1,569 terms

Psychology GRE Supercombo

Period of time in which female is sexually receptive
G. Stanley Hall
Father of developmental psychology
William James
Early functionalist, coined stream of consciousness
Letters that sounded similar were most likely to be confused with one another - rehearsal in STM has an acoustic component
Kurt Lewin
Founder of social psychology; leadership styles (laissez-faire, democratic, autocratic), and field theory, regions (each contains an attitude towards something) & boundaries (fluid, more differentiation and permeable connections; vs. rigid, little differentiation and influence between systems and often indicate high stress situations or mental retardation)
Field theory
Behavior must be derived from a totality of coexisting facts, which make up a "dynamic field", which means that the state of any part of the field depends on every other part of it. Behavior depends on the present field rather than on the past or the future.
McCollough effect
Irving Janis
Edward Hall
Franz Joseph Gall
Phrenology, associates lumps on head with personality traits
Telegraphic speech
Children's earliest sentences frequently omit many words or word endings
Children's earliest phrases, in which a complete thought is expressed through a single word or phrase
Frederic Bartlett
Reconstructive memory
Albert Ellis
Rational-emotive therapy (RET); therapist challenges irrational beliefs, directive
Secondary gains
Perceived advantages afforded a patient due to an illness, frequently associated with hypochondria
D.W. Winnicott
Object-relations theory
Object-relations theory
In psychotherapy, analyst must serve as an object onto which hostile impulses are projected
Charles Sherrington
First inferred existence of synpases
Freud, uncovering and discharge of a repressed emotion; an essential aspect of therapeutic process; catharsis is the release of this energy
Frederick Nietzsche
Will to power, driving force
J.P. Guilford
Convergent and divergent thinking
Henry Murray
Thematic Apperception Test, need to achieve
Instinctual drift
Richard Lazarus
Coping styles; problem-focused and emotion-focused
Jacob Moreno
Psychodrama, patient acts out conflicts
Harry Stack Sullivan
"Significant other"; Interpersonal psychoanalysis and parataxical integrations; 3 modes of existence, self system, you-I interlocking behaviours - prototaxic (primitive, needy, infantile), parataxic distortion (stuck on past ~transference), syntaxic (mature emotional interaction)
Gordon Allport
Functional autonomy, enjoyable activity becomes autotelic; distinguished idiographic and nomothetic approaches, focused on idiographic
Darley & Latane
Diffusion of Responsibility
Emmert's law
Explains size constancy; the farther the object appears, the more scaling brain will compensate for retinal size by enlarging our perception
John Bowlby
Developmental psychology, attachment
McClelland and Rumelhart
Parallel Distributed Processing
George Berkeley
Depth perception cues
Olds and Milner
Implanted electrodes in septal region of rats' brains, rats found stimulation so pleasurable they preferred it to eating even after 24 hrs without food
Francis Galton
Traits and eugenics; also first to study individual differences, led to James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
Individual differences (from Francis Galton); previous psychologists only interested in finding commonalities amonst different people; fostered mental testing movement in US
Dual-code hypothesis; concrete info encoded visually and verbally, abstract info encoded only verbally; the better the word is at evoking an image, the better the recall
Method of savings, assess amount of material retained from a prior learning task with nonsense syllables; criticism that convenient example does not necessarily generalize to all learning or memory
Zipf's law
Inverse relationship with length of a word and how often it is used
Fritz Heider
Balance theory, attribution theory
Machiavellian personality
Manipulative and deceitful
Studied under Wundt; structuralism, introspection
George Sperling
Partial report procedure 3x3 array, sensory memory can store 9 items; contrasted with whole-report procedure 3x3 array thought only could store 4 items
Founder of Gestalt psychology; used self to study phi and other phenomena
Gave young children nonsense words and asked them to supply past tense, able to even though they never heard the words before; innate process to drive language development
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Necessary to choose between two options she'd rather avoid (between 2 undesirable situations)
Alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder
Korsakoff's syndrome: anterograde amnesia, confabulations, thiamine deficiency
John Swets
Signal detection theory
Alfred Adler
Inferiority/superiority; birth order; stressed importance of immediate social imperatives of family and society
Introduced concept of mental age
Aggressive behaviour distinction between septum, and amygdala/hypothalamus
Septum inhibits aggression, damage leads to sham rage; amygdala/hypothalamus promotes defensive/fighting aggression, damage leads to decrease in aggressive behaviour
Two-factor theory of emotion
Schachter and Singer, ambiguous physiological arousal uses environment to interpret emotion
Thomas Szasz
Mental disorders not really illnesses but traits/behaviours that differ from the cultural norm, forcing them to change rather than dealing with societal causes
Weber's constant
Difference threshold/intensity of standard stimulus
George Miller
7+/-2 in STM
Karen Horney
Strategies people use in relationships to overcome basic anxiety and attain a degree of security (i.e. moving toward/against/away from people)
Robert Zajonc
Social facilitation
Albert Bandura
Vicarious learning, "Bobo doll"
Harry Harlow
Contact comfort, "learning to learn"
Receiver-operating characteristic curves
Graphically summarize responses in signal detection
Freud; intrapsychic conflicts between id, ego, superego; anxiety
General Paresis
Brain disease caused by untreated syphilis
von Meduna
Used electroconvulsive therapy to treat schizophrenia
Hermann Witkin
Relationship between personality and perception of the world; field in/dependence; rod-and-frame test, later embedded figures test
Petty and Cacioppo
Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion; central and peripheral route to persuasion, if issue is meaningful/relevant, it is the central route, and we follow more attentively
Arnold Gesell
Believed maturation (nature) and not environment (nurture) was primary in development
Dorothea Dix
Advocate of treating hospitalized mentally ill humanely
Chimps & insight
Carol Gilligan
Criticized Kohlberg's moral development, idea that women adopt an interpersonal orientation netiher more/less mature than the principle-bound thinking of men
Julian Rotter
Locus of control
Craik and Lockhart
Levels/depth-of-processing-theory; physical, acoustical, semantic; the deeper the processing, the greater the effort, the better memory of material
Sterotaxic instrument
Aids in implanting electrodes at specific coordinates in animal's brain
Karl von Frisch
Honeybees dance
Social exchange theory
Person weights rewards and costs of interacting with another; to equity theory
Equity theory
We consider not only our own but others' rewards and costs, prefer ratio same as the other
Gain-loss principle
Evaluation that changes has more impact than one that remains constant
Theory of need complementarity
People choose relationships so they mutually satisfy each other's needs
Social comparison theory
Affiliation is related to need to evaluate own opinions and abilities
Walter Mischel
Believes human behaviour is largely determined by the situation rather than traits
Starke Hathaway
One of the developers of MMPI
Inoculation theory
George Kelly
People are intuitive scientists, who devise and test predictions about behaviour of people in their lives; suggested fundamental characteristic of human personality was the need to know and control their environment
"Paradoxical diarrhea", involuntary fecal soiling in already toilet trained children
Supertitious behaviour example
Pigeon rewarded every 20s regardless of behaviour, by the end, frequency of grooming responses increased
Cognitive theory of gender-role development would state...
Children are motivated to act in gender-consistent ways because they try to conform to their own gender schemas
Edward Tolman
"purposive behaviourism" (behaviour towards a goal objected by pure behaviourists), "sign-gestalt learning"; rats in mazes; expectancy-value theory
Erich Fromm
Social psychologist, critical theory
Provision of sufficient support at first, slowly removed to promote own cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning skills and behaviour
Harold Kelley
Notion of consensus: behaviour across people depend on 1) consistency, 2) distinctiveness, 3) consensus
Martin Fishbein and Icek Aizen
Theory of reasoned action/planned behaviour; most predictive persuasion theories, grounded in various theories of attitudes (learning, expectancy-values, consistency, attribution)
Theory of planned behaviour (Fishbein) = link between attitudes and behaviour, predict behaviour based on (1) perceived behavioural control + (2) attitude toward behaviour + (3) behavioural intentions
Theory of reasoned action (Aizen) = Extends theory and adds "perceived behavioural control" from self-efficacy; if evaluation suggests behaviour as positive and others want this, motivation is increased
Wada test
"Intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure"; barbituate injected to establish cerebral language and memory representation of each hemisphere
CSF drained...X-ray
Resting potential of retina
Measures changes in volume in an organ or whole body
Jerome Kagan
Temperament is stable over time, certain behaviours in infancy are predictive of adolescence; some young children have stronger physiological reactions to new situations than others, these children are more likely to display shyness
Instrumental aggression
Intends to harm to achieve another goal; harm is the means of securing a reward/goal; contrasted with hostile aggression where harm is not incidental
Clark Hull
Drive-reduction theory; motives can be described as a search for homeostasis (e.g. mice will learn to negotiate a maze to obtain a substance with nutritional value)
Large bilateral lesion in orbitofrontal cortex causes behaviour disturbances...likely symptom?
Responds appropriately to hypothetical moral dilemmas, but fails to exhibit normal social behaviour in own life
An argument central to view that innate factors are important in language acquisition
Linguistic cues that are available in environment are too limited to enable language learning
Brain structure that inhibits parental behaviours in rodents
Medial amygdala
When reading, literate adults vary least in...
The number of letters perceived during a given eye fixation
Relationship between emotional disclosure and immune functioning indicates...
