Presiding officer of Senate:Vice President
constitution:a plan of government for our country
Preamble: beginning of Constitution and states purpose Amendment:a change/ addition to the Constitution
Bill of Rights:1st 10 amendments to Constitution Democracy: form of government which citizens share power
Executive branch:carries out executes the laws
Judicial branch:interprets the laws or says what the laws mean
Legislative branch:makes laws
Pres's authority:command armies, make treaties, make sures laws are followed
1st Amendment: gives freedom of speech
6th Amendment guarantees speedy trial
27 amendments- Repealed 1
George Washington signed the constitution first
Article 1 refers:legislative branch
Article 2 refers:executive branch
Article 3 refers:judicial branch
The House of representatives have sole power to impeach
Senate has sole power to try all impeachments
First words of Constitution:We the people of the United States
The Constitution needed approval of 9 states
President: nominates judges of the Supreme Court
The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a cabinet.5. Know each of the following:
Thomas Jefferson-secretary of state
Alexander Hamilton-secretary of treasury
Henry Knox- secretary of war
One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it did not provide guarantees for individual rights.
The Bill of Rights was intended to protect individual liberties against the potential tyranny of a strong central government. Articles of Confederation 1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade) Bill of Rights Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
United States Constitution 1787, Continental Congress made a constitution after Articles of Confederation failed; It included a central government divided into three branches (president, Senate, House of Representatives, and Supreme Court) and controlled by checks and balances. The Bill of Rights were ten amendments to the new constitution that guaranteed rights of freedom to citizens; made a national gov't that controlled taxes, army, trade, and currency.
Constitutional Convention A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the drafting of the Constitution.
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Alexander Hamilton 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
bank of the United States Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was unconstitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people
11. Alexander Hamilton's financial program for the economic development of the United States favored the wealthier class.
12. Hamilton believed that, together, his funding and assumption programs would gain the monetary and political support of the rich for the federal government.
13. As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to bolster the national credit.
14. All of the following were part of Alexander Hamilton's economic program: a. The creation of a national bank
b. Funding the entire national debt at "par"
c. Vigorous foreign trade
d. Protective tariffs
15. Alexander Hamilton's financial plan for strengthening the economy and bolstering national credit proposed all of the following: a. Funding the national debt
b. Assuming state debts
c. Establishing a national bank
d. A low protective wall around infant industries
16. Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt was beneficial because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success.
17. The aspect of Hamilton's financial program that received the least support in Congress was a protective tariff.
18. Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from customs duties and excise tax.
19. Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was based on the "necessary and proper," or "elastic," clause in the Constitution
Hamilton's major programs seriously infringed on states' rights.
23. Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United States was modeled on the Bank of England. Alien and Sedition Act The Acts were 4 bills passed in 1798 by Federalists in the 5th Congress in the aftermath of the French Rev's reign of terror and the Quasi-War. The government could deport or imprison foreign citizens and prosecute those who spoke out against the government. Theses acts were made to ensure no post-Revolution anarchy could occur; and America almost fell apart over the Federalist/Anti-Federalist issue. Democratic-Republicans saw the Acts as unconstitutional. The Acts saw Kentucky and Virginia make the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which argued that states had the right and duty to declare acts made by Congress not found in the Constitution as unconstitutional.
Federalists/Anti-Federalists The Federalist Party was the first political party in the United States created in the 1790s, and remained the only party until 1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Federalists upheld fiscal soundness and nationalistic government. They wanted a national bank, tariffs, and good relations with Britain. Anti-Federalists were those involved in a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger US federal gov. The AF's opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787, as the Articles of Confederation granted states more authority. They worried the Presidency would just be another monarchy.
Federalists stand for: Rule by wealthy, Strong Federal Government, Emphasis of Manufacturing, Loose interpretation of the Constitution, British alliance. Jeffersonians Rule by the people, strong State government, Emphasis of agriculture, Strict interpretation of the Constitution,The political party of the "outs" (out of power) that provided the "loyal opposition" to the party in power in the 1790s was the Democratic-Republicans.
FEDS:56. According to the Federalists the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislation passed by Congress lay with the Supreme Court.
