84 terms

Grade 10 English Provincial Examinable Terms & Devices in Lit

STUDY
PLAY
Allieration
The repetition of the initial consonant sounds. EXAMPLE: Peter Piper picked a peck of peppers.
Allusion
a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize
Antagonist
the character that the main character (protagonist) struggles against.
Aside
a line spoken by an actor to the audience but not intended for others on the stage
Atmosphere
the emotional tone or background that surrounds a scene
Audience
one's listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed
Ballad
a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature
Bias
A preference that prevents one from being impartial; prejudice.
Blank verse
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Character
an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story)
Chronological order
(Time Order) Events are arranged in the order in which they happened
Cliche
a worn-out idea or overused expression
Climax
Most exciting moment of the story; turning point
Colloquial
characteristic of ordinary conversation rather than formal speech or writing
Comedy
In general, a literary work that is amusing and ends happily.
Compare
examine and note the similarities or differences of
Conflict (internal)
An internal conflict is a struggle that takes place within a character's mind or heart. In an internal conflict, a character might struggle with paralyzing fear or a need for revenge
Conflict (external)
a struggle between two forces. An external conflict can take place between two characters; between a character and a group; between a character and society as a whole; or between a character and an animal or a force of nature
Connotation
refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition
Contrast
put in opposition to show or emphasize differences
Denotation
The dictionary definition of a word; the literal meaning of a word
Description
The informative method used to create an accurate, vivid, verbal picture of an object, geographic feature, setting or image
Dialogue
the lines spoken by characters in drama or fiction
Direct presentation (direct characterization)
when the writer tells the readers directly what kind of personality a character possesses
Drama
a dramatic work intended for performance by actors on a stage
Dynamic character
A character who grows, learns, or changes as a result of the story's action
Exposition; expository
Writer makes a truth clear; he/she exposes a truth; n. a statement intended to give background information or to explain something difficult
Falling action
The action in a play or story that occurs after the climax and that leads to the conclusion and often to the resolution of the conflict
Figurative language
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
First person point of view
the narrator is a character who participates in the action of the story and uses I and me to describe himself or herself
Flashback
a scene or event from the past that appears in a narrative out of chronological order, to fill in information or explain something in the present
Flat character
lesser character about whom little information is given (not well-developed); a character who is not fully developed in the story. A flat character is almost never the main character.
Foil
A character who is in most ways opposite to the main character (protagonist) or one who is nearly the same as the protagonist. The purpose of the foil character is to emphasize the traits of the main character by contrast only
Foreshadowing
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot; the presentation of material in such a way that the reader is prepared for what is to come later in the work
Free verse
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
Genre
type or category of literary work (e.g., poetry, essay, short story, novel, drama)
Hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
Image
when words create a picture in your mind
Imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
Indirect presentation
that method of characterization in which the author shows us a character in action, compelling us to infer what the character is like from what is said or done by the character
Irony
a contrast between what is expected and what actually exists or happens; incongruity or discrepancy between the implied and expected; verbal, dramatic, situational
Jargon
the specialized language or vocabulary of a particular group or profession
Limited omniscient point of view
A 3rd person narrator focuses on the view of only one character, usually the protagonist, can reveal the inner thoughts and feelings of this one character but presents the other characters from the outside only.
Lyric
A brief, personal poem that is especially musical and filled with emotion; sonnets, odes, and elegies are types of lyrics
Metaphor
A comparison without using like or as
Mood
The overall emotion/feeling created by a work of literature
Narration
The telling of a story in fiction, nonfiction, poetry, or drama; one of the four modes of discourse
Narrative
The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events; writing that tells a story
Narrator
The person telling the story. A narrator can be in 1st , 2nd, or 3rd Person; a speaker or character who tells a story
Objective point of view
A "movie camera" point of view where the audience does not see the thought or feelings of any character
Omniscient point of view
The narrator is capable of knowing, telling, and seeing all; an omniscient, or "all-knowing" narrator tells the story, also using third-person pronouns; often tells the reader everything about many characters': motives, weaknesses, hopes, childhoods, futures; can comment directly on the character's actions
Onomatopoeia
Words that imitate sounds
Oxymoron
An expression in which two words that contradict each other are joined. For example, "open secret," "the same difference," "hell's angels" etc.
Paradox
A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth
Personification
A type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics
Persuasion; persuasive
Capable of convincing
Plot
The sequence of events in a literary work
Point of view
The perspective from which a story is told
Propaganda
formation, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
Protagonist
The central character in a story, the one who initiates or drives the action; might or might not be the hero; can be the villain
Refrain
The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at definite intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza
Resolution
The ending to the story that states the final outcome of the conflict and/or what might lie ahead for the characters in the story.
Rhyme
Words that have the same ending sound
Rhyme scheme
The pattern or sequence in which end rhyme occurs throughout a poem. The first end sound is represented with an "a," the second end sound is represented with a "b," and so on. When the first sound is repeated at the end of another line within the poem, it is also designated as "a."
Rhythm
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
Rising action
The series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to the climax.
Round character
A character who has more dimensions to his/her personality; he/she is complex and multi-faceted, like a real person; character about whom much information, such as thoughts, feelings, and action is given (developed)
Sarcasm
A type of irony in which a person appears to be praising something but is actually insulting it; verbal irony
Satire
A type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about a change; ironic, sarcastic, witty writing used to ridicule or make fun of human vice or weakness
Setting
Where and when the story takes place
Simile
A comparison of two things using like or as
Slang
Recently coined words often used in informal situations; often come and go quickly, passing in and out of usage within months and years
Sonnet
A 14 line poem usually written in iambic pentameter
Speaker
The person speaking in the poem, like the narrator in prose - not always the poet
Stanza
A group of lines forming a unit in a poem
Static character
A character who does not change at all, or who remains almost entirely the same, throughout the course of a play or story
Stereotyped character
A character created according to widely held, often narrow-minded, ideas; this character has no individuality and is not well developed
Style
The choices a writer makes; the combination of distinctive features of a literary work
Suspense
Uncertainty or anxiety the reader feels about what is going to happen next in a story
Symbol; symbolism
Something in a literary work which maintains its own meaning while at the same time stands for something else
Theme
The main idea or meaning of a text. Often, this is an insight about human life revealed in a literary work
Tone
The attitude of the author toward the subject they are writing about, the audience and characters (e.g., serious or humorous).
Tragedy
A work in which the protagonist, a person of high degree, is engaged in a significant struggle and which ends in ruin, disaster or destruction
Understatement
Downplaying the meaning of a situation
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