Expressing negative emotions is associated with increased immune function, whereas inhibiting negative emotions is associated with decreased immune functioning
activating effects of sex hormones
Temporary, reversible effects that sex hormones have on sexual drive
differentiating effects of sex hormones
Effects of sex hormones that create the long lasting structural differences between males and females of a species
Additive colour mixing
Mixing of coloured lights by superimposing to reflect off same surface; each light adds to total set of wavelengths reflected to the eye
Subtractive colour mixing
Mixing of pigments where each pigment absorbs a different set of wavelengths of light that would otherwise be reflected to the eye
Personality characteristic that corresponds with a collectivist manner of thinking and acting, highly concerned with personal relationships and interest of the groups to which one belongs
Personality characteristic that corresponds with an individualist manner of thinking and acting, concerned more with one's own interests and independence than with the interests of the group
Altruistic punishment
Punishment administered by one person to another that benefits the group as a whole but costs the punisher more than he gains
Alzheimer's disease
Characterized by progressive deterioration in cognitive functioning and presence of amyloid plaques (deposits in brain); related to Acetylcholine
Part of limbic system and is important for evaluating emotional and motivational significance of stimuli and generating emotional responses
In ethology and comparative psychology, any similarity among species that is not due to common ancestry, but has evolved independently because of similarity in habitats or lifestyles
In ethology and comparative psychology, any similarity among species that exists because of common ancestry
Arcuate nucleus
A nucleus in hypothalamus that plays a critical role in control of appetite
Artificial selection
Deliberate selective breeding
Link between two memories or mental concepts, such that recall of one tends to promote recall of the other
Association areas
Areas of the cerebral cortex that receive input from the primary or secondary sensory areas for more than one sensory modality (e.g. vision and hearing) and are involved in associating this input with stored memories, in the processes of perception, thought, and decision making
Auditory masking
Phenomenon by which one sound (usually a lower-frequency sound) tends to prevent the hearing of another sound (usually higher frequency)
Basal ganglia
The large masses of gray matter in the brain that lie on each side of the thalamus; important for initiation and coordination of deliberate movements
Refers to random variability in research results, contrasted with bias
Binocular disparity
Depth cue; the farther away the object, the more similar are the two views of it
Bipolar cells
Neurons in retina that receive input from receptors (rods and cones) and form synapses on ganglion cells (which form optic nerve)
Bipolar I disorder
The most severe type of bipolar disorder, characterized by at least one episode of mania and one episode of major depression
Bipolar II disorder
The type of bipolar disorder in which the manic phase is less extreme (hypomania) than in Bipolar I disorder
The primitive, stalklike portion thought of as an extension of the spinal cord into the head; consists of medulla, pons, midbrain
Broca's aphasia
Loss of language production due to damage of Broca's area; characterized by telegraphic speech in which meaning is usually clear but small words and endings that serve grammatical purposes are missing; also called non-fluent aphasia
Wernicke's aphasia
Loss of language comprehension due to damage of Wernicke's area; speech typically retains grammatical structure but loses its meaning due to speaker's failure to provide meaningful content words (n., v., adj., adv.); also called fluent aphasia
Catatonic behaviour
A symptom of schizophrenia, unresponsiveness to environment; may be active resistance, excited motor activity, or complete lack of movement or awareness of environment
Central drive system
According to the central-state theory of drives, a set of neurons in the brain that when active, most directly promotes a specific motivational state, or drive
Central-state theory of drives
Theory that the most direct physiological bases for motivational states, or drives, lie in neural activity. According to most versions, different drives correspond to activity in different, localizable sets of neurons
Central executive
In Baddeley's theory, a component of the mind responsible for coordinating all the activities of working memory and for bringing new information into working memory
The relatively large, conspicuous, convoluted portion for the brain attached to the rear side of the brainstem; important for coordination of rapid movements
Cochlear implant
A type of hearing aid used to treat sensorineural deafness; transforms sounds into electrical impulses and directly stimulates tips of auditory neurons in cochlea
Sensorineural deafness
Deafness due to damage to cochlea, the hair cells, or auditory neurons
Conduction deafness
Deafness that occurs when ossicles of middle ear become rigid and cannot carry sounds inward from the tympanic membrane to cochlea
In behavioural genetics research, an index of heritability that is found by identifying a set of individuals who have a particular trait or disorder and then determining the percentage of some specific class of their relatives (e.g. identical twins) who have the same trait or disorder
Content morphemes
Words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, that are most essential to the meaning of a sentence
Grammatical morphemes
The class of words, suffixes, and prefixes that serve primarily to fill out the grammatical structure of a sentence rather than to carry its main meaning
Contingency management
In behaviour therapy, any systematic alteration in relationship (contingency) by operant conditioning designed to alter client's behaviour positively
Control processes
Int he modal model of the mind, mental processes that operate on information in the memory stores and move information from one store to another
Conversion disorder
A category of somatoform disorder in which the person, for psychological reasons, loses some bodily function
Creole language
A new language, with grammatical rules, that develops from a pidgin language in colonies established by people who had different native languages
Pidgin language
A primitive system of communication that emerges when people with different native languages colonize the same region; uses words from various native languages and has either no or minimal grammatical structure
Descriptive study
Any study in which the researcher describes behaviour of an individual or set of individuals without systematically investigating relationships between specific variables
Deterministic fallacy
The mistaken belief that genes control, or determine, behaviour in a manner that is independent of environmental influences
Differential lighting of surfaces
A pictorial cue for perceiving depth in which the amount of light reflecting on different surfaces indicates position of objects relative to light source
The philosophical theory that two distinct systems - material body and immaterial soul- are involved in control of behaviour
Hobbe's theory that nothing exists but matter and energy
Idea that all human knowledge and thought ultimately come from sensory experience
Idea that certain elementary ideas are innate to the mind and do not need to be gained through experience
Fechner's law
The idea that magnitude of sensory experience is directly proportional to the log of the physical magnitude of the stimulus; contrasts Stevens's power law
Stevens's power law
Idea that the intensity of a sensation is directly proportional tot he intensity of the physical stimulus raised by a constant power; contrasts Fechner's law
Five factor model of personality
Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Ganglion cells
Sensory neurons for vision; cell bodies in the retina and axons run by way of optic nerve into brain
Gate-control theory
Melzack and Wall's theory that pain will be experienced only if input from peripheral pain neurons passes a "gate" located where pain-carrying neurons enter spinal cord/lower brainstem
Heritability coefficient
Variance due to genes divided by total variance
In limbic system, essential for encoding explicit memories for LTM
Lying just below thalamus, connected directly to pituitary gland and limbic system; important for regulation of motivation, emotion, and internal physiological conditions of the body
Impression management
Entire set of ways by which people consciously or unconsciously attempt to influence other's impressions of them
Informational influence
The class of social influence that derives from the use of others' behaviour or opinions to form own judgment about the objective nature of an event or situation
Normative influence
The class of social influence that derives from people's concern about what others will think of them if they behave in a certain way or express a certain belief
Inner ear
Contains cochlea (hearing) and vestibular apparatus (balance)
Insufficient-justification effect
A change in attitude that serves to justify an action that seems unjustified in the light of the previously held attitude
Language-acquisition support system (LASS)
Simplification of language and use of gestures that occur when speaking to young children, which helps learn language; complements LAD
Law of association by contiguity
Aristotle's principle that if 2 environmental events (stimuli) occur at the same time or right after the other (contiguously), those events will be linked together in the mind
Law of association by similarity
Aristotle's principle that objects, events, or ideas that are similar to one another become associated in the person's mind, such that the thought of one tends to elicit the thought of the other
Law of complementarity
Observation that certain pairs of limited-wavelength lights that produce different colours alone will produce perception of white when mixed
A hormone produced by fat cells that acts to inhibit hunger and regulate body weight
Level of analysis
The type of causal process that is referred to in explaining some phenomenon. In psychology, a given type of behaviour might be explained at the neural, genetic, evolutionary, learning, cognitive, social, cultural, or developmental level
Limbic system
An interconnected set of brain structures (including amygdala and hippocampus) that form a circuit wrapped around thalamus and basal ganglia; important for regulation of emotion an motivation and involved in formation of LTM
Linguistic relativity
Whorfian hypothesis
In genetics, a position on a chromosome that contains DNA of a single gene
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
A process by which repeated activation of synapses results in strengthening of those synapses; learning
Low-ball technique
Sales trick in which sales person suggests a low price for item being sold, and when potential customer agreed to buy it at that price, pretends to discover item cannot be sold for that price
Medial forebrain bundle
A bundle of neurons that runs from midbrain to basal ganglia and other forebrain areas
Lowest portion of brainstem, at one end the spinal cord and at the other the pons; responsible with the pons for organizing reflexes more complex than spinal reflexes
Upper portion of brainstem, lower end is the pons and upper end is thalamus; contains neural centers that organize basic movement patterns
Moon illusion
Illusion by which the moon appears larger when seen near the horizon and smaller when near zenith, even though objectively the same size and distance from view
Muller-Lyer illusion
A visual size illusion <--> >--<
Naturalistic fallcy
The mistaken belief that whatever is natural is right, good, or moral
Negative contrast effect
In operant conditioning, the decline in response rate, when the size of a reinforcer is reduced, to a rate below that which occurs for subjects that had been receiving the smaller reinforcer all along
Positive contrast effect
In operant conditioning, the increase in response rate, when size of reinforcer is increased, to a rate that increases above that which occurs for subjects had been receiving the larger reinforcer all along
A chemical substance that is similar to NT in that it is secreted from axon terminals of neurons but is classed as a hormone because it is secreted into blood vessels rather than to other neurons
Non-regulatory drive
Any motivational state (e.g. sex drive) that serves some function other than that of preserving some constancy of the body's internal environment; contrasted with regulatory drive
Nucleus accumbens
A nucleus in the basal ganglia that is a part of the brain's reward mechanism
Interposition (depth cue)
Piaget's term for a reversible action that can be performed either in reality or mentally upon some objects or set of objects (e.g. rolling a clay ball into sausage - sausage can be rolled back again)
Perpetuating causes of a mental disorder
Consequences of a mental disorder that keep disorder going once it begins
Precipitating causes of a mental disorder
Events that most immediately bring on a mental disorder in one who is sufficiently predisposed
Predisposing causes of a mental disorder
Those conditions in place well before onset of a mental disorder and that make the person susceptible to the disorder (can be genetic, childhood experiences, sociocultural environment)
Personal myth
The ever-changing self-told story that gives a sense of direction and meaning to one's life, often fit within a own framework/belief
Phenomenological reality
Humanistic term for each person's conscious understanding of his/her world
Phonological loop
In Baddeley's theory, a component of working memory responsible for holding verbal information
Mating system; 1 female with more than 1 male
Mating system; members of a group consisting of more than 1 male and more than 1 female mate with one another
Mating system; 1 male with more than one female
Portion of brainstem, lower end medulla and upper end midbrain; with the medulla is responsible for organizing reflexes more complex than spinal reflexes
Ponzo illusion
Preattentive processing
Analysis at an unconscious level, in which the mind determines which stimuli are worth passing into working memory
Proximate explanations
Explanations of behaviour that state the immediate environmental conditions or mechanisms within the individual that cause the behaviour to occur
Ultimate explanations
Functional explanations of behaviour that state the role that the behaviour plays or once played in survival and reproduction - why the potential for the behaviour was favoured by natural selection
Peptide YY3-36 (PYY)
An appetite-suppressing hormone produced by cells int he small intestine
Reciprocity norm
Widespread sense of obligation that people have to return favours
Reference group
A group with whom an individual compares self for self-evaluation
Self-conscious emotions
Feelings of guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride; linked to thoughts about self or one's own actions
Sensory adaptation
The temporary decrease in sensitivity to sensory stimulation when sensory system is stimulated for a period of time, and the temporary increase in sensitivity when a sensory system is not stimulated for a period of time (e.g. dark and light adaptation)
Sensory coding
Process by which information about the quality and quantity of a stimulus is preserved int he pattern of APs sent through sensory neurons to the CNS
Sensory-specific satiety
The phenomenon by which a person or animal who is satiated on one food still has appetite for another food with different taste
Social dilemma
A situation in which an action will (a) benefit individual who takes it, (b) harm individuals who don't, and (c) cause more harm than benefit to everyone if everyone takes it
Social interference
Tendency to perform a task worse in front of others than when alone; contrasted with social facilitation
Social pain
Discomfort people feel when socially rejected or when they lose a valued companion
Social referencing
Process by which infants use nonverbal emotional expressions of a caregiver as cues to guide their behaviour
Set of senses that derive from the whole body (e.g. from skin, muscles, and tendons) as opposed to senses that come from special sensory organs of the head
Stereotype threat
Feeling that occurs, during the taking of a test, when a person is reminded of the fact that he belongs to a group that, according to a culturally prominent stereotype, is expected to perform poorly
Stress-induced analgesia
Reduced sensitivity to pain when one is subjected to highly arousing (stressful) conditions
Brain structure that sits directly on brainstem; sensory relay station (except olfaction), connecting incoming sensory tracts to special sensory areas of cerebral cortex
Three-primaries law
Observationt hat one can choose 3 limited-wavelength lights (primaries) and by mixing in differing proportions, match any colour the eye can see
Tonotopic organization
Manner by which neural cells in primary auditory area are organized. Each neuron maximally responsive to sounds of a particular frequency, systematically arranged such that high-frequency tones activate neurons at one end of this cortical area, and low-frequency at the other
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
A procedure for temporarily altering the responsiveness of a localized area of the cerebral cortex by creating a magnetic field over that brain area
Vestigial characteristics
Inherited characteristics of anatomy or behaviour no longer useful to species but presumably useful earlier in evolution
Viuospatial sketchpad
In Baddeley's theory, a component of working memory responsible for holding visual and spatial information
A surgically induced brain lesion
A principle of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Occurs when cognitive structures are modified because new information or new experiences do not fit into existing cognitive structures
A neurotransmitter found in both CNS and PNS linked to Alzheimer's, and used to transmit nerve impulses to muscles
Irrational fear of heights
ACT model (Adaptive Control of Thought)
Model that describes memory in terms of procedural and declarative memory
Actor-observer effect
Tendency of actors to see observer behaviour as due to external factors (situational) and tendency of observers to attribute actors' behaviours to internal characteristics (disposition)
Impairments in perceptual recognition
Irrational fear of being in places/situations where escape might be difficult
Alternate-form method
In psychometrics, using two or more different forms of a test to determine reliability
Analogy of inoculation
McGuire's analogy that people can be psycholgically inoculated against the "attack" of persuasive communications by first exposing them to a weakened attack
A principle of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. It is the process of understanding new information in relation to prior knowledge, or existing schemata
Atkinson-Shiffin model
Stage model of memory that involves 3 memory structures (sensory, STM, LTM)
Attachment bond
Evidence of a preference for the primary caregiver and wariness of strangers
Attribution theory
Fritz Heider's theory that people tend to infer causes of other people's behaviour as either dispositional or situational
Autokinetic effect
An illusion that occurs when a spot of light appears to move erratically in a dark room, simply because there is no frame of reference; also eye movements
Balance theory
Fritz Heider's consistency theory that is concerned with balance and imbalance in the ways in which 3 elements are related
Behavioural stimulants
Class of drugs that increase behavioural activity by increasing motor activity or by counteracting fatigue - stimulate receptors for dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin
Bekesy's traveling wave theory
High-frequency sounds maximally vibrate basilar membrane near beginning of cochlea close to oval window, and low frequences maximally vibrate near apex of cochlea
Boomerang effect
In theories of attitude persuasion, it is an attitude change in the opposite direction of the persuader's message
A term from Piaget's theory, it is the endency for preoperational children to be able to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon
An antipsychotic thought to block receptor sites for dopamine; effective in treating delusions, hallucinations, and agitation associated with schizophrenia
Aka parallel distribution processing; theory of information processing that is analogous to a complex neural network, as opposed to serial processing
Consistency theories
Theoretical perspectives form social psychology that hold that people prefer consistency between attitudes and behaviours, and will change or resist changing attitudes based on this preference
Conversion disorders
Previously "hysteria", disorders characterized by unexplained symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory functions
Method of controlling potential effects of confounds (e.g. order effects) by making sure experimental and control are as similar as possible
Criterion validity
How well test can predict individual's performance on an established test of the same skill or knowledge area
Demand characteristics
Cues that suggest to subjects what the researcher expects from research participants
Depersonalization disorder
A dissociative disorder that involves a sense of detachment from the self despite an intact sense of reality
THe second stage in firing cycle; occurs when membrane's electrical charge decreases - anytime membrane voltage moves to a neutral charge of 0 mV
Deviation quotients
A deviation IQ score tells us how far away a person's score is from the average score for that age group
Dissociative disorders
Disorders characterized by an avoidance of stress by escaping from personality identity
Dissociative fugue
A dissociative disorder that involves amnesia plus a sudden, unexpected move away from home or location of usual daily activities
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A dissociative disorder characterized by 2 + personalities that recurrently take control of a person's behaviour (formerly Multiple Personality Disorder)
Distal stimulus
In perception, the actual object or event in reality, as opposed to its perceived image
Domain-referenced testing
Also criterion-referenced testing, concerned with question of what test-taker knows about a specified content domain
Double-bind hypothesis
A psychosocial theory of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia received contradictory messages from primary caregivers during childhood, and these led them to see perceptions of reality as unreliable
Duplexity, or duplicity theory of vision
Theory holding that retina contains two kinds of photoreceptors (cones and rods)
Ego psychology
Branch of psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes role of ego as autonomous
Embryonic stage
Third stage during prenatal development, refers to period which embryo increases in size dramatically, develops a human appearance with limb motion, produces androgen in testes of male embryos, and develops nerve cells in spine
Emmert's law
A law describing relationship between size constancy and apparent distance - the farther away object appears, the more scaling the brain will compensate for retinal size by enlarging our perception of the object
Exchange theory
Tendency to evaluate interactions and relationships in terms of relative costs and benefits
External validity
In research methodology, it refers to how generalizable results of an experiment are
Process of removing various parts of the brain and then observing behavioural consequences
Fechner's law
A law that expresses relationship between intensity of sensation and intensity of stimulus, and states that sensation increases more slowly as intensity increases
Fetal period
Last stage of prenatal development, its onset marked by beginning of measurable electrical activity in brain
Fictional finalism
A concept in Alfred Adler's theory of personality, the notion that an individual is motivated more by expectations of the future based on a subjective or fictional estimate of life's values, than by past experiences
Field independence-field dependence
A personality style characterized by an ability/inability to distinguish experience from its context
Follicle-stimulating hormone
A hormone that is secreted by pituitary gland to stimulate growth of an ovarian follicle, which is a small protective sphere surrounding the egg or ovum
Functional autonomy
A given activity or form of behaviour may become an end or goal in itself, regardless of its original reason for existence
Generation-recognition model
Model that proposes recall tasks tap the same basic process of accessing information in memory as recognition tasks, but requiring an additional step
Germinal period
A period of rapid cell division during prenatal development tthat lasts approximately 2 weeks and ends with implantation of the cellular mass into the uterine wall
Gonadoptropic hormones
Hormones produced by the pituitary during puberty that activate a dramatic increase in production of hormones by testes or ovaries
Haloperidol (Haldol)
An antipsychotic drug thought to block receptors for dopamine, making it effective in treating delusions, hallucinations, and agitation in schizophrenia; along with Phenothiazine and Thorazine
Induced motion
An illusion of movement occurring when everything around the spot of light is moved
Innate releasing mechanism (IRM)
A mechanism in the animal's nervous system that serves to connect the stimulus with the right response
A theory that suggests there is a 1-to-1 correspondence between the object in perceptual field and pattern of stimulation in the brain
Levels/depth-of-processing theory
Proposed by Craik and Lockart, the theory suggests only one memory system, analyzed in 1 of 3 stages: physical (visual), acoustical, or semantic
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
Whorfian hypothesis, theory proposing our perception of reality is determined by language content
Luteinizing hormone
A hormone associated with ovulation
MAO inhibitors
Behavioural stimulants that reduce depression by inhibiting monoamine oxidase, which noramlly breaks down and deactivates norepinephrine and serotonin
Mental chronometry
A cognitive psychology research method of measuring response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations
Method of savings
A research technique for studying memory by measuring amount of time it takes to learn material and comparing it to amount of time it takes to relearn the same material later. Decrease in time represents an indication of original learning.