57. Federalist advocate rule by the "best" people.
58. Federalist strongly supported law and order.Hamiltonian Federalists advocated a strong central government.
61. Thomas Jefferson appealed to all of the following groups: a. Small shopkeepers
b. The underprivileged
c. The idle class
62. To the Jeffersonian republicans, the "ideal" citizen of a republic was an independent farmer. the "ideal" citizen of a republic was an independent farmer.
63. Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which the states retained the majority of political power.
64. Jeffersonians believed in all of the following: a. Opposition to a national debt
b. Agriculture as the ideal occupation
c. Freedom of speech
d. Central authority should be kept to a minimum
65. Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by continuing slavery
Democratic-Republicans Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Development of Political Parties National political parties were unknown in America when Washington became president. Whigs and Tories and federalists and antifederalists had opposed each other, but these groups were factions rather than parties. They faded away when the issue that they were fighting over was resolved. The Founding Fathers thought that organized opposition to the government seemed disloyal. The first semblances of political parties emerged when Jefferson and Madison organized their opposition to the Hamiltonian financial program because people interpreted the Constitution differently. Political parties are essential to democracy these days, because the party that is not in power plays that invaluable role of the balance wheel on the machinery of government, ensuring that politics never drifts too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people. Federalist Papers A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Hamiltonians Federalist. Powerful central government. Wanted expansion of federal power. Get support of the wealthy and willing to go into debt to turn them away from state government and toward federal government. Get money from revenue tariffs (raise money) and protective tariffs (protect American industries). Supports Bank of the U.S.
the 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. The ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
Northwest Ordinance Big Idea As the US expanded after the Revolutionary War, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped organize the new territories and set up the steps each territory needed to take in order to become a state. It is interesting to note that the Northwest Ordinance outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory. This was at a time when slavery was allowed by the US Constitution.
Arthur St. Clair 1st governor of the Northwest territory
"Mad" Anthony Wayne defeated Blue Jacket at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Edward Tiffin 1st governor of Ohio
William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh at Battle of the Thames
Marietta 1st settlement in Northwest Territory, est. 1788, originally called Adelphia.
Chillicothe Place where Ohio's constitution was written and became the 1st capital.
Columbus Became Ohio's capital in 1816
5 states from the Northwest Territory Ohio 1803 Michigan 1837 Illinois 1818 Wisconsin 1848 Indiana 1816
March 1, 1803 Ohio became the 17th state
Land Ordinance 1785 The law passed by Congress that set up rules for dividing up and using the land in the Northwest Territory.
Legislative Branch Makes laws
In Ohio, General Assembly makes the Legislative Branch
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 do? It outlawed slavery and spelled out the steps a territory needed to go through to become a state.
The 1st step of the Northwest Ordinance The US Government appointed a governor (St. Clair) and 3 judges to govern the territory.
In the 1st step of the Northwest Ordinance, were the governor and 3 judges allowed to make laws? No, they were only allowed to enforce the laws made by Congress
The 2nd step of the Northwest Ordinance When 5,000 free adult men lived in the territory, they could elect a legislative body to make laws about the territory.
The 3rd step of the Northwest Ordinance, when 60, 000 people lived in the territory, then: (3 things) - a constitution could be written
- borders could be established in the territory
- the territory could apply for statehood.
Who proposed the Enabling Act? President Jefferson
Why did President Jefferson want the Enabling Act? He was not happy with the job Arthur St. Clair was doing as governor.
