________ are microscopic filtering units in the kidney that are responsible for keeping
body fluids in balance.
cholelithiasis
____________________ refers to formation of gallstones.
renal pelvis
____________________ is a funnel-shaped reservoir that is the basin of the kidney.
IVP
____________________ is an x-ray film of the kidneys after injection of dye.
diuretics
____________________ are drugs that stimulate fl ow of urine.
edema
____________________ means swelling (of body tissues).
benign
____________________ means noncancerous.
nephrolithotomy
____________________ is an incision into a kidney to remove a stone.
acute renal failure
____________________ is a condition that results from lack of blood flow to the kidneys.
nephroptosis
____________________ is downward displacement of a kidney.
ureteropyeloplasty
____________________ is surgical repair of a ureter and renal pelvis.
bilateral
____________________ means pertaining to two sides.
nocturia
____________________ means excessive urination at night.
urinary incontinence
____________________ refers to inability to hold urine.
hematuria
____________________ refers to presence of blood cells in urine.
polyuria
____________________ means excessive discharge of urine.
oliguria
____________________ is a diminished amount of urine formation.
anuria
____________________ is absence of urine formation.
cystocele
____________________ is herniation of the urinary bladder.