A behavioural stimulant that increases alertness and decreases motor activity, used to treat ADD. Aka Ritalin.
Nonequivalent group design
Researcher doesn't use random assignment, control not necessarily equivalent to experimental group
Order effects
A problem in research design when results are attributed to sequence of tasks rather than to IV
Overjustification effect
Tendency of people to stop liking something previously enjoyed because of receiving reward for the behaviour
Paivio's dual-code hypothesis
Information can be encoded visually and verbally. Abstract information tends to be encoded verbally, whereas concrete information tends to be encoded visually and verbally.
Paradoxical intervention
A therapeutic technique that appears to contradict the therapeutic needs
Evolutionary development in humans
Antipsychotic drugs thought to block receptors for dopamine, treating delusions, hallucinations, and agitation in schizophrenia; along with Haloperidol and Thorazine
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
A degenerative disease of the nervous system occurring when child lacks the enzyme to digest phenylalanine, an amino acid found in milk and other foods
Phi phenomenon
An illusion of movement that occurs when two dots flashed in different locations on a screen seconds apart are perceived as one moving dot
Study of psychological functions of areas in the brain
Premack principle
A more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity
Prodromal phase
Phase before schizophrenia is actually diagnosed, characterized by poor adjustment
A hormone produced and secreted by the ovary to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg
Protection-motivation theory
A social psychology theory proposing an appeal to fear produces attitude change under particular conditions
Proximal stimulus
In perception, it is the information our sensory receptors receive about the object
Rational-emotive behavioural therapy
A therapeutic approach that focuses on changing irrational belief systems
Reciprocity hypothesis
The hypothesis that we tend to like those who seem to like us, and dislike those who dislike us
Regional cerebral blood flow (rcbf)
A noninvasive procedure that detects broad patterns of neural activity based on increased blood flow to different parts of the brain
Role theory
A theoretical perspective from social psychology that people are aware of the social roles they are expected to fill, and behaviour can be understood and attributed to the adoption of those social roles
Sedative-hypnotic drugs
A class of drugs that slow down functioning of CNS by facilitating action of GABA
Self-awareness theory
The theory that our behaviour is influenced by an awareness of the self, and that there are certain situations that trigger a focus on ourselves (mirrors, cameras, recording devices)
Self-disclosure theory
A theory that refers to those conditions that prohibit or facilitate the process of revealing personal or intimate aspects of oneself
Self-perception theory
Daryl Bem's theory that when attitudes about something are weak or ambiguous, people observe own behaviour and then attribute attitudes to themselves
Semantic feature-comparison model
Proposed by Smith, Shoben, and RIps, suggests that concepts are represented by sets of features, some required, some typical
Stevens' power law
A law that relates intensity of stimulus to intensity of sensation
Tardive dyskinesia
Resting tremors and jerky motor movements caused by disruptions of dopamine transmission
Theory of motivation
A drive-reduction theory proposed by Clark Hull suggesting that the goal of behaviour is to reduce biological drives - behavioural reinforcement occurs whenever a biological drive is reduced
Theory of multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner's theory of 7 intelligence factors/abilities: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal
An antipsychotic drug thought to block receptor sites for dopamine, making it effective in treating delusions, hallucinations, agitation in schizophrenia; along with Haloperidol and Phenothiazine
Triarchic theory
Robert Sternberg's theory of intelligence suggests 3 aspects: componential (e.g. test performance), experiential (creativity), and contextual (street smarts/business sense)
Tricyclic antidepressants
Behavioural stimulants thought to reduce depression by facilitating transmission of norepinephrine or serotonin at the synapse
Two-factor theory of emotion
Schacter & Singer; subjective experinece of emotion based on interaction between changes in physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of it. In absence of clear emotion-provoking stimulus, interpretation depends on environment.
Value hypothesis
Suggests risky shift occurs in situations in which riskiness is culturally valued (e.g. in business)
Weber's law
Change in stimulus intensity needed to produce a just noticeable difference, divided by stimulus intensity of standard stimulus, is a constant K.
Zone of proximal development
Lev Vygotsky; refers to skills and abilities not yet fully developed but are in process of development, best facilitated in social situations
Binet, A. and Simon, T.
Developed Binet-Simon intelligence test; introduced concept of mental age
Holland, J.
Developed RIASEC (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional) model of occupational themes
Jensen, A.
Suggested there were genetically based racial differences in IQ; suggestion has been much criticized
Morgan, C. and Murray, H.
Developed Thematic Apperception Test, projective test designed to measure personality
Rorschach, H.
Developed Rorschach inkblot test, projective test designed to measure personality
Rotter, J.
Developed sentence completion test; a projective test designed to measure personality
Stern, W.
Developed concept of ratio IQ
Strong, E. and Campbell, D.
Developed Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory; used to assess interest in different lines of work (Campbell revised Strong's test)
Terman, Lewis
Revised Binet-Simon intelligence test; revision as Standford-Binet IQ Test
Wechsler, D.
Developed several intelligence tests for use with different ages (the WPPSI, WISC, and WAIS); tests yield 3 deviation IQs: verbal IQ, performance IQ, and a full-scale IQ
Bartlett, E.
Investigated role of schemata in memory; concluded memory is largely a reconstructive process (rather than rote)
Cattell, Raymond
Divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout lifespan
Chomsky, Noam
Distinguished between surface and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules
Collins, A. and Loftus, E.
Devised spreading activation model of semantic memory
Craik, F. and Lockhart, R.
Developed depth/levels-of-processing theory of memory as an alternative to stage theory (sensory, short, long)
Ebbinghaus, Hermann
First studied memory using nonsense syllables and method of savings (%, whether rememorizing takes less time than initial memorization)
Gardner, H.
Proposed theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligences into 7 different types (linguistic, logical-math, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal); argues Western culture over-values first 2
Guildford, J.
Devised divergent thinking test to measure creativity
Kahneman, D. and Tversky, A.
Investigated use of heuristics in decision making; studied availability and representativeness heuristic
Loftus, Elizabeth
Studied eyewitness testimony and concluded our memories can be altered by presenting new info or by asking misleading questions
Luchins, A.
Used water-jar problem to study effect of mental sets on problem-solving
Macoby, Eleanor and Jacklin, Carol
Found support for gender differences in verbal ability, girls better
McClelland, J. and Rumelhart, D.
Suggested brain processes information using parallel distributed processing (PDP) rather than serial
Miller, George
Found capacity of STM 7+/-2 chunks
Paivio, Allan
Proposed dual-code hypothesis (abstract info encoded verbally, concrete info encoded verbally and visually)
Smith, E., Shoben, E., and Rips, L.
Devised semantic feature-comparison model of semantic memory (concepts represented by features - some required, some typical; response latency depends on overlap between features of concepts)
Spearman, Charles
Suggested individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor 'g'
Spearling, George
Studied capacity of sensory memory using partial-report method
Sternberg, Robert
Proposed triarchic theory that divides intelligence into 3 types: componential, experiential, contextual
Thurstone, Louis
Used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities - factors more specific than g but more general than s
Jensen, Arthur
Educational psychologist who claimed intelligence measured by IQ tests was almost entirely genetic; focused on differences in IQ across races
Bandura, Albert
Studied observational learning, "Bobo doll"
Breland, K. and Breland, M.
Discovered and studied instinctual drift, raccoons & coins
Darwin, Charles
THeory of evolution with natural selection as centerpiece
Garcia, John
Studied taste-aversion learning, proposed some species have a biological preparedness to learn connections between certain stimuli
Kohler, Wolfgang
Studied insight in problem solving, chimps
Lorenz, Konrad
Ethologist who studied unlearned, instinctual behaviours in natural environment, imprinting, founder of ethology
Pavlov, Ivan
Discovered basic principles of classical conditioning
Premack, D.
Suggested Premack principle: a more preferred activity could be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
Rescorla, R.
Performed experiments which showed that contiguity (time) could not fully explain classical conditioning; proposed contingency theory of classical conditioning (good signal)
Skinner, B.F.
Developed principles of operant conditioning
Thorndike, Edward
Proposed law of effect; used puzzle boxes to study problem solving in cats
Tinbergen, Niko
Ethologist who introduced experimental methods into field situations; studied sign stimuli, releasers, supernormal stimuli on aggression in male sticklebacks
von Frisch, Karl
Ethologist who studied communication in honey bees
Watson, John
Performed experiment on Little Albert (rats) that suggested acquisition of phobias due to classical conditioning
Wilson, E.O.
Developed sociobiology (how social behaviours increase fitness), behaviour due to complex and dynamic interplay between genetics and environment
Wolpe, Joseph
Developed method of systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias (pair relaxation with hierarchy of anxiety); response to intense anxiety from flooding and implosion
Bekesy, G.
Empirical studies led to traveling wave theory of pitch perception which, at least partially, supported Helmholtz's place-resonance theory
Berkeley, George
Developed a list of depth cues that help us to perceive depth (interposition, relative size, linear perspective)
Broadbent, Donald
Proposed filter theory of attention
Fechner, G.
Developed Fechner's law, which expresses relationship between intensity of stimulus and intensity of sensation
Gibson, Eleanor. and Walk, Richard
Developed visual cliff apparatus, used to study development of epth perception
Gibson, J. J.
Studied depth cues (especially texture gradients) that help us perceive depth
Helmholtz, Hermann von
Developed Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision; developed place-resonance theory of pitch perception
Hering, Ewald
Developed opponent-process theory of color vision
Hubel, D. and Wiesel, T.
Studied feature detection in visual cortex and discovered simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells
Kohler, Wolfgang
Developed theory of isomorphism
Melzack, R. and Wall, P.