When did the Enabling Act become law? April, 1802
The Bank of the United States was first chartered by the US Congress on February 25, 1791 after being proposed by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) in 1790. The purpose for the bank was to handle the financial needs and requirements of the new central government of the newly formed United States. This is significant as previously the 13 colonies each had their own banks, currencies, financial institutions, and policies. Set for a 20 year charter. The necessary and proper clause, part of Article I of the Constitution, allowed for Congress to make laws and provisions that were not part of the enumerated powers. Hamilton and Jefferson debated many times over what was meant by "necessary and proper." Hamilton took a more liberal reading of the clause and said that Congress should do anything it felt was necessary to carry out national responsibilities. Jefferson held that the clause meant that Congress should only take actions that were absolutely necessary, and no more. In 1791, Hamilton proposed that the United States charter a national bank in order to take care of Revolutionary War debt, create a single national currency, and stimulate the economy. Jefferson argued that the creation of a national bank was not a power granted under the enumerated powers, nor was it necessary and proper. Both gentlemen presented their arguments to Washington, and ultimately Washington agreed with Hamilton. Hamilton also devised a Bank of the United States, with the right to establish branches in different parts of the country. He sponsored a national mint, and argued in favor of tariffs, using a version of an "infant industry" argument: that temporary protection of new firms can help foster the development of competitive national industries. These measures -- placing the credit of the federal government on a firm foundation and giving it all the revenues it needed -- encouraged commerce and industry, and created a solid phalanx of businessmen who stood firmly behind the national government. Jefferson advocated a decentralized agrarian republic. He recognized the value of a strong central government in foreign relations, but he did not want it strong in other respects. Hamilton's great aim was more efficient organization, whereas Jefferson once said "I am not a friend to a very energetic government." Hamilton feared anarchy and thought in terms of order; Jefferson feared tyranny and thought in terms of freedom.
The United States needed both influences. It was the country's good fortune that it had both men and could, in time, fuse and reconcile their philosophies. One clash between them, which occurred shortly after Jefferson took office as secretary of state, led to a new and profoundly important interpretation of the Constitution. When Hamilton introduced his bill to establish a national bank, Jefferson objected. Speaking for those who believed in states' rights, Jefferson argued that the Constitution expressly enumerates all the powers belonging to the federal government and reserves all other powers to the states. Nowhere was it empowered to set up a bank.
Hamilton contended that because of the mass of necessary detail, a vast body of powers had to be implied by general clauses, and one of these authorized Congress to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper" for carrying out other powers specifically granted. The Constitution authorized the national government to levy and collect taxes, pay debts and borrow money. A national bank would materially help in performing these functions efficiently. Congress, therefore, was entitled, under its implied powers, to create such a bank. Washington and the Congress accepted Hamilton's view -- and an important precedent for an expansive interpretation of the federal government's authority.
Who was President during the War of 1812? James Madison
Causes of the War of 1812: 1. Britain's seizure of American ships and impressment of sailors.
2. America's resentment of Britain.
3. American belief that British were arming Native Americans and inciting them to riot.
4. American "War Hawks" wanting to annex Florida and Canada.
Results of the War of 1812: 1. America became more isolationist.
2. Spurred westward migration: Jobs scarce, Native Americans weakened.
3. Encouraged American industry (New England textile mills).
4. Ended the Federalist party.
5. Inspired nationalism.
6. Made Andrew Jackson a hero (after winning Battle of New Orleans, 1815).
War of 1812 - Years 1812-1814
Accomodate Try to please - Giving land, being peaceful, giving up Native American culture.
Assimilate Cultural diffusion
Pan-Indian Movement (Tecumseh) - All tribes would come together to fight European Americans - But diff. language, culture.
