Methods for study of brain function, Midbrain, Forebrain, Hindbrain, Endocrine system, plus a small review of the four main types of brain wave patterns.
The Electroencephalograph is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by attaching recording electrodes to the surface of the scalp.
Brain waves that cycle 13-24 cycles per second (cps) and are associated with normal waking thought and alert problem solving.
Brain waves that cycle 8-12 cycles per second (cps) and are seen during deep relaxation, when the mind is blank, and during meditation.
Brain waves that cycle 4-7 cycles per second (cps) that appear during light sleep.
Brain waves that are high amplitude waves and have a cycle of less than 4 cycles per second (cps) and are seen during deep dreamless sleep, usually in the earlier stages of the sleep cycle.
is often used in the diagnosis off brain damage and neurological disorders.
use many specialised techniques such as electrical recordings, lesioning, electrical stimulation, and brain imaging techniques such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans to investigate the connections between the brain and behaviour.
is done by inserting electrodes into a brain structure and passing a high frequency electric current through it to burn the tissue and disable the structure.
through this technique investigators have identified areas in the rat hypothalamus that contributes to the regulation of hunger.
(of the brain) involves sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to activate it.
is used to surgically implant electrodes in exact locations deep inside the brain.
a brain imaging device called the computerised tomography scan is a computer enhanced x-ray of the brain structure.
a procedure in which the patient's head is positioned inside a large cylinder and an x-ray beam and an x-ray detector are rotated around the patient's head taking x-ray images of the brain from many angles.
provides a colour coded map indicating which areas of the brain become active when subjects perform various activities.
radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain serving as markers of metabolic activity or blood flow in the brain which can be monitored with x-rays.
positron emission tomography scans map activity in the brain over time.
because these scans monitor chemical processes, they can also be used to study the activity of specific neurotransmitters and have helped researchers map the locations of dopamine pathways in the brain.
magnetic resonance imaging maps out brain structure and brain function, producing images of remarkably high resolution, much better than CT scans.
uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computerised enhancement to map out brain structure and brain function.
this technology has enormous potential in behavioural research. For example, this technology has been used to provide evidence that there is an association between schizophrenic disturbance and enlarged ventricles in the brain.
literally means 'little brain' and is a deeply folded structure located adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem.
is critical to the coordination of movement and to the sense of equilibrium, or physical balance.
damage to this structure disrupts fine motor skills, such as those involved in typing, writing, or playing guitar.
attaches to the spinal chord and has charge of largely unconscious but essential functions such as regulating breathing, maintaining muscle tone, and regulating circulation.
looks like the top of a bottom. (it DOES).
includes a bridge of fibres that connects the brainstem to the cerebellum. Also contains several clusters of cell bodies that contribute to the regulation of sleep and arousal (the alert kind of arousal not the other kind which you're thinking of ;D).
is concerned with certain sensory processes, such as locating where things are in space.
is the origin of an important system of dopamine-releasing axons. Among other things, this dopamine system is involved in the performance of voluntary movements. (Parkinson's disease is largely due to degeneration of neurons in this area).
a bundle of fibres that runs through both the hindbrain and the midbrain.
lies at the central core of the brainstem and contributes to the modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing, and the perception of pain.
is best known for it's role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Activity in the ascending fibres of this structure are essential to maintaining an alert brain.
the seat of complex thought.
houses the the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the limbic system and the cerebrum.
is the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum.
an area that lies just beneath the cerebral cortex and near the top of the brainstem and houses the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the limbic system.
a structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass through to get to the cerebral cortex. "THOU SHALT NOT PASS!" (Gandthalamus, 2012)
is not just a relay station but also plays an active role in processing information from various senses.
This 'relay station' is made up of a number of clusters of cell bodies, or nuclei, each of which are concerned with relaying sensory information to particular parts of the cortex.
no larger than a kidney bean this structure is made up of a number of distinct nuclei that regulate a variety of biological drives including the 4 F's - flight, fight, feeding and mating, which technically isn't an F but everyone is polite and calls it this.
because of its close connections with the adjacent pituitary gland, this structure serves as a vital link between the brain and the endocrine system.
regulates the autonomic system which controls largely automatic involuntary visceral functions such as heart rate, digestion, and perspiration.
Autonomic nervous system
is made up of the nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
the master gland of the endocrine system, it releases a great variety of hormones that fan out through the body, stimulating action in the other endocrine glands.
a group of glands that secrete chemicals (hormones) into the bloodstream regulating many important aspects of bodily functioning. Examples are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.
is a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the boarder between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical structures including the thalamus, hippocampus, the amygdala, the septum, and other structures.
although it's role is not yet fully understood, this structure appears to play a role in the formation of memories.
evidence suggests that this structure is a key link in neural circuits that process the acquisition of learned fear responses.
is one of the areas in the brain that appears to contain emotion tinged pleasure centres.
the largest and most complex part of the human brain responsible for our most complex mental activities including learning, remembering, thinking, and consciousness.
is made up of densely packed neurons, individual cells, that receive, integrate, and transmit information, sometimes referred to as gray matter.
a thick bundle of fibres that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
contains the principal area that controls the movement of muscles, called the primary motor cortex.
a diagram which maps out how specific areas in the motor cortex are devoted to the control of various muscles and limbs. More of the cortex is devoted to body parts which need fine motor control, such as fingers, lips, tongue, as opposed to larger body parts such as thighs and shoulders.
is a large area of the human brain that lies to the front of the primary motor cortex and appears to play a role in working memory, decision making, and reasoning about relationships.
Primary motor cortex
controls the movement of muscles. Electrical stimulation in this area can cause actual muscle contraction.
includes the area that registers the sense of touch.
is also involved in integrating visual input and in monitoring the bodies position in space.
Primary somatosensory cortex
a strip towards the front of the Parietal lobe that registers the sense of touch.
one of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex that lies near the temples.
Primary auditory cortex
a strip towards the top of the Temporal lobe devoted to auditory processing.
lies at the back of the cerebral cortex and includes the cortical area where most visual signals are sent and visual processing is begun.
Primary visual cortex
a strip towards the back of the Occipital lobe where visual signals are sent and where visual processing is begun.