Proposed gate theory of pain
Stevens, S.S.
Developed Stevens' law as an alternative to Fechner's law
Swets, John A.
Refined Receiver Operating Characteristics curves in signal detection theory
Wever, E. and Bray, C.
Proposed volley theory of pitch perception in response to a criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception
Yerkes, R. and Dodson, J.
Developed Yerkes-Dodson Law which states performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal
Broca, P.
French anatomist who identified part of brain primarily associated with producing spoken language: Broca's area
Cannon, Walter
Physiologist who studied autonomic nervous system, including "fight or glith" reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard, proposed the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions (physiological arousal & cognitive experience by neural circuits --> emotions)
Kandel, Eric
Demonstrated simple learning behavior in aplysia (sea snails) is associated with changes in neurotransmission
James, William and Lange, Carl
Proposed the James-Lange theory of emotions (external event --> physiological reaction --> emotion); functionalism
Kluver, H and Bucy, P
Studied loss of normal fear and rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied amygdala's role in emotions
Luria, A.R.
Russian neurologist who studied how brain damange leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions
Milner, Brenda
Studied severe anterograde amnesia in H.M., whos hippocampus and temporal lobes were removed surgically to control epilepsy
Olds, James, and MIlner, Peter
Demonstrated existence of pleasure center in the brain using "self-stimulation" studies in rats
Penfield, Wilder
Canadian neurosurgeon who used electrodes and electrical stimulation techniques to "map" out different parts of the brain during surgery
Schachter, Stanley, and Singer, J.E.
Proposed the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotions (physiological arousal + cognitive interpretation --> emotions)
Sherrington, Charles
English physiologist who first inferred the existence of synapse
Sperry, Roger, and Gazzaniga, Michael
Investigated functional differences between left and right cerebral hemispheres using "split-brain" studies
Wernicke, C.
German neurologist who identified part of the brain primarily associated with understanding spoken language: Wernicke's area
Hubel, David and Wiesel, Torsten
Single-cell recording using microelectrodes, on visual cortex of cats
von Helmholtz, Hermann
First to measure speed of nerve impulse by reaction
Muller, Johannes
Law of specific nerve energies (each sensory nerve excited by only one kind of energy, less determined by particular stimulus)
Gall, Franz
Earliest theories that behaviour, intellect, and even personality might be linked to brain anatomy; doctrine of phrenology, impetus for extirpation/ablation
Flourens, Pierre
Extirpation/ablation, brain had specific parts for specific functions, removal of one part weakens the whole brain
Dewey, John
Functionalism; criticized reflex arc as discrete parts meaningless, should study whole
Titchener; breaks consciousness into elements by using introspection
James, Dewey; Stream of consciousness; studies how mind functions to help people adapt to environment; attacked structuralism
Watson, Skinner; Psychology as objective study of behaviour; attacked mentalism and use of introspection; attacked structuralism and functionalism
Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka; Whole is more than the sum of its parts; attacked structuralism and behaviorism
Chomsky; Behaviorism is not an adequate explanation for human behavior; humans think, believe, are creative
Freud, Jung, Adler; Behavior is a result of unconscious conflicts, repression, defense mechanisms
Maslow, Rogers; Looks at people as wholes and with free will; should study mentally healthy people, not just mentally ill/maladjusted
Adler, Alfred
Psychodynamic theorist best known for inferiority complex
Allport, Gordon
Trait theorist known for functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality; cardinal, primary, secondary traits
Bandura, Albert
Behaviorist theorist known for social learning theory; modeling experiment using "Bobo" doll
Bem, Sandra
Suggested masculinity and femininity were 2 separate dimensions; also lined with concept of androgyny; not to be confused with Daryl Bem's self-perception theory
Cattell, Raymond
Trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality
Dollard, John and Miller, Neal
Behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework; stimulus-response with conflicting motives; also known for work on approach-avoidance conflicts
Erikson, Erik
Ego psychologist whose psychosocial stages of development encompass entire lifespan
Eysenck, Hans
Trait theorist who proposed 2 main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism
Freud, Anna
Founder of ego psychology
Freud, Sigmund
Originator of psychodynamic approach to personality; developed psychoanalysis
Horney, Karen
Psychodynamic theorist who suggested 3 ways to relate to others: moving toward, against, and away from
Jung, Carl
Psychodynamic theorist who broke with Freud over the concept of libido; suggested unconscious could be divided into personal and collective, with archetypes in collective
Kelly, George
Based personality theory on notion of "individual as scientist"
Kernberg, Otto
Object-relations theorist
Klein, Melanie
Object-relations theorist
Lewin, Kurt
Phenomenological personality theorist who developed field theory; not to be confused with Herman Witkin's field-in/dependence
Mahler, Margaret
Object-relations theorist
Maslow, Abraham
Phenomenological personality theorist known for developing a hierarchy of needs and for concept of self-actualization
McClelland, David
Studied need for achievement (nAch)
Mischel, Walter
Critic of trait theories of personality; behavior determined by situation rather than by disposition
Rogers, Carl
Phenomenological personality theorist; developed client-centered therapy, based upon concept of unconditional positive regard
Rotter, Julian
Studied locus of control
Sheldon, William
Attempted to relate somatotype to personality type
Skinner, B.F.
Winnicott, D.W.
Object-relations theorist
Witkin, Herman
Studied field-dependence and field-independence using rod-and-frame test; not to be confused with Kurt Lewin's field theory
Beck, Aaron
Cognitive behavior therapist known for his therapy for depression
Bleuler, Eugene
Coined term schizophrenia
Dix, Dorothea
19th Centry American advocate of asylum reform
Ellis, Albert
Cognitive behavior therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Kraepelin, Emil
Developed system in 19th century for classifying mental disorders; DSM-IV considered a descendant of this system
Pinel, Philippe
Reformed French asylums in late 18th century
Rosenhan, David
Investigated effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudopatients admitted into mental hospitals
Seligman, Martin
Formulated learned helplessness theory of depression
Szasz, Thomas
Suggested that most mental disorders treated by clinicians are not disorders but traits/behaviors that differ from the cultural norm, forced to change and conform rather dealing with societal causes; wrote The Myth of Mental Illness
Ainsworth, Mary
Devised "strange situation" to study attachment
Baumrind, Diane
Studied relationship between parental stye and aggression
Bowlby, John
Studied attachment in human children
Chomsky, Noam
Linguist who suggested children have an innate capacity for language acquisition
Erikson, Erik
Outlined 8 stages of psychosocial development covering the entire lifespan (trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame & doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, integrity vs. despair)
Freud, Sigmund
Outlined 5 stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic (Oedipal & Electra complex), latency, genital); stressed importance of Oedipal conflict in psychosexual development
Gessell, Arnold
Believed development was due primarily to maturation/biology regardless of learning
Gilligan, Carol
Suggested males (rule-bound) and females (interpersonal) have different orientations toward morality
Hall, G. Stanley
Founder of developmental psychology
Harlow, Harry
Used monkeys and "surrogate mothers" to study role of contact comfort in bond formation
Kohlberg, Lawrence
Studied moral development 3 phases 2 stages/orientations each (preconventional - punishment and obedience, reciprocity/instrumental relativist stage; conventional - good girl nice boy, law and order; post-conventional - social contract, universal ethical principles); used moral dilemmas (Heinz); gender stages (labeling, stability, consistency)
Locke, John
British philosopher who suggested infants had no predetermined tendencies, that they were tabulas rasa to be written on by experience
Lorenz, Konrad
Studied imprinting in birds
Piaget, Jean
Outlined four stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
French philosopher who suggested development could unfold without help from society
Terman, Lewis
Performed longitudinal study on gifted children
Tryon, Robert
Studied genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats
Vygotsky, Lev
Studied cognitive development; stressed importance of zone of proximal development
Aronson, E., Linder, D.
Proposed gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes will have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant)
Asch, Solomon
Studied conformity by asking subjects to compare length of lines
Bem, Daryl
Developed self-perception theory as an alternative to cognitive dissonance theory
Clark, K., Clark, M.
Performed study on doll preferences in African-American children; results used in 1954 Brown v. the Topeka Board of Education Supreme Court case
Darley, John, Latane, Bibb
Studied bystander intervention; proposed 2 factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibility
Eagly, A.
Suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender per se, but to differing social roles
Festinger, Leon
Developed cognitive dissonance theory; also developed social comparison theory
Hall, Edward
Studied proxemics; norms for interpersonal distance in interpersonal interactions
Heider, Fritz
Developed balance theory to explain why attitudes change; also developed attribution theory and divided attributions into 2 categories: dispositional and situational
Hovland, Carl
Studied attitude change
Janis, Irving
Developed concept of groupthink to explain how group decision-making can sometimes go awry
Lerner, M.J.
Proposed concept of belief in a just world
Lewin, Kurt
Divided leadership styles into 3 categories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
McGuire, William
Studied how psychological inoculation could help people resist persuasion
MIlgram, Stanley
Studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers
Newcomb, Theodore
Studied political norms
Petty, R., Cacioppo, J.
Developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (central and peripheral routes to persuasion)
Schachter, Stanley
Studied relationship between anxiety and need for affiliation
Sherif, Muzafer
Used autokinetic effect to study conformity; also performed Robber's Cave experiment and found that having superordinate goals increased intergroup cooperation
Zajonc, Robert
Studied mere exposure effect; also resolved problems with social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances emission of dominant responses and impairs emission of nondominant responses
Zimbardo, Philip
Performed prison simulation and used concept of deindividuation to explain results
fertilized ovum via fallopian tube goes through 3 stages of gestation (prenatal development): germinal, embryonic, fetal
Germinal stage
2 weeks, zygotes moves down fallopian tube, grows into 64 cells, implants self into uterus wall
Embryonic stage
until end of 2nd month, organ formation
Fetal stage
3rd month until birth, quantitative growth and "quickening" (initial movement perceived/felt by mother)
H-Y antigen
6 weeks after conception: presences causes testis, absence causes ovaries
3 months after conception; testes secrete, formation of male reproductive system, while absence for female
13-19 years; onset of puberty; adrenal and pituitary glands secrete hormones: androgen (boys) and estrogen (girls) for secondary sex characteristics and growth spurt
Nature vs. nurture
addressed by twin studies experiences; genetics examined by comparing between monozygotic (identical twins) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins, fraternal rather than siblings due to more similar environment and developmental stages; environment examined by compring identical twins separated at birth
Jean Piaget (cognitive; +stages)
4 cognitive developmental stages; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational; humans experience interaction between internal maturation and external experience leading to adaptation, through assimilation and accommodation; language development determined by current cognitive stage
fitting new information into existing ideas
modification of cognitive schemata to incorporate new information
Sensorimotor stage
Piaget, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; first reflexive behaviour cued by sensations, then circular reactions, object permanence, then representation
newborn, many reflexive behaviours
Sucking reflex
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; elicited by placing object in mouth
Head-turning reflex
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; elicited by stroking cheek
Moro reflex
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; throwing out of arms/legs elicited by loud/frightening noises
Babinski reflex
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; fanning of toes elicited by touching bottom of foot
Palmar reflex
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; hand grasping elicited by placing object in hand
Circular reactions
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; repeated behaviour intended to manipulate environment
Object permanence
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; knowing an object exists even when no longer seen
Piaget, Sensorimotor, 1/4, 0-2 yrs; visualizing or putting words to objects
Preoperational stage
Piaget, 2/4, 2-7 yrs; egocentric understanding, rapidly acquiring words, inability to perform mental operations (causality or quantity)
Concrete Operational stage
Piaget, 3/4, 7-12 yrs; understanding of concrete relationships (math and quantity), development of conservation
Piaget, Concrete Operational, 3/4, 7-12 yrs; knowing changes in shape are not changes in volume
Formal Operational stage
Piaget, 4/4, 12+ yrs; understanding abstract relationships (logic, ratio, values)
Rochel Gelman
Piaget underestimated cognitive ability of preschoolers; can deal with ideas such as quantity in small sets of objects
Jean Piaget (moral; +stages)
"Moral Judgment of the Child" hypothesized 3 stages; 4-7 (imitates rule-following behaviour, does not question), 4-11 (understands rules and follows), 12+ yrs (abstract thining to rules, can change if all parties agree)
Sigmund Freud (+stages)
5 stages of personality development, oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital; driving force of humans and their development is of sensual gratification / biological needs; advancement of stages affects personality; parental over or under-indulgence at a stage may result in fixation; later, life stressors may result in regression
Oral stage
Freud, 1/5, birth-18mos; oral pleasure (sucking, eating, biting)
Anal stage
Freud, 2/5, 18mos-3 yrs; pleasure by control and release of feces
Phallic stage
Freud, 3/5, 3-6 yrs; pleasure from self-stimulation of genitals; boys develop Oedipus complex, girls Electra complex; both resolve conflict by identifying with same-sex parent
Oedipus complex
Freud, Phallic, 3/5, 3-6 yrs; boys in love with mother, jealous of father; suppress lust by castration anxiety, then identify with father
Electra complex
Freud, Phallic, 3/5, 3-6 yrs; girls in love with father because of penis envy, angry with mother, then identify with mother
Latency stage
Freud, 4/5, adolescence; repressed sexuality; identification with same-sex friends; school focus and growth
Genital stage
Freud, 5/5, adolescence-adulthood; hormones reawaken sexual instincts; love now nonfamilial
Lawrence Kohlberg (+stages)
3 stages moral development, preconventional/premoral, conventional/morality of conformity, postconventional/morality of self-accepted principles; by analyzing responses of children to 9 hypothetical moral dilemmas; e.g. Heinz dilemma
Heinz dilemma
woman is dying and needs expensive medication, husband cannot afford it, whether he should steal or let wife die
Preconventional/Premoral stage
Kohlberg, 2/3; (1) avoid punishment, (2) gain rewards; "if I steal I'll get in trouble"
Concentional/morality of conformity stage
Kohlberg, 2/3; (3) gain approval, (4) follow law and authority; "stealing is against the law"
Postconventional/morality of self-accepted principles
Kohlberg, 3/3; (5) grey areas, attentive to rights and social welfare, (6) abstract decisions on ethical principles; "unjust that money is an obstacle,more ethical to save wife"
Carol Gilligan
asserted that Kohlberg's moral development theory was biased toward males, dominated by rules, where women's morality focuses more on compassion
Erik Erikson (+stages)