322. War of 1812 (1812-1814) A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
In exchange, the United States acquired the vast domain of Louisiana Territory, some 828,000 square miles of land. The treaty was dated April 30 and signed on May 2. In October, the U.S. Senate ratified the purchase, and in December 1803 France transferred authority over the region to the United States. France was slow in taking control of Louisiana, but in 1802 Spanish authorities, apparently acting under French orders, revoked a U.S.-Spanish treaty that granted Americans the right to store goods in New Orleans. In response, Jefferson sent future U.S. president James Monroe (1758-1831) to Paris to aid Livingston in the New Orleans purchase talks. In mid-April 1803, shortly before Monroe's arrival, the French asked a surprised Livingston if the United States was interested in purchasing all of Louisiana Territory. It is believed that the failure of France to put down a slave revolution in Haiti, the impending war with Great Britain and probable British naval blockade of France, and financial difficulties may all have prompted Napoleon to offer Louisiana for sale to the United States. Negotiations moved swiftly, and at the end of April the U.S. envoys agreed to pay $11,250,000 and assume claims of American citizens against France in the amount of $3,750,000. In exchange, the United States acquired the vast domain of Louisiana Territory, some 828,000 square miles of land. The treaty was dated April 30 and signed on May 2. In October, the U.S. Senate ratified the purchase, and in December 1803 France transferred authority over the region to the United States. n order to purchase New Orleans from France, Thomas Jefferson decided to make an alliance with his old enemy Britain
Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo
he hoped that the territory would one day help America to thwart the ambitions of the British
he did not want to drive America into the arms of the British
yellow fever killed many French troops
Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory frem France because he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional
Lewis and Clark's expedition through the Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the following: a rich harvest of scientific observations
hair-raising adventure stories
knowledge of the Indians of the region
BUT IT DID NOT YIELD TREATIES WITH SEVERAL INDIAN NATIONS
Lewis and Clark demonstrated the viability of an overland trail to the Pacific
Marbury v. Madison Occurring in 1803, the landmark case formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the US under Article 3 of the Constitution. It was the first time in Western history a court invalidated a law by declaring it unconstitutional, a process called judicial review. The landmark helped to define the checks and balances of the American form of government. This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered. Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents, but the court, with John Marshall as Chief Justice, denied Marbury's petition, holding that the part of the statute upon which he based his claim, the Judiciary Act of 1789, was unconstitutional. William Marbury (1762-1835) One of the famous "Midnight Judges", Marbury was to be appointed a Justice of the Peace in DC due to John Adams' work the night before he was to leave office. He was appointed there to give the Federalists a stronghold in the judicial branch. When he tried to take the office, he was blocked by James Madison when Thomas Jefferson took office. Marbury v. Madison resulted when he sued over his appointment of judge but not getting his paperwork saying he was a judge; case was in 1803. War Hawks Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Causes of the War of 1812 These included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
358. Why war against Britain rather than against France? Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to the Indians on the frontier and encouraging them to attack the U.S. Also, Britain held land near the U.S. which the Americans hoped to acquire, and a war with Britain would allow the U.S. to seize Florida from Britain's ally Spain. Although France had also seized American ships, France had agreed to lift its neutral trading restrictions, and the U.S. had resumed trade with France.
359. Federalist opposition to the War of 1812 The Federalist party was mainly composed of New England merchants, who wanted good relations with Britain and free trade. New England merchants met at the Hartford Convention in protest of the war and the U.S. government's restrictions on trade. 360. Naval engagements in the War of 1812 The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.Events of the War of 1812: Perry, Lake Erie, D.C., New Orleans Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war. New England's merchants, critics of the War of 1812, Essex Junto New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
Although many of the Founding Fathers acknowledged that slavery violated the core American Revolutionary ideal of liberty, their simultaneous commitment to private property rights, principles of limited government, and intersectional harmony prevented them from making a bold move against slavery. The considerable investment of Southern Founders in slave-based staple agriculture, combined with their deep-seated racial prejudice, posed ad In his initial draft of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson condemned the injustice of the slave trade and, by implication, slavery, but he also blamed the presence of enslaved Africans in North America on avaricious British colonial policies. Jefferson thus acknowledged that slavery violated the natural rights of the enslaved, while at the same time he absolved Americans of any responsibility for owning slaves themselves. The Continental Congress apparently rejected the tortured logic of this passage by deleting it from the final document, but this decision also signaled the Founders' commitment to subordinating the controversial issue of slavery to the larger goal of securing the unity and independence of the United States.
