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What Contains the skull, spinal column, ribs and sternum

Axial Skeleton

What is an attachment for ribs


How many Cervical Vertebrae are there


How many Thoracic Vertebrae are there


How many Lumbar Vertebrae are there


How many Sacral Vertebrae are there


How many Coccyx Vertebrae are there


How long is the average adult vertebral column

60-70 cm

WHich parts of the vertebral column have a lordotic curve

Cervical and Lumbar

Which parts of the vertebral column have a kyphotic curve

Thoracic and Sacral

What are the functions of the Vertebrae

to support weight of trunck, protect the spinal cord, and attachment for muscles and ligaments

Whay type of normal curve is found in the Dorsal Spine


How many vertebrae are there in a typical Vertebral Column


THe two lamina that unite in the midline posteriorly form what

Spinous Process

The Vertebral body of the Thoracic Vertebrae is described how

large, possesses demifacets on their posterior aspect, superior and inferior

Descrive the Pedicles of the Thoracic vertebrae

they are directed almost anteroposteriorly except for t1 and t2

Describe the body of a typical vertebrae

a disc like anterior central portion

Describe the vertebral notch of a typical vertebrae

it is where the two pedicles and the two laminae unite posteriorly

Describe the vertebral Foramen of the typical vertebrae

it is formed by the body of the pedicles and the laminae

A typical vertebra has a body, arch, vertebral foramen, vertebral notches, and how many processes


The neural arch is formed by the union of what

the pedicals and laminae

Describe the vertebral bodies of a lumbar vertebrae

they are very large and lubular

Describe the pedicles of a lumbar vertebrae

they are directed posterolaterally

describe the laminae of the lumbar vertebrae

they are very short

Describe the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae

they are relatively short and extend out laterally

Describe the mammillary processes of the lumbar vertebrae

the posterior portion of the superior atricular processes

Describe the Spinous porcess of the lumbar vertebrae

they are thick and broand and extend our horizontally

Which vertebrae have small oval shaped bodies


__________ of the cervical vertebrae have ywo elements which unite to form the transverse foramen

Transverse process

What vertebrae possess facets on the lateral portion of their bodies


The spinous processes of what vertebrae are thick and braod and extend horizontally


The majority of cervical vertebrae have what type of spinous processes

bifid tips

which vertebrae supports the head and consists of an anterior and posterior arch and has two thick lateral masses, and has no body or spinous porcess


What articulates with the odontoid or dens of the axis

the anterior arch of the atlas

a light projection on the anterior surface of the anterior arch is what

anterior tubercle

What is the oval facet on the posterior surface of the anterior arch

the foeva dentis

What has a small prominence on its posterior surface on the posterior arch

posterior tubercle

What are the two grooves on the superior surface for

the vertebral arteries and the sub occipital nerve

What ar the most solid parts of the Atlas

the lateral masses

Whar are present of r articulation with the ocipital condyles

the superior articular facets

Whar ar epresent for the articulation with the superior articular processes of the axis

the inferior articular porcesses

The medial surfaces reveal two rounded tubercles for attachment of what

the trans atlantal ligaments

What are large and projected laterally, lacking tubercles but possessing transverse formaina

the transverse processes

The axis is also termed what


The process presents a toothlike process and is the most putstanding feature of this vertebra

the dens or odontoid

The anterior surface of the dens has an oval facet for articulation whith what on the anterior arch of the atlas

the dental facet

The inferior articular facets are seen best on what projection


Which bone articulates with C1

the occipital

The forst vervical vertebrae is distinctive because it doesnt have what

a body

The second cervical vertebrae is known as what

the axis

The Cervical Prominens is another name for


The Second cervical vertebrae has a large toothlike process porjecting from it which fits into the arh of C1, the process is called what

the dens or odontoid

Rotation of the head takes place between which vertebraes

C1 and C2

A common palpation point of the vervical spine is what

Vertebral Prominens

Flexion and extension occurse between which of the vertebrae

the occipital condyles and C1(atlas)

What is triangular shaped, that wedges between the two innominate bones

the sacrum

What articulates with the ilium

the auricular surface

what is a prominence on the upper anterior margin of the body of the sacrum

sacral promontory

Which part of the sacrum is roughly convex and narrower than the anterior or pelvic portion

the posterior surface

THe forth and fifth sacral vertebrae are fused to form what

the sacral hiatus

How many sacral foramina are there


THe sacral nerves and blood vessels leave the spinal cord through what openings

the sacral foramina

What part of the sacrum presents two small projections whichextend down to meet the coccyx called the cornu

the apex

THe coccyx represnts what

the atrophied human tail

What does the coccyx articulate with

the oval surface on the base of the sacrum

The psterior aspect of the base presents two small projections that extend up to meet the sacrum are called what

the cornu

The apex is rounded and has an attachment for what

the sphincter ani externus

what articulates witht he inferior articualr process of the anterior arch of the atlas

the axis

The sacrum is made up of how many fused vertebrae


A prominence on the upper anterior margin of the body of the sacrum is called what

the sacral promontory

The coccyx is ______ posteriorly


There are two small projections that exten up from the base of the coccyx

the cornu

What are the cartilaginous masses between the bodies of a vertebrae

intervertebral disks

THe ring like layer of fibrous and cartilage issue between the articular plates of adjacent vertebrae is what

the annulus fibrosus

The pulpy center of the intervertebral disc space is called what

the nucleus pulposus

THe jont space between the first cervical and condyles of the occipital bone is what

atlanto-occipital joint

They typical thoracic ertebrae has costal demifacets on each side of the body of the vertbrae for articulatin for which part of the ribs

the head

The facets on each of the transverse procsses are for articulation with the necks and what part of the ribs

the tubercle

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