8 life span developmental stages, each has its own unique psychosocial conflict to resolve; (1; birth-18mos) trust vs. mistrust to trust, (2; 18mos-3 yrs) autonomy vs. shame and doubt to independence, (3; 3-6 yrs) initiative vs. guilt to purpose, (4; 6-puberty) industry vs. inferiority to competency, (5; teen) identity vs. role confusion to sense of self, (6; young adult) intimacy vs. isolation to love, (7; mid age) productivity vs. stagnation to productivity and caring, (8; old age) ego integrity vs. despair to wisdom and integrity
John Bowlby
infants motivated to attach to mothers for positive (wanting closeness) and negative (avoiding fear) reasons; emphasized mother-infant attachment during sensitive period to prevent character/stability problems
Mary Ainsworth
attachment through use of strange situation; stranger and separation anxiety, securely attached vs. avoidant infants; work carried on by Mary Main
Strange situation
Ainsworth; infant (8mos-2 yrs) playing with mother then replaced by a stranger, while researchers watch through one-way mirror; found infants overall had stranger anxiety (cried when stranger entered) and separation anxiety (cried when mothers left); different response to return of mother: securely attached (ran and clung) vs. avoidant (ignored or avoided); securely attached more readily explore environment
Diana Baumrind
parenting style and personality development; authoritarian led to withdrawn and unhappy, permissive led to happy but lacking self-control/reliance, authoritative help understand/accept norms of society and led to self-reliant, confident, assertive, friendly, happy, high-functioning kids
John Watson's behaviouristic approach to development
children passively molded by environment and behaviour by imitation of parents
Motor development
1st 2 years of life largely by internal, maturational factors, but interacting with infants with attention and affection fosters physical, emotional, and intellectual growth; neglected children show higher incidences of mental retardation, mortality, and poorer physical development
Arnold Gessell
child developmentalist, nature provided "blueprint" through maturation and environment filled in details
Aggressive children at early age
moderate tendency to remain aggressive through later life
Sex-typed behaviour
behaviour stereotypical for gender, low prepubescence, highest young adulthood, then lowers again
Boys who reach puberty sooner
these boys shown to be psychologically and socially advantaged
Adolescent educational and career aspirations
similar to parental educational and career aspirations
Hermaphrodite or intersex individual
born with both female and male genitals, most likely female fetus exposed to excessive testosterone
Symbolic play
study development; usually 1-2 yrs, involves pretend roles, imagination, objects to represent other things; apparent they can understand representation of one object for another
Parallel play
study development; 2-3 yrs, 2 children standing next to each other playing in similar styles by independently
not IQ, unlikely IQ captures all facets
Mean of Americans is standardized to 100, with SD 15 or 16 depending on test; correlates most with IQ of biological parents and socioeconomic status
Alfred Binet
Binet scale, original; (mental age/chronological age) x 100; highest chronological age is 16
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
best predictor of future academic success; revised by Lewis Terman; used with children, organized by age
Lewis Terman
revised Binet scale to Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale; also studied gifted children, those with higher IQs better adjusted
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
most commonly used, 16yrs+; like all Wechsler tests organized by subtests with subscales and identify problem areas; current is WAIS-IV
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R)
6-16 years
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
4-6 years
Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test
cross-cultural application and simple directions to make the best picture of a man, scored based on detail and accuracy, not artistic talent
John Horn and Raymond Cattell
fluid intelligence declines with old age while crystallized intelligence does not
Fluid intelligence
knowing how to do something
Crystallized intelligence
knowing a fact
Robert Zajonc
birth order and intelligence; the older, the more intelligent; the more children, the less intelligent; the greater spacing, the more intelligent
Charles Spearmen
general factor in intelligence "g"
Achievement tests
measure how well you know a subject, past learning
Aptitude tests
measure innate ability to learn (debatable), predict later performance
Objective tests (+types)
structured, do not allow own answers; more objective than projective tests; not completely objective because most self-reported; Q-sort, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), California Personality Inventory (CPI), Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI), Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (LOCS)
Q-sort or measure
sorting cards into a normal distribution; each has a different statement on it about personality; to one end is "least like self", other is "most like self", and middle is neutral; factor analysis to reduce viewpoints into a few factors
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
originally to determine mental illness, now for personality; more clinical than CPI; 550 T/F/unsure questions (e.g. "I would like to ride a horse"); discriminates between disorders; high validity because highly discriminatory items, 3 validity scales (lying, carelessness, faking)
California Personality Inventory (CPI)
personality measure for "normal" / less clinical groups than MMPI, by Harrison Gough
Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI)
personality test from Jung's theory; 93 questions 2 answers each; 4-letter personality type, each letter 1 of 2 possible opposing characteristics: Introverted vs. Extraverted, Sensing vs. Intuition, Feeling vs. Thinking, and Judgment vs. Perception
Julian Rotter
Internal-External Locus of Control Scale
Internal-External Locus of Control Scale
determine whether a person feels responsible for occurrences (internal) or no control over events in life (external)
Projective tests (+types)
allows own answer, expression of conflicts, needs, impulses; content interpreted by administrator, some more objective than others; Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test, Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, Word Association Test, Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank, Draw-A-Person Test
Rorschach Inkblot Test
describe what is seen in each of 10 inkblots; scoring is complex; validity questionable
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
31 cards (1 blank and 30 pictures) with interpersonal scenes (2 people facing each other); subject teslls story about each which reveals aspects of personality; often measure need for achievement; interpreting terms include needs, press, personology
Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study
cartoons in which one person is frustrating another; asked to describe how the frustrated person responds
Word Association Test
originally used with free association techniques; word called out, subject says next word in mind
Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank
similar to word association, finish incomplete sentences
Draw-A-Person Test
draw a person of each sex and tell a story about them
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
not to diagnose depression but assess severity of depressive symptoms; used by researcher or clinician to track course
Empirical-keying or criterion-keying approach
constructing assessment instruments, selection of items that can discriminate between various groups; responses determine if he is like a particular group or not; e.g. Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory
Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory
empirical-keying or criterion-keying approach; to determine of subject is like a particular group or not
Vocational tests
assess extent interests and strengths match those found by professionals in a particular job field
Lie detector tests
measure arousal of sympathetic nervous system, stimulated by lying and anxiety
Walter Mischel
critical of personality trait-theory and personality tests; felt situations (not traits) decide actions
Anne Anastasi
intelligence in relation to performance; pioneered development of psychometrics, "no intelligence is culture-free"
F-scale or F-ratio
measure of fascism or authoritarian personality
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
not intelligence tests; measure sensory and motor development of infants to identify mental retardation; poor predictors of later intelligence
Scientific approach
testable, reproducible, operationalized definition (observable and measurable)
Field study
naturalistic setting, less control over environment than in lab; generates more hypotheses than able to prove
Convenience sampling
when random sampling is not feasible
Stratified sampling
when random sampling not feasible, but still generalizable results; aims to match demographic characteristics to population (i.e. 50% female, etc)
Cross-sectional design
different subjects of different ages compared, faster and easier than longitudinal
Cohort-sequential design
combines longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches; aka accelerated longitudinal design; links segments from temporally overlapping cohorts to determine a developmental trend; can separate cohort and period effects
Cohort effects
effects that might result when a group is born and raised in a particular time period
Quasi-experimental design
compares 2 groups of people, used when not feasible or ethical to use true random assignment (e.g. assign a group to smoke)
Predictive value
degree to which an IV can predict a DV
when people agree with opposing statements; giving tacit agreement
Demand characteristic
when subjects act in ways they think experimenter wants or expects
Experimenter bias
Rosenthal effect; researchers see what they want to see; minimized in double-blind
Rosenthal effect
Experimenter bias; researchers see what they want to see; minimized in double-blind
Hawthorne effect
subjects alter behaviour because they are being observed
Nonequivalent control group
used when equivalent one cannot be isolated
attitude change in response to feeling that options are limited; e.g. dislike experiment and intentionally behaving unnaturally, or being set on a certain flavour of ice cream as soon as told it is sold out
Selective attrition
when subjects that drop out are different than those that remain; no longer random
Illusory correlation
when relationship inferred when none
mathematically combines and summarizes overall effects or findings for a topic; best known for consolidating effectiveness of psychotherapy, can calculate overall effect size or conclusion drawn from a collection of studies; needed when conflicting results and different methods
Descriptive statistics (+types)
organize data by showing it in a meaningful way; do not allow conclusions to be drawn beyond the sample; percentiles, frequency distributions, graphs, measures of central tendency, variability
Frequency distributions (+variables)
might show how often different variables appear; nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio (real zero)
Graphs (types)
frequency polygon (continuous variables), histogram/ bar graph (discrete)
Central Tendency (types and distribution differences)
mean (standard error of mean), median mode; normal and platykuric: equal; positively skewed: mode, med, mean; negatively skewed: mean, med, mode; bimodal: equal mean and med, 2 modes
range/spread, variance and standard deviation
number of SDs a score is from the mean
transformation of a z-score where mean is 50, SD is 10; T=10(Z)+50
Standard normal distributions and z-scores
allow comparison between two different distributions (e.g. tests with different scoring)
Percentages under normal distribution based on SDs (from mean to end)
34.13%, 13.59%, 2.02%, 0.26%
Percentiles of normal distribution based on SDs (left to right)
0.26, 2.28, 15.87, 84.13, 97.72, 99.74
Correlational relationships
neither purely descriptive nor purely inferential
Curvilinear relationship
curved line; e.g. arousal and performance is an inverted U graph
Pearson r correlation coefficient
numerically calculating and expressing correlation; -1 to +1
Spearman r correlation coefficient
for ranks; determining the line that describes a linear relationship
Statistical regression
step beyond correlations; allows not only identification of relationship between 2 variables, also make predictions
Inferential statistics
allow generalization from sample to population; statistics (sample), parameters (population): use statistics to estimate parameters
Null hypothesis
no real differences exist; if data statistically significant, it is rejected
Alpha levels
chance seemingly significant errors are due to random variation
Type I and II errors
I when incorrectly reject null, thought significant but chance; II when incorrectly accept null, thought chance but significant
compare means of 2 groups (not more than 2), on continuous data, useful with small n; e.g. difference in heights between two groups
Chi-square tests
compare size of groups, patterns/distribution differences (not mean), categorical/discrete data; e.g. Enrollment of a course, 4 different races compared; also can assess "goodness of fit"
Goodness of fit
assessed by chi-square tests, whether pattern is expected
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
similar to t-test, but compare means of continuous variables of more than 2 groups, even if different sample sizes; One-way ANOVA (one DV), Two-Way ANOVA (effects of 2 IVs); flexible
Factorial analysis of variance
more than 1 IV; can separate effects of different levels of different variables; can identify main and interaction effects; e.g. 2x2 design: IVs with and without lesions, simple and complex tasks, DV performance
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
tests whether at least 2 groups co-vary; can adjust fo pre-existing differences
Linear regression
uses correlation coefficients to predict a variable y from another x; correlations measure relationship, but regression defines line describes; least-squares/ regression line fits the data (difference of point to line, square, then sum)
Criterion-referenced tests
measure mastery in a particular area (e.g. final exam)
Domain-referenced tests
attempt to measure less-defined properties (e.g. intelligence), check for reliability and validity
Reliability (+types)
how stable measure is; test-retest, split-half
Split-half reliability
comparing an individual's performance on 2 halves of the same test to reveal internal consistency; can be increased by item analysis
Item analysis (reliability)
analyses how a large group responded to each item on the measure; weeds out problematic questions with low discriminatory value; increases internal consistency
Validity (+types)
how well a test measures a construct; multitrait-multimethod technique determines validity; internal, external: concurrent, construct, content, face
Internal validity
extent to which items in a measure "hang together" and test the same thing
External validity (+types)
extent to which test measures what it intends to; concurrent, construct, content, face
Concurrent validity
whether scores on a new measure correlate with other measures known to test the same construct; cross validation process
Cross validation
process in testing concurrent validity
Construct validity
whether test really taps abstract concept being measured
Content validity
whether content covers a good sample of construct being measured
Face validity
whether test items look like they measure the construct
Donald Campbell and Donald Fiske
multitrait-multimethod technique to determine validity of tests
Ancient Greeks
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
truth, beauty, and justice
physical world not all that could be known, presence of universal forms and innate knowledge, abstract and unsystematic
world's first professor, order and logic, truth found in physical world
Middle Ages
temporary question for church, then reclaimed by scholars
Scientific Revolution
Rene Descartes, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes
Rene Descartes
I think therefore I am, reason and deduction; dualism/ mind-body problem
John Locke
tabula rasa (blank slate); knowledge not innate, from experience
Thomas Hobbes
machinese, sense-perception all that could be known; science to explain people
understanding the mind supplanted understanding existence; Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
minds were active, not passive
Anton Mesmer
healing of physical ailments from manipulation of bodily fluids; animal magnetism (mind control) responsible for patient recoveries; mesmerism (hypnotism)
Franz Joseph Gall
physiology and philosophy for phrenology; nature of a person known by examining shape and contours of the skull since seat of the soul, features on the head said to indicate personality; work carried on by J. Spurzheim although proved incorrect
J. Spurzheim
carried on Gall's phrenology work although proved incorrect
Sir Francis Galton
important random contributions; first to use statistics and created correlation coefficient; wrote Hereditary Genius, used Darwinian principles to promote eugenics
plan for selective human breeding to strengthen species
Gustav Fechner
founding experimental psychology from Elements of Psychophysics; first systematic experiment to result in mathematical conclusions; previously thought the mind could not be studied empirically