Nevertheless, the Founders, with the exception of those from South Carolina and Georgia, exhibited considerable aversion to slavery during the era of the Articles of Confederation (1781-89) by prohibiting the importation of foreign slaves to individual states and lending their support to a proposal by Jefferson to ban slavery in the Northwest Territory. Such antislavery policies, however, only went so far. The prohibition of foreign slave imports, by limiting the foreign supply, conveniently served the interests of Virginia and Maryland slaveholders, who could then sell their own surplus slaves southward and westward at higher prices. Furthermore, the ban on slavery in the Northwest tacitly legitimated the expansion of slavery in the Southwest.ditional obstacles to emancipation.Despite initial disagreements over slavery at the Constitutional Convention in 1787, the Founders once again demonstrated their commitment to maintaining the unity of the new United States by resolving to diffuse sectional tensions over slavery. To this end the Founders drafted a series of constitutional clauses acknowledging deep-seated regional differences over slavery while requiring all sections of the new country to make compromises as well. They granted slaveholding states the right to count three-fifths of their slave population when it came to apportioning the number of a state's representatives to Congress, thereby enhancing Southern power in the House of Representatives. But they also used this same ratio to determine the federal tax contribution required of each state, thus increasing the direct federal tax burden of slaveholding states. Georgians and South Carolinians won a moratorium until 1808 on any congressional ban against the importation of slaves, but in the meantime individual states remained free to prohibit slave imports if they so wished. Southerners also obtained the inclusion of a fugitive slave clause (see Fugitive Slave Acts) designed to encourage the return of runaway slaves who sought refuge in free states, but the Constitution left enforcement of this clause to the cooperation of the states rather than to the coercion of Congress.
Articles of Confederation this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage. Strength:First written agreement and first constitution of USA/ Congress has the power to deal with foreign affairs and authority to declare war, and make peace, alliance and sign treaties/ Congress has power to manage Native Indian affairs/ Supported the Congressional direction of the Continental Army/ It encouraged coordination and cooperation between different states and they can settle disputes between the states/ Allowed formation of new states that had a population of more than 60,000/The Department of Treasury, the Department of Postal Service and the Department of Foreign Affairs were established/ Postal service, admiralty court, coin money weakness: There was only one vote per state, regardless of its size/ No power to regulate commerce or trade between the states, each state could put taxes on trade between states/ national gov't didn't have power to tax. Revenue comes from states/ Couldn't force states to obey its laws and taxation was ignored because they could not be enforced/ No national army or navy/No national courts/Each state has own paper money/ No prez, lacked strength and solid leader/ No power to raise money to pay for action against border encroachments/ Any changes to Articles required unanimous vote leading to long delays in implementation War of 1812 (1812-1814) A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743-1803) A leader of the Haitian Revolution, he was a military genious and had great political skill. His leadership established the independent free black state of Haiti. Such a Revolution shook up the institution of slavery throughout the New World.
Federalists opposed it because they felt Jefferson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings 1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) An American explorer, soldier, and public administrator best known for his role in the Lewis and Clark expedition where the team explored the Louisiana Territory establish trade and sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, and claim the Pacific NW and Oregon territory for the US. He was appointed by Thomas Jefferson as governor of Upper Louisiana in 1806.
Sacajawea (1812-?) A Lemhi Shoshone woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expedition as an interpreter and guide.
The first foreign episode involved Jefferson's war with the Barbary pirates. For the previous century or so, Western nations had paid bribes to the Barbary states, to keep them from harassing American and merchant ships. When the Pasha of Tripoli raised his demands in 1801, Jefferson refused to pay the increase, sent warships to the Mediterranean, blockaded the small nation, and tried unsuccessfully to promote a palace coup in Tripoli. This was one of the first covert operations in American history. The war ended with agreements that involved one last payment of tribute, at least to Tripoli. Jefferson's action on this matter caused him to rethink the need for a well-equipped navy and halted his move to reduce the force to a mere token size.When Jefferson learned that Spain had secretly ceded Louisiana to France in 1800, he instructed his ministers to negotiate the purchase of the port of New Orleans and possibly West Florida. Jefferson strategically made this move in order to insure that American farmers in the Ohio River Valley had access to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River—the river was a key to the farmers' economic well-being, as they needed a vent for their surplus grain and meat. Even before the French took over Louisiana, the Spaniards had closed the Mississippi River in 1802. While Jefferson was known to be partial to the French, having the Emperor Napoleon's driving interests for world domination next door was not an attractive prospect; thus, Jefferson acted swiftly.
