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35 terms

Nutrition Chapter 9

weight management
STUDY
PLAY
What fraction of the US adult population is overweight or obese?
2/3
What % of people age 2-19 are overweight or obese?
33
Has the prevalence of obesity worldwide increased, decreased, or leveled off in the past few years?
leveled off
What is the classification of a person 6'4 and 202 lbs?
healthy weight
Which of the following is a characteristic of fat cell development?
a. The amount of fat in the body is substantially determined by the size of the fat cells
b. More and larger fat cells are found in obese people compared with healthy-weight persons
c. Fat cell number increases most readily during early adulthood, when energy expenditure declines
d. Fat cells may enlarge but not increase in number upon reaching the age of 50 in males and reaching menopause in women
mroe and larger fat cells are found in obese people than in healthy weight people
. All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except
a. the number decreases when fat is lost from the body.
b. the size is larger in obese people than in normal-weight people.
c. the storage capacity for fat depends on both cell number and cell size.
d. the number increases several-fold during the growth years and tapers off when adult status is reached.
the number decreases when fat is lost from the body
What is the rationale for the fat cell theory of obesity?
Fat cell number increases most readily in late childhood and early puberty
What promotes fat storage in adipocytes?
Lipoprotein lipase
What explains why women store fat around the hips whereas men store fat around the abdomen?
the gender differences in the activity of lipoprotein lipase
All of the following are features of fat cell metabolism in men and women except
a. the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men.
b. fat storage in adipose as well as muscle tissue is regulated by sex-specific hormones.
c. lipoprotein lipase enzyme activity is regulated by a gene that responds to weight loss.
d. fat storage in men develops primarily across the abdomen whereas in women it is found chiefly around the hips and thighs.
the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men
Which of the following is a feature of the lipoprotein lipase enzyme?
a. Its activity decreases after weight loss but then rebounds quickly after resuming normal food intake
b. Its activity can always increase but cannot decrease and is, in part, controlled by the ratchet effect of metabolism
c. Its activities in men and women are sex-related and explain the differences in major fat storage regions of the body
d. Its low activity in obese people explains, in part, the inability to mobilize storage fat for energy when following an energy-restricted diet
its activities in men and women are sex related and explain the differences in major fat storage regions of the body
Obesity resulting from an increase in the size of the fat cells is termed
hypertrophic obesity
Adverse effects on organs such as the liver from the presence of excess body fat is known as
lipotoxicity
Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed
hyperplasic obesity
What defines the body's set point?
the point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
What is Prader-Willi syndrome?
a genetic disorder resulting in obesity
Which of the following is a feature of weight gain and genetics?
a. Obese people can change their genome but not their epigenome
b. Even mild exercise can minimize the genetic influence on weight gain
c. Genetics is the overwhelming factor that determines a person's risk for weight gain
d. Identical twins are twice as likely to weigh the same compared with fraternal twins
identical twins are twice as likely to weigh the same compared to fraternal twins
On which organ or tissue does leptin primarily act?
hypothalamus
Injection of leptin has what kind of effect on fat cell number in mice? (raises, lowers, no change)
lowers
What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation on leptin and ghrelin?
Leptin decreases while ghrelin increases
As a new assistant in a weight-loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart?
a. Leptin deficiency causes lower levels of ghrelin
b. Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
c. Leptin deficiency causes psychological depression, which leads to increased food intake
d. Leptin deficiency reduces the desire to do physical activity, resulting in more excess energy available for fat storage
Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
a. Fat cell sensitivity to leptin is higher in obese people
b. A deficiency of leptin is characteristic of all obese people
c. Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
d. Major functions of leptin include an increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate
Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
What is a feature of leptin?
it is a satiety signal
What is a feature of ghrelin?
it stimulates appetite and energy storage
Why is weight loss more successful with exercise and after bypass surgery?
Ghrelin levels are low
Which of the following is not a feature of adiponectin?
a. It inhibits inflammation
b. It is secreted from adipose tissue
c. It protects against type 2 diabetes
d. It is higher in obese people compared with lean people
it is higher in obese people compared with lean people
Is adiponectin higher in obese people compared to lean people?
no
Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?
a. High blood levels are found in obese people
b. Its major role in the body is in suppressing appetite
c. It is secreted by adipocytes and promotes negative energy balance
d. Its blood concentration is very high in people with anorexia nervosa
Its blood concentration is very high in people with anorexia nervosa
Is Ghrelin a satiating hormone?
NO
Does ghrelin promote satiety?
no
What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids?
WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE
WHat is the significance of the uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue?
Increased loss of body heat
What type of adipose tissue is most effective in maintaining warmth in cold times?
brown
Which of the following is a characteristic of the body's major types of adipose tissue?
a. Very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants
b. White adipose is especially important in infants as a moderator of temperature extremes
c. The uncoupled reactions in brown and white adipose are the result of LPL-induced hydrolysis of ATP
d. Among the three types of adipose, namely, white, yellow, and brown, the white adipocytes account for the greatest amount of heat expenditure
very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants
What is the chief factor that determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?
hereditary and environment