Johannes Muller
physiologist, existence of "specific nerve energies", taught Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
founder of psychology, first official lab at U of Leipzig, also began first psychology journal; attempted to study and analyze consciousness; ideas forerunners of Edward Titchener
Herbert Spencer
father of the psychology of adaptation, also founder of sociology; principles from Lamarckian evolution (characteristics acquired during lifetime passed to future generations),
William James
father of experimental psychology, in America doing what Wundt was in Germany, combining physiology and philosophy; informally investigating psychological principles but did not have an official lab until later; functionalist stream of consciousness, contrasted with structuralist discrete conscious elements
Hermann von Helmholtz
sensation; hearing and color vision, foundation for modern perception research
Stanley Hall
America's first Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard; coined "adolescence", started American Journal of Psychology, founded American Psychological Association
John Dewey
one of America's most influential philosophers; synthesize philosophy and psychology; reflex arc; denied structuralism, that animals respond to disjointed stimulus and response chains; instead functionalism, constantly adapting to environment rather than processing isolated stimuli
Edward Titchener
founder of structuralism, the analysis of human consciousness; introspection of lab assistants to objectively describe discrete sensations and contents of their minds; method soon dissolved
James Cattell
opened more psychology labs, thought psychology should be more scientific than Wundt
Dorothea Lynde Dix
movement for better care for mentally ill through hospitalization
Ivan Pavlov
digestion, classical conditioning
John B. Watson
founded behaviouralism; conditioning, stimulus-response chains, objective, observable behaviours; humans ready to be trained by environment
Nature vs. nurture
evolutionary psychology vs. social constructionism
Edward Thorndike
law of effect; precursor to operant conditioning
B.F. Skinner
studied Thorndike and Watson; Skinner box, operant conditioning; control of human behaviour
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka
Gestalt ("whole") psychology, asserts perception is greater than the sum of its parts
Sigmund Freud
id, ego, superego; unconscious motivations; psychoanalysis; famous writings Interpretation of Dreams, Theory of Sexuality, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Civilization and its Discontents
Alfred Adler
individual psychology; lpeople motivated by inferiority; 4-type theory of personality
4-type theory of personality
Adler; choleric (dominant), phlegmatic (Dependent), melancholic (withdrawn), and sanguine (healthy)
Carl Gustav Jung
felt Freud over-emphasized sexual instinct; analytic psychology; metaphysical and mythological components collective unconscious and unconscious archetypes; autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections
Jean Piaget
cognitive development in children; The Language and Thought of the Child, Moral Judgment of the Child, Origins of Intelligence in Children
Clark Hull
mechanistic behavioural ideas; motivation: performance = drive x habit; we do what we need and what worked best in the past; Kenneth Spence modified theory
Kenneth Spence
modified Hull's Performance = drive x habit theory
Edward Tolman
behaviourist, valued both behaviour and cognition; purposive behaviour and sign learning; rats in mazes formed cognitive maps rather than blindly attempting various routes like stimulus-response suggests; also expectancy-value theory of motivation: performance = expectation x value
Purposive behaviour
Tolman; learning is acquired through meaningful behaviour towards a goal; sign learning
Sign learning
Tolman; pursuing signs towards a goal; purposive behaviour
Clinical psychology
emerged after WWII, psychology research to a practical field
Konrad Lorenz
founder of ethology; imprinting in ducklings; On Aggression
Carl Rogers
client-centered therapy; client directs course of therapy, receives unconditional positive regard; humanistic; also first to record sessions for later study and reference
Abraham Maslow
leader of humanistic psychology; examined normal or optimal functioning rather than abnormal; hierarchy of needs; people inherently strive for self-improvement
Erik Erikson
8 stages of psychosocial development; noted for completeness from infancy through old age; coined "identity crisis" of adolescence
Victor Frankl
existential psychology; Man's Search for Meaning' people innately seek meaningfulness in their lives, perceived meaninglessness is root of emotional difficulty; logotherapy
Frankl; focuses on person's will to meaning
Aaron Beck
cognitive therapy; problems arise from maladaptive ways of thinking; therapy to reformulating illogical cognitions rather than searching for a life-stress cause; Beck Depression Inventory
Norman Triplett
first official social psychology experiment on social facilitation; cyclists performed better when paced by others
Kurt Lewin
founder of social psychology,; applied Gestalt ideas to social behaviour; life space, valence, vector, barrier
Life space
Lewin; collection of forces (valence, vector, barrier) on the individual, field of perception and action
Valence (life space)
Lewin; life space; + if person thinks region will reduce tension by meeting present needs, - if region with increase tension/ danger
Vector (life space)
Lewin; life space; pushes person in the direction of + valence, away from - valence
Barrier (life space)
Lewin; life space; block locomotion between regions of person and psychological environment
Fritz Heider
attribution theory, balance theory
Attribution theory
Heider; how people infer causes of other's behaviour; attribute intentions and emotions to almost anything, even shapes on a screen; 3 elements: locus, stability, controllability
Balance theory
Heider; how people make feelings/actions consistent to preserve psychological homeostasis
Actor-observer attributional divergence
tendency for person doing the behaviour to have different perspective on situation than observer
Self-serving attributional bias
interpreting own actions and motives ina positive way, blaming situations for failures and taking credit for successes; think self as better than average
Illusory correlation
assuing 2 unrelated things are related
Slippery slope
logical fallacy; small, insignificant first step in one direction will lead to greater steps with a significant impact
Hindsight bias
believing that you knew something all along
Halo effect
thinking if someone has a good quality then he has only good qualities
Self-fulfilling prophecy
when one's expectations draw out (in a way, cause) the expected behaviour
False consensus bias
assuming most other people think as you do
Lee Ross
Ross; tendency to make simple explanations for complex events; subjects made to believe a statement then later told false, continued to believe and devised own logical explanation, hold onto original ideas about cause even when new factors emerge
Representativeness heuristic
shortcut about typical assumptions rather than relying on logic; basis of sterotypes
Availability heuristic
think there is a higher proportion of something because examples come to mind more easily; e.g. read a list, half celebrity names, half random, may think more celebrities than random because easier to remember
Leon Festinger
cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive dissonance theory
Festinger; uncomfortable to have beliefs that do not match actions; motivated to back actions up by changing beliefs; the less act is justified by circumstance, the more we feel need to justify it by aligning attitude with the behaviour
Daryl Bem
self-perception theory
Self-perception theory
Bem; alternative explanation to cognitive dissonance; when people are unsure of beliefs, they take cues from own behaviour (rather than aligning beliefs to match actions)
Overjustification effect
follows from self-perception theory; tendency to assume we must not want to do things we are paid or compensated to do
Gain-loss theory
people act in order to obtain gain and avoid loss; people favour situations that start out negative and end positive, even compared to completely positive situations
Social exchange theory
humans interact in ways that maximize reward and minimize costs
particularly positive self-presentation is influencial on behaviour, act in ways that align with our attitudes or in ways that will be accepted by others; self-monitoring; impression management
process by which people pay close attention to their actions, often change behaviours to be more favourable
Impression management
behaving in ways that might make a good impression
Social facilitation
presence of others enhance or hinder performance
Robert Zajonc
presence of others helps with easy tasks but hinders complex tasks
Social comparison
evaluating own actions, abilities, opinions, and ideas and comparing to others; since others are generally familiar people (own social group), argument against mainstreaming; when children with difficulties in classes with normal children, may result in lower self-esteem
set of behaviour norms that seem suitable for a person
Morton Deutsch
prisoner's dilemma, trucking company game to illustrate struggle between cooperation and competition
Prisoner's dilemma
Deutsch; if 2 criminals detained separately, best strategy is for neither to talk, but it is a gamble that requires trust, so most spill the beans; in economic terms is the trucking company game
Trucking company game
Deutsch; 2 companies can choose to cooperate and agree on high fixed prices, or compete with lower prices, but lack of complete trust will choose to compete; prisoner's dilemma in economic terms
Equity theory
people most comfortable in situations which rewards and punishments are equal, fitting, or logical; overbenefited people feel guilt, random/ illogical punishments create anxiety
Stanley MIlgram
Stimulus-overload theory; also experiment where participants ordered to give "painful electric shocks" to a "learner" when incorrect, explored how people respond to orders; conditions that facilitated conformity: remoteness of victim, proximity of commander, legitimate-seeming commander, conformity of other subjects; conformed 66% of the time; raised ethical issues; also explained actions of Nazi war criminals
Stimulus-overload theory
Milgram; explains why urbanities are less prosocial than country people; they do not need any more interaction; e.g. emergency situations familiar to city people, novelty for town people will attract attention and help
Reciprocal interaction
constant exchange of influences between people, constant factor in our behaviour
Conformity (types)
compliance, acceptance
conformity; go along publicly but not privately
conformity; change actions and beliefs to conform
one who speaks out against majority
Increase in likelihood to conform (factors)
majority opinion, unanimous position, high status majority or concern for own status, public, not previously committed to a position, low self-esteem, scores high on authoritarianism
refusal to conform, may occur as result of blatant attempt to control; will not conform if forewarned that others will try to change them
Philip Zimbardo
continued Milgram's study, deindividuated individuals more willing to administer higher levels of shock; prison simulation experiments found normal subjects could easily be transformed into sadistic prison guards; also found antisocial behaviour positively correlates with population density, broken-down cars in NYC destroyed in 10 minutes while in Palo Alto untouched for three days
Solomon Asch
had subjects listen to "opinion" of others of which lines were equal, subjects conformed to clearly incorrect opinion of others 33% of the time; unanimity seemed to be influential
Muzafer Sherif
descriptions of the autokinetic effect were influenced by others' descriptions; also win/lose game-type competition can trigger conflict in groups, Robbers' cave experiment
Robbers' cave experiment
prejudice, showed group conflict most effectively overcome by need for cooperative attention to a higher superordinate goal; 2 groups of 12-year-old boys, 3 phases of group dynamics: in-group phase (bonding with own group), friction phase (groups met and became competitive), and integration phase (work together for a common goal); formation of in/out-groups, and strategies for conflict resolution
Factors that a speaker has to most likely change a listener's attitude
expert and/or trustworthy, similar to listener, acceptable to listener, overheard rather than obviously influencing, anecdotal, emotional, or shocking, part of a debate rather than one-sided argument
R.E. Petty and J.T. Cacioppo
elaboration likelihood
Elaboration likelihood
Petty and Cacioppo; model of persuasion suggests those involved in an issue listen to strength of arguments rather than more superficial factors
Sleeper effect
persuasive communication from a source of low credibility may become more acceptable later; perhaps memory+discounting cue is severed over time, later recalling a source is less available, or differential decay: impact of cue decays faster than message
Inoculation theory
Inoculation theory
beliefs are more vulnerable if never faced challenge
Social loafing
tendency to work less hard in a group as a result of diffusion of responsibility; guarded against when each individual is closely monitored
Contact (Groups)
with opposing party decreases conflict, we fear what we do not know
James Stoner
Group polarization
Group polarization
Stoner; group discussion generally serves to strengthen the already dominant point of view; explains risky shift
Risky shift
groups take greater risks than individuals
Irving Janis
likely in a group with unquestioned beliefs, pressure to conform, invulnerability, censors, cohesiveness, isolation, strong leader; to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critical testing, analyzing, or evaluating
Pluralistic ignorance
most in a group privately disagree but incorrectly believe most in group agree
Kenneth and Mamie Clark
doll preference studies
Doll preference studies
Clark; demonstrated negative effects that group segregation had on African-American children's self-esteem, they thought white dolls were better
Ingroup/outgroup bias
those in a group think their members have more positive qualities and fewer negative than members in another group even if qualities are the same; basis for prejudice
Attraction (in order of importance)
people who are near us (propinquity), physically attractive, attitudes similar to our own, like us back (reciprocity); opposites do not attract
Reciprocity of disclosure
sharing secrets/feelings facilitates emotional closeness
Excitation-transfer theory
sometimes attribute excitement or physiological arousal about one thing to something else (e.g. bungee jumping on first date)
Mere-exposure effect
how stimuli are rated, the more we see/experience something, the more positively we rate it
Richard Lazarus
problem-focused coping (changing stressor) and emotion-focused coping (changing response)
Objective self-awareness
through self-perception, high-self-monitoring, internality, self-efficacy; experiments where subjects perform tasks while looking in a mirror; deindividuation works against
sales tactic, persuader ask for more than they would ever get and then "settle" for less
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
doing a small favour makes people more willing to do larger ones later
Social support network
area of study that combines social and clinical ideas, for mental health
J. Rodin and E. Langer
nursing home residents with plants to care for have better health
Bogus pipeline
measures physiological reactions to measure truthfulness of attitude self-reporting
Peter principle
people are promoted at work until they reach a position of incompetence in which they remain
Stuart Valins
environmental influences on behaviour; students in long-corridor dorms more stressed and withdrawn than those in suite-style
Leonard Berkowitz
frustration-aggression hypothesis
Frustration-aggression hypothesis
Berkowitz; relationship between frustration in achieving a goal (no matter how small) and show aggression
M. Rokeach
racial bias and belief similarity, prefer to be with like-minded people more than like-skinned; racial bias decreases as attitude similarity between people increases
M. Fischbein and I. Ajzen
theory of reasoned action
Theory of reasoned action/planned behaviour
Fischbein and Ajzen; people's behaviour in a given situation is determined by attitude about situation and social norms; perceived behavioural control, attitude toward behaviour, behavioural intentions, subjective social norms; grounded in various attitude theories (learning, expectancy-values, consistency, attribution);
Hazel Markus
cross-cultural research; Eastern countries value interdependence over independence; for example, in Japan, individuals likelier to demonstrate conformity, modesty, and pessimism; where in the U.S., likelier to show optimism, self-enhancement, and individuality; some criticizes generalizations about cultures
Elaine Hatfield
passionate love (biophysiological, can be positive and negative) and companionate love (mutual trust, respect, commitment, later stages)
Paul Ekman
6 basic emotions: sadness, happiness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust; from cross-cultural studies, individuals could recognize facial expressions corresponding to those six; FACS coding