To his surprise, Napoleon, needing funds to finance a new European war with England, offered to sell Jefferson most of the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. His price of $15 million amounted to approximately four cents per acre for 828,000 square miles, doubling the size of the nation. Although Jefferson understood that the U.S. Constitution said nothing about the purchase of foreign territory, he set aside his strict constructionist ideals to make the deal—Congress approved the purchase five months after the fact. Jefferson then outfitted a twenty-five man expedition to explore the new lands. Led by his secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and Army Captain William Clark, these adventurers took two and one-half years to cover 8,000 miles. They traveled up the Missouri River, across the Continental Divide, and down the Columbia River to the Pacific before retracing their steps to St. Louis. The expedition is considered one of the great exploratory quests in human history.U.S. exports jumped from $66.5 million to $102.2 million. This service provided by American ships often involved reexporting, meaning European and colonial goods were picked up by American ships for transport to U.S. ports where they were reloaded onto other U.S. ships for export to Europe. During the same four-year period, reexports quadrupled, rising from $13.5 million to $58.4 million. Then, the bottom fell out of the trade industry as England and France each independently outlawed virtually all American commerce with their opponent.
The British navy also began seizing American ships with cargoes bound for Europe and impressing American sailors into the Royal Navy. The problem partly stemmed from the practice of British sailors jumping ship to join U.S. merchant vessels. Thousands of such deserters were considered fair prey by the British navy, which also routinely impressed American citizens on the pretext that they were British deserters, many of whom were in fact just that. Tensions mounted, and in the summer of 1807, the British warship Leopard fired on the American naval frigate Chesapeake, killing three Americans, when the ship refused boarding orders. Cries for war erupted throughout the nation.
Jefferson banned all British ships from U.S. ports, ordered state governors to prepare to call up 100,000 militiamen, and suspended trade with all of Europe. He reasoned that U.S. farm products were crucial to France and England and that a complete embargo would bring them to respect U.S. neutrality. By spring 1808, however, the Embargo Act that was passed by Congress in December 1807 had devastated the American economy. American exports plummeted from $108 million to $22 million. Economic desperation settled upon the mercantile Northeast. Finally, Jefferson backed off in the last months of his administration, and Congress replaced the Embargo Act with the Non-Intercourse Act, which banned trade with England and France but allowed it with all other countries. Eventually, the trade war would propel America into a fighting war with England during the administration of Jefferson's successor, James Madison.
James Madison:Just prior to James Madison's assumption of office, Congress passed the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809, which replaced Jefferson's failed embargo. It allowed the resumption of world trade with the exclusion of trade with England and France, thus barring French and British vessels from American ports. In the event that one of these nations removed its restrictions against American trade, the President was empowered to remove restrictions against that country, leaving the restrictions in place against the other. When neither country replied, Congress passed Macon's Bill No. 2, a perplexing law that removed all restrictions on American trade, including those against France and Britain, empowering the President to reimpose the restrictions on France or Britain only after one of them had repealed its restrictions on American trade and the other had failed to follow suit within three months. France met the challenge through the Cadore letter of August 1810, leading Madison to implement the provisions of Macon's Bill No. 2 in two stages, first in November 1810 and then in March 1811. The British insisted that American ships would continue to be seized until France lifted all restrictions on British trade. This proclamation essentially treated U.S. exports and the merchant marine as part of the British war strategy.Congress voted for military preparations and, in April 1812, a ninety-day embargo. When Madison came before that body with his list of complaints against the British, which included the continued impressment of American sailors, the arming of Indians who attacked American settlers, and the trade restrictions embodied in the British Orders in Council, the House lost little time debating the issue, voting for war on June 4. The Senate, however, debated for more than two weeks and would not sanction war until June 17. In a regionally divided vote, Congress declared war on Britain the following day.For Madison and the War Hawks, the declaration amounted to a second war of independence for the new Republic. It also provided the opportunity to seize Canada, drive the Spanish from west Florida, put down the Indian uprising in the Northwest, and secure maritime independence. In the preparations for battle, it became clear that most of the War Hawks wanted a land invasion of Canada above all else. Accordingly, the United States moved quickly to mount an offensive against Canada. The plan was aimed at separating Upper Canada (Ontario) from the Northwest, thus cutting off the Shawnees, Potawatomi, and other pro-British tribes from British support. Unfortunately, the move ended in disaster for American forces. By the fall of 1812, one American force had surrendered at Detroit, another had been defeated in western New York near Niagara Falls, and a third never even managed to get across the Niagara River. In just a few months, much of the Northwest Territory had fallen to British forces.