Facial Action Coding System (FACS)
code facial expressions for emotion; determine whether a smile is genuine (happiness engages the upper cheek) or fake
Reciprocal socialization
when 2 parties adapt to or are socialized by each other (e.g. parents and children)
Harold Kelley
attributions we make about our actions or those of others usually accurate; we base this on consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus of the action
Walter Dill Scott
one of the first to apply psychology to business, specifically in advertising; also involved in helping military implement psychological testing to aid with personnel selection
Henry Landsberger
Hawthorne effect
Hawthorne effect
study how to increase worker productivity at Hawthorne Works, reported anything they did increased productivity; because performance changes when people are being observed
Sociotechnical systems
method of work design, acknowledges interaction between people and technology in the workplace
Sunk cost
expense incurred and cannot be recovered; because money already spent is irrelevant to the future, best to ignore these when making decisions but we often do not
Type theory
originally dominated personality theory (Hippocrates), many placed into type categories based on physical appearance; including using phrenology and somatotypes
practice of examining head and skull shape to discern personality
William Sheldon
somatotypes personality theory
Somatotypes (personality theory' +types)
Sheldon; personality based on body types, three physiques and corresponding personality types: endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
Sheldon, Somatotypes' short, plump means pleasure-seeking, social
muscular, athletic means energetic, aggressive
skinny, fragile means inhibited, intellectual
Alfred Adler (personality typology; +types)
suggested personality typology based on personal activity and social interest; ruling-dominant type (choleric; high-low), getting-learning type (phlegmatic; low-high), avoiding type (melancholic; low-low), and socially useful type (sanguine; high-high)
Gordon Allport
idiographic approach to personality theory, as opposed to nomothetic; conscious motives governed by proprium or propriate function; lexical approach (5000 possible traits), determined trait hierarchy of cardinal, central, secondary traits
Idiographic approach
capture individual's unique, defining characteristics
Nomothetic approach
uses large numbers of people to study commonalities of personality
Proprium or propriate function
Allport; his version of the ego, believed it acted relatively consistently based on traits developed through experience
Lexical approach
picking all possible traits out of dictionary
Trait hierarchy
at the top a cardinal trait (always consistent), then central traits, then secondary traits (may conflict)
organized categorization systems, by statistical techniques for personality
Raymond Cattell
factor analysis in data reduction of Allport's 5000 traits; identified 16 bipolar source traits (e.g. relaxed-tense) that seemed to underlie all; 16 personality factors tested in personality questionnaire
Big Five
superfactors, 5 dimensions that encompass all of personality; superordinate traits or facets; O-dimension (openness to experience, intellectual curiosity), C-dimension (conscientiousness), E-dimension (extroversion, enthusiasm), A-dimension (agreeableness), N-dimension (neuroticism, nervousness)
Positions of personality
dispositionists, situationists, interactionists
Seymour Epstein and Walter Mischel
criticized trait and type theories that both assume behaviour is stable across situations and people fail to take circumstances into account; while people often act different in different situations; consistency paradox
Consistency paradox
possibility hat a person may behave inconsistently, presents problems for labelling people as one internal disposition
Walter Mischel and Nancy Cantor
cognitive prototype approach
Cognitive prototype approach
to show personality traits exist in a person, show person exhibits those traits in a variety of situations; cognitive behaviour (e.g. formulation of and attention to prototypes) is examined in social situations; consistency of behaviour is result of cognitive processes, rather than result of personality traits
Twin studies
shows heritability of personality about 40-50%, identical twins separated at birth; "Jim" twins had wives and dogs with same name, and same habits; differences shows environmental impact
Kay Deaux
women's success at "male" tasks attributed to luck, while men's success attributed to skill; gender is a social construct that colours interpretations; women attribute successes to luck more than men - lower self-esteem
Sandra Bem
androgyny; Bem Sex Role Inventory
Androgynous individuals
have higher self-esteem, lower anxiety, more adaptability than their highly masculine or feminine counterparts
Matina Horner
females shun masculine-type successes not because of fear or failure or lack of interest, but fear success and its negative repercussions (i.e. resentment and rejection)
Alice Eagly
found interaction between gender and social status, how easily an individual might be influenced
Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin
few sex differences existed that could not be explained by simple social learning; most consistent difference attributed to biology or hormones is females better verbal ability, males better visual/spatial ability
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenmean
studied Type A personality
Type A personality
characterized by dirve, competitiveness, aggressiveness, tension, hostility; found most common in middle to upper class men
Grant Dahlstrom
linked Type A personality to heart disease and other health problems
measured by the F-scale (Fascism scale); disposition to view world as power relationships; these individuals are either highly domineering (if top dog of situation) or submissive (presence of a more powerfulfigure); conventional, aggressive, stereotyping, and anti-introspective
Hans Eysenck
used factor analysis to identify underlying traits of 2 personality-type dimensions (introversion-extraversion and stable-unstable [neuroticism]); formed a cross and four quadrants of phlegmatic, melancholic, choleric, sanguine
Abraham Maslow
hierarchy of needs
George Kelley
personal constructs determine personality and behaviour
Personal constructs
conscious ideas about self, others, and situations
Seymour Epstein
critical of personality trait theory
Julian Rotter
external and internal locus of control
External locus of control
personality characteristic, causes one to view events as result of luck or fate; too much breeds helplessness
Internal locus of control
personality characteristic, causes one to view events as outcome of own actions; too much breeds self-blame
Implicit theories (personality)
people often assume dispositions based on actions
Dispositional attribution
fundamental attribution error; tendency for others to think actions are caused more by personality than situation (e.g. lie because he is a liar, not because of the situation)
Fundamental attribution error
dispositional attribution; tendency for others to think actions are caused more by personality than situation (e.g. lie because he is a liar, not because of the situation)
Barnum effect
tendency to agree with and accept provided personality interpretations
Phenomenological view (personality)
focuses on individual's unique self and experiences
a state; temporary condition of being aware of thoughts, feelings, and actions
generally make people more self-aware; small less since common, large since a view of ourselves as others see us
scrutiny of own behaviour, motivation to act appropriately rather than honestly, ability to mask true feelings
a trait; how often one generally becomes self-aware; much attention paid to self
knowing you are worthwhile and in touch with strengths; 50% perceive selves accurately, 35% narcissistically
belief that one can effectively perform a task
believing you are better than you are or look better than you do; unrealistic self-esteem
self-defeating behaviour that allows one to dismiss or excuse failure
Martin Seligman
Learned helplessness
Learned helplessness
experience can change people's personalities; after a series of events one feels helpless or out of control, negative or pessimistic explanatory style develops; gives up in general, exhibits helpless disposition; countered with learned optimism
Learned optimism
cognitive training against learned helplessness
Costa and McCrae
personality changes little after age 30
Stimulus-seeking individuals
have a great need for arousal
Personality tests (2 types)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and California Personality Inventory (CPI)
Henry Murray
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
ambiguous story cards, people project own "needs"
DSM (description & history)
mental disorders, diagnostic criteria, official numerical codes, first published 1952, for clinical, research and educational use; 4th edition 1994, text revision 2000, DSM V 2012
DSM IV disorder groups (16)
disorders often diagnosed in childhood/adolescence; delirium, dementia, other cognitive disorders; mental disorders due to a general medical condition; substance-related disorders; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; somatoform disorder; factitious disorder; dissociative disorders; sexual and gender identity disorders; eating disorders; sleep disorders; impulse control disorders (not elsewhere classified); adjustment disorders; personality disorders
DSM (axes)
multiaxial assessment, across five axes; (I) clinical disorders and other conditions (group 1-15); (II) personality disorders (group 16); (III) General medical conditions; (IV) Psychosocial and environmental problems; (V) Global assessment of functioning
Disorders often diagnosed in childhood/adolescence (group 1; types)
mental retardation, learning disorders, developmental disorders, attention-deficit and disruptive behaviour disorders, tic disorders, elimination disorders
Mental retardation
IQ 70 or below; mild 70-55, moderate 55-40, severe 40-25, profound <25
Down syndrome
most common cause of mental retardation, results from trisomy of chromosome 21; older women have a greater chance of having a baby with Down syndrome
form of mental retardation caused by iodine deficiency
Learning disorders
indicated by school achievement or standardized scores at least 2 SDs below mean for age and IQ
Developmental disorders
Ex. autism, indicated by severe problems with social skills, communication, and interests
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
problems with attention, behaviour, and impulsivity; frequently treated with stimulants (e.g. Ritalin® and Adderall®)
Disruptive behaviour disorders
oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; indicated by patterns of behaviour that violate rules, norms, or the rights of others
Tic disorders
Ex. Tourette's syndrome is indicated by motor and vocal tics
Elimination disorders
Ex. Nocturnal enuresis, usually treated with behaviour modification
Delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders (group 2)
delirium and dementia related to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and alcoholism)
indicated by disturbed consciousness (awareness, attention, focus) and cognition (memory disorientation)
Cognitive problems (memory, spatial tasks, or language) that result from a medical condition; may be result of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, or Pick's disease
tremors with declining neurological functioning; deficient dopamine activity, boost dopamine by drug such as levodopa
Huntington's disease
genetically inherited progressive degeneration of thought, emotion, and movement
Pick's disease
disease of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain characterized by changes in personality
Mental disorders due to a general medical condition (group 3)
direct physiological result of a medical problem (e.g. depression due to hypothyroidism)
Substance-related disorders (group 4)
dependence and abuse of various substances
indicated by some combination of: continued use despite substance-related problems; need for increased amount; desire but inability to stop use; withdrawal; lessening of outside interests; much time getting, using, or recovering from substance
recurrent use despite substance-related problems or danger
Organic disorders that result from years of heavy drinking
Korsakoff's and Wernicke's syndrome
Korsakoff's syndrome
from vitamin B deficiency, loss of memory and orientation, often make up confabulations
made up events to fill in memory gaps
Wernicke's syndrome
from thiamine deficiency, memory problems and eye dysfunctions
Psychotic disorder (group 5; +types)
hallucinations or delusions are present; schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, shared psychotic disorder
Schizophrenia (description)
formerly dementia praecox, renamed by Eugene Bleuler as "split mind" from reality; symptoms may be positive or negative
Positive symptoms (schizophrenia)
abnormally present; delusions, perceptual hallucinations, nonsensical or disorganized speech, disorganized behaviour
erroneous or distorted thinking
Nonsensical or disorganized speech
perhaps use of neologisms
Disorganized behaviour
inappropriate dress, agitation, shouting
Negative symptoms
abnormally absent; includes flat affect or restrictions in thought, speech, or behaviour
Flat affect
absence of appropriate emotion
Schizophrenia (prognosis)
one with a history of good social and interpersonal skills likelier to recover
Schizophrenia (etiology)
diathesis-stress theory; physiological predisposition (excess dopamine) paired with external stressor
increase dopamine activity, produces schizophrenic-like paranoid symptoms
Neuroleptic drugs
reduce dopamine activity by blocking receptors; reducing schizophrenic symptoms (e.g. antipsychotic chlorpromazine); can cause Parkinson's-like symptoms since they decrease dopamine activity
Tardive dyskinesia
can result from long-term use of neuroleptics or psychotropics; characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements of tongue, jaw, or extremities
Schizophrenia (onset)
onset between late adolescence and mid-30s; process vs. reactive
Process schizophrenia
schizophrenia develops gradually, lower rate of recovery
Reactive schizophrenia
schizophrenia develops suddenly in response to a particular event, higher rate of recovery
Schizophrenia (types)
paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, residual
Paranoid (schizophrenia)
indicated by preoccupation with delusions or auditory hallucinations
Disorganized (schizophrenia)
aka hebephrenic schizophrenia; indicated by disorganized speech and behaviour, and flat affect
Catatonic (schizophrenia)
indicated by psychomotor disturbance such as catalepsy, excessive motor activity, prominent posturing, echolalia, echopraxia
Catalepsy (catatonia)
motor immobility or waxy figure
Prominent posturing (catatonia)
gestures, mannerisms, or grimacing
Echolalia (catatonia)
Echopraxia (catatonia)
imitating gestures of others
Undifferentiated (schizophrenia)
many schizophrenic symptoms not fitting a particular type
Residual (schizophrenia)
watered-down schizophrenia with few positive symptoms, if any
Thomas Szasz
viewed schizophrenic world as simply misunderstood or artistic; felt they should not be treated
Fromm and Reichamn
schizophrenogenic mother
Schizophrenogenic mother
type of mother who "causes" children to become schizophrenic
Schizoaffective disorder
schizophrenic symptoms accompanying a depressive episode
Delusional disorder
persistent delusions of various types: erotomanic, grandiose, jealousy, persecutory, somatic
Erotomanic delusion
another person is in love with the individual
Grandiose delusion
one has special talent or status
Somatic delusion
e.g. believing a part of the body is ugly of misshapen
Shared psychotic disorder
aka folie a deux; when two have shared delusions
Mood disorders (group 6; types)
major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder
Major depressive disorder
depressive episode by depressed mood, loss of interests, changes in weight or sleep, low energy, feelings of worthlessness, or thoughts of death; symptoms are present nearly every day for at least two weeks; females 2x likelier to be diagnosed; more common in developed countries
Reactive depression
depression resulting from particular events, similar to Martin Seligman's learned helplessness
Martin Seligman
learned helplessness
Depressive realism
finding of depressed people tend to be more realistic than nondepressed
Dysthymic disorder
symptoms of MDD (i.e. lower mood) are present more days than not for more than 2 years, but never an actual depressive episode
Bipolar disorder
aka manic depression; indicated by depressive symptoms that alternate with manic symptoms; equally prevalent in genders
Manic symptoms
inflated self-esteem, decreased sleep, talkativeness, flight of ideas, intense goal-directed activity, excessive pleasure-seeking
Anxiety disorders (group 7; types)
panic attack, generalized anxiety disorder, specific anxiety disorders: panic disorder, agoraphobia, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder
Panic attack
a component of many different anxiety disorders, lasts for a discrete period of time often <10 min; overwhelming feelings of danger or need to escape, expressed as an intense fear of dying or "going crazy"; accompanied by sweating, trembling, pounding heart, etc.