Things went better for the Americans in the spring of 1813. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's victory over the British fleet on the southwestern tip of Lake Erie, following the sacking of the Canadian capital city of York (present-day Toronto), enabled the United States to send a force commanded by William Henry Harrison, who would become the ninth President of the United States, against the Native American leader, Tecumseh, at the Battle of the Thames River in western Ontario. A vengeful force of Kentucky militia beat the Indians badly. The following spring, General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee militia, aided by Choctaw, Creek, and Cherokee allies, slaughtered what was left of the late Tecumseh's forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, deep in the Mississippi Territory (present-day Alabama).Events swung back against the Americans in late spring of 1814 as the British, who had now defeated Napoleon, went on the offensive. British ships raided American ports from Georgia to Maine, occupying half the district of Maine in the process. They also launched an invasion down the Champlain Valley that was repelled after an American naval victory on Lake Champlain in September 1814. British forces were more successful in targeting the nation's capital in Washington, D.C. The seat of American government fell, with British troops torching the White House and most other federal buildings in retaliation for the burning of the Canadian Parliament buildings in York. Their offensive stalled in Baltimore, however, as they were unable to blast their way past Fort McHenry. It was this battle, in fact, that inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner," which became the American national anthem in the 1930s.
Next, the British turned their attention to New Orleans, hoping to use the city as a bargaining chip in the coming peace negotiations. A massive British Army of 6,000 soldiers moved against the city, which was protected by Andrew Jackson's diverse command of 4,000 regular soldiers, Kentucky and Tennessee militia, and New Orleans citizens, including many free blacks and slaves and nearly 1,000 French pirates. When the British charged across an open field a few miles below the city on January 8, the entrenched Americans laid down such heavy fire that 2,000 Redcoats fell dead within minutes. Those who survived the first blast simply threw down their weapons and withdrew. Only seventy Americans died. Unbeknownst to either army, the battle came two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed in Ghent, Belgium.Although Madison fared poorly during the war, the victories against Tecumseh and at New Orleans lifted American spirits and returned Madison to a high point of public respect. If nothing else, the war swelled national pride, broke the Indian threat in the Northwest, and reaped tremendous political benefits for those lucky enough to have fought and survived. The Battle of the Thames River alone, for example, was used to produce a President of the United States (Harrison), a vice president, three governors of Kentucky, three lieutenant governors, four U.S. senators, and twenty congressmen. General Jackson, moreover, emerged as a genuine war hero, equal in public esteem to George Washington. The 2,200 dead Americans undoubtedly left behind families proud of the men who had won the Second American Revolution.
Not all Americans, however, had wrapped themselves in the flag of patriotism. New England states seldom met their quotas of militiamen, and many New England merchants and farmers traded freely with the enemy. After the British offensive included northern ports, some New England Federalists talked about seceding from the Union. In an attempt to block secessionist sentiment, moderate Federalists called a convention in Hartford, Connecticut, to propose a series of constitutional amendments protecting sectional rights. The convention leaders brought their proposals to Washington just as news broke of the Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent. To most of the nation, the participants of the Hartford Convention looked like traitors, or at least unpatriotic troublemakers. Their antiwar criticism and regional concerns helped to doom the weakened Federalist Party as a national entity on the political scene.
An insult to the American delegation when they supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. Foreign relations between the United States and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over French seizure of American merchant ships. The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United States and France was XYZ Affair 1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress. XYZ Affair A 1798 diplomatic episode occurring during the administration of John Adams that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. The event led to the Quasi-War. The Federalist Party used the national anger to build an army and pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to undermine the Democratic Republican Party. The event started with 3 French diplomats (X,Y,Z) who demanded major concessions from the US just to hold bilateral peace negotiations. The French demanded much money and a formal apology by President John Adams In the 1820s, America's population was still moving ever westward in search of opportunities and advancement. These people are sometimes depicted as being fiercely independent and strongly opposed to any kind of government control or interference. But in fact they received a lot of government help, directly and indirectly. Government-created national roads, such as the Cumberland Pike (1818) and the Erie Canal (1825), helped move farm produce to market. The federal government set up numerous land-grant colleges to train young people in agriculture, as well as agricultural experiment stations and an array of service agencies, all designed to further the education and welfare of the independent farmer.
Americans of this era shared a common desire to better themselves through economic participation. People who held differing opinions about how to achieve the same ends fought many of the political and economic struggles of the 19th century. The results of those struggles underscore the importance of both individualism and a degree of government involvement.Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution in America occurred between 1790 and 1820 as manufacturers and merchants reorganized work routines and built factories. Due to rapid construction of transportation and infrastructure by both state governments and individuals, goods became more widespread among the nation. Increased living standards as well.
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods.Industrialization came to the United States between 1790 and 1820 as manufacturers and merchants reorganized work routines and built factories. There was a rapid construction of transportation which allowed goods to become more widespread: Textiles, railroads, iron, coal.
Causes: War of 1812, Embargo, tariffs, transportation, invention, American System
Results: regional specialization, industrialization, changing gender roles, public vs. private sphere From 1800 to 1820, major changes in the United States transportation system included all the following except the growth of a large railroad network
From 1800 to 1820, major changes in the United States transportation system included -the development of a large merchant marine
-the invention and spread of steamboats
-the expansion of domestic shipping
-the building of turnpikes
In both England and the United States, the Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry
The Rush-Bagot agreement between the United States and Britain provided for American-British disarmament on the Great Lakes
In the early 1800s, women were often educated to be better wives and mothers
Jefferson sought to make his victory in the election of 1800 a "revolution" by reducing drastically the size and power of the national government
the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court ruled that an act of Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority
The beginning of the American Industrial Revolution during the early 1800s resulted from all of the following developments except monetary assistance from the federal government to new factories
The beginning of the American Industrial Revolution during the early 1800s resulted -technological advances imported from England
-the appearance of better transportation systems
-new inventions such as the cotton gin
-the development of advanced steam engines
The acknowledged leader of American literature in the early 1700s, the man who created such characters as Rip van Winkle and Ichabod Crane, was
By 1820, the United States had seen significant progress in transportation in the form of significantly improved river steamboats
Between 1800 and 1820, the American textile industry experienced all of the following developments except it produced no significant inventions or technological advances of its own
Between 1800 and 1820, the American textile industry experienced -it expanded tremendously both before and after the war
-it saw the opening of the first American mill to combine spinning and weaving under one roof
-it suffered from the British dumping underpriced goods on the American market
-it experienced less foreign competition after the tariff of 1816
Chief Justice John Marshall: decision Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. McCulloch v. Maryland The Supreme Court declared that the Bank was constitutional and therefore that no state should tax it Gibbons v. Ogden This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.That power was reserved to states. States are sovereign and may tax any bank within its borders. What was Supreme Court justice Marshall's reasoning? Congress acts under explicit and implied powers. Explicit power to tax, borrow, and spend implies implicit power to create a US bank. "Necessary and Proper" gives Congress right to do what is needed to carry out explicit powers. What did the Supreme Court state about a state's power to tax the federal government? And since "the power to tax is the power to destroy" and an inferior cannot destroy a superior power. Maryland's tax is unconstitutional. Was it constitutional for congress to create a national bank? Constitutional McCulloch v Md. established what principal? The supremacy of federal law over state law. Cohens v. Virginia, 1821 - Situation: Cohens was found guilty by the state court of VA of selling lottery tickets illegally
- Constitutional Issue: Which court holds precedence?
- Finding of the Court: The conviction was upheld
- Impact of the Decision: Asserted that the Supreme Court is stronger than the state courts
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 - Situation: NY wanted to issue a steamboat license to allow Ogden to go between NY and NJ (giving NY a monopoly on the area), and Gibbons had been doing so without a license.
- Constitutional Issue: Does navigation count as "commerce," and can Congress therefore regulate it? Do both the federal and state government have power?
- Finding of the Court: The "commerce" encompasses 'navigation;' Only Congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce
- Impact of the Decision: Broadened the meaning of "commerce;" Officially asserted/gave Congress the power to regulate commerce; reasserted federal power over state power