Generalized anxiety disorder
frequently treated with anxiolytics
Specific anxiety disorders (treatment)
usually treated with behavioural therapies that expose patient to anxiety-provoking stimulus to change response (i.e. systematic desensitization and flooding)
Panic disorder
recurrent panic attacks, persistent worry about another attack; often accompanied by mitral valve heart problem
fear of a situation that might arise panic symptoms, and escape would be difficult; usually fear and avoidance of being outside the home or in crowds
recognized, unreasonable, intense anxiety symptoms and avoidance of a stimulus; specific and social
Specific phobia
anxiety in response to a stimulus (e.g. flying, heights, needles, or driving)
Social phobia
anxiety around social or performance situations
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
characterized by obsessions or compulsions that are time-consuming, distressing, and disruptive; typical obsessions might be about locking the door, or becoming contaminated; typical compulsions might be checking behaviour, counting, or hand washing
Post-traumatic stress disorder
exposure to trauma that results in decreased ability to function and recurrent thoughts and anxiety about the incident; often linked to war veterans or victims of violence
Somatoform disorders (group 8; +types)
manifested by physical or bodily symptoms that cause reduced functioning; conversion disorder, hypochondriasis; formerly "psychosomatic" disorders
Conversion disorder
psychological problems converted to bodily symptoms; generally relate to voluntary movement and may be manifested as "paralysis"; formerly known as "hysteria" by Freud
irrational concern about having a serious disease
Factitious disorder (group 9)
creating physical complaints through fabrication or self-infliction to assume sick role for attention
Dissociative disorders (group 10; +types)
involve disruption of memory or identity; formerly psychogenic disorders; retrograde and anterograde amnesia, fugue, identity disorder, depersonalization
retrograde is inability to recall information before trauma; anterograde is forgetting events after trauma
suddenly fleeing to a new location, forgetting true identity, and/or establishing a new identity
Identity disorder
assumption of 2+ identities that control behaviour in different situations; formerly multiple personality disorder
Sexual and gender identity disorders (group 11; types)
range from fetishes to arousal problems to gender discomfort; desire, arousal, orgasmic, and sexual pain disorders
Eating disorders (group 12; types)
anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa
refusing to eat enough to maintain healthy weight; excessive concern about obesity
Bulimia nervosa
binge eating with harmful ways to prevent weight gain (e.g. induced vomiting or laxative use)
Sleep disorders (group 13; types)
dyssomnias and parasomnias; insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy, nightmare, sleep terror
sleep abnormalities; hypersomnia, narcolepsy, etc.
abnormal movements, behaviours, emotions, perceptions during sleep; usually between transitions of wake to non-REM or wake to REM; somnambulism, sleep terrors, etc.
difficulty falling/staying asleep
excessive sleepiness
falling asleep uncontrollably during routine daily activity
frequent disruption of sleep because of nightmares
Sleep terror
frequent disruption of sleep because of screaming or crying
Impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified (group 14; types)
irresistible urge dictates behaviour, giving in lessens tension, though disruptive to overall functioning; kleptomania, pyromania, pathological gambling, trichotillomania
irresistible impulse to steal
irresistible impulse to pull out one's own body hair
Adjustment disorders (group 15)
presence of an identifiable stressor (e.g. divorce) that results in emotional difficulty and decreased function
Personality disorders (group 16; +types)
characterized by rigid, pervasive, culturally abnormal personality; A (odd or eccentric), B (dramatic, emotional or erratic), C (anxious or fearful)
Cluster A personality (odd or eccentric disorders)
paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
Cluster B personality (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
Cluster C personality (anxious or fearful disorders)
avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
Paranoid personality disorder
A, odd or eccentric; distrust, suspicion
Schizoid personality disorder
A, odd or eccentric; detachment, small range of emotion
Schizotypal personality disorder
A, odd or eccentric; eccentricity, distorted reality
B, dramatic, emotional or erratic; disregard for rights of others, absence of guilt
Borderline personality disorder
B, dramatic, emotional or erratic; instability in relationships and emotions, impulsivity
Histrionic personality disorder
B, dramatic, emotional or erratic; shallow or excess emotion, attention-seeking
Narcissistic personality disorder
B, dramatic, emotional or erratic; need for admiration, idea of superiority
Avoidant personality disorder
C, anxious or fearful; social inhibitions hypersensitivity, perceptions of inadequacy
Dependent personality disorder
C, anxious or fearful; dependence and clinginess to others
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
C, anxious or fearful; excessive orderliness and control, perfectionism, rigid conformity to rules and moral codes
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
recessive, infant disease, excess amino acids, inborn error of metabolism
Tay-Sachs disease
recessive, genetic deficiency of hexosaminidase A; symptoms that resemble psychological disorders (e.g. schizophrenia or dementia)
Klinefelter's syndrome
male with one Y and 2 X chromosomes, hypogonadism and reduced fertility; other physical and behavioural differences and problems with varying severity
David Rosenhan
effect of diagnostic labels on perception of behaviour; experiment of normal pseudopatients feigned disorders, once in hospital, individuals acted normally, but behaviours construed as fitting the diagnosis anyway
Life event stress
frequently results from large, sudden changes or problems
Health psychology
studies biological, behavioural and social impacts on health and illness; increased stress leads to higher likelihood of sickness, social support is associated with better health outcomes
Stanley Hall
founder of American Psychology Association (APA)
American Psychology Association (APA)
Hall; founded 1892; governing body of psychology; purpose to "advance psychology as a science, as a profession, and as a means of promoting human welfare"
American Psychologist
official APA journal, published monthly; archival, current issue, theoretical, and practical articles from all psychology
Psychological Bulletin
published bimonthly by APA; various papers ranging from literature reviews to quantitative reviews
Psychological abstracts
index published by APA, found at most major libraries; montly compilation of "nonevaluative summaries of the world's literature in psychology"; in each issue, article abstracts arranged by topic; hardcopy version of PsycINFO
PsycINFO database
online format of Psychological Abstracts; access all psychology abstracts catalogued under search
Primary prevention
prevent documented psychosocial problems through contact with an at-risk group; proactive intervention; e.g. prenatal health care, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), and Head Start
Culturally competent interventions
treatment/prevention programs that recognize and tailor to cultural differences; therapists beginning to be trained in customs and norms of various cultures to minimize Eurocentric bias and assumptions
Community psychology
psychology taken into community (community centres or schools) rather than individuals go to clinics and universities; emphasizes respect, recognizes logistics that keep needy people from seeking help
Psychoanalytic theory (originator)
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic theory (description)
conflict between different drives are vying for expression, especially between libido and ego, between Eros and Thanatos; motivation by drive reduction; topographic model of conscious and unconscious elements; id (unconscious drives and wishes, sex and aggression), ego (mediates between environment and pressures of id and superego) and superego (learned or socialized drives); how well ego handles competing forces determines mental health; defense mechanisms; pleasure principle/primary process, reality principle/secondary process
Psychoanalytic theory (abnormal theory)
psychic determinism
Psychic determinism
Freud; repressed drives and unresolved conflicts led to pathological behaviour, dreams, unconscious behaviour (e.g. hysterical or neurotic women)
Psychoanalytic theory (therapy)
psychoanalysis, 4-5/week for years, stereotypical portrayal; initially hypnosis (Jean Charcot and Pierre Janet), later free association (Joseph Breuer); catharsis or abreaction; transference; countertransference; object relations therapy;
Jean Charcot
Pierre Janet
Catharsis or abreaction
Freud; unconscious material always looking for a way to discharge repressed emotion
Freud; react to therapist like parents and can examine those unconscious feelings
Freud; how a therapist feels about patient; analyst's transfer of unconscious feelings or wishes (central figures in analyst's life) onto patient
Object relations therapy
Klein; use of transference to help resolve problems that were result of previous relationships by correcting emotional experience in therapist-patient relationship
Psychoanalytic theory (goal of therapy)
Freud; lessen unconscious pressures by making material conscious, allow ego to be a better mediator of forces
Psychoanalytic theory (criticisms)
Freud; theories developed by single case studies of women in late 1800s and early 1900s, not "scientific"
Freud; central force that must find a socially acceptable outlet
Defense mechanism (+types)
Freud; way in which ego protects self from threatening unconscious material; repression/denial, rationalization, projection, displacement, reaction formation, compensation, sublimation, identification, undoing, dreams
Repression or denial
not allowing threatening material into awareness
justifying behaviour/feelings that cause guilt
accusing others of having one's own unacceptable feelings
shifting unacceptable feelings/actions to a less threatening recipient
Reaction formation
embracing feelings or behaviours opposite to true threatening feelings one has
excelling in one area to make up for shortcomings in another
channelling threatening drives into acceptable outlets
imitating a central figure, such as a parent
ritualistic activity to relieve anxiety about unconscious drives
safe outlets for unconscious material and wish-fulfillment, valuable for analysts; manifest content provides information about latent content
Pleasure principle
primary process; human motivation to seek pleasure and avoid pain; id
Reality principle
secondary process; guided by ego and responds to environment by delaying gratification
Screen memory
memories that serve as representations of important childhood experiences
Individual theory (originator)
Alfred Adler, broke away from Freud
Individual theory (description)
Alderian theory, people are creative, social, whole; feel inferior when current self does not match ideal self; process of "becoming" (realizing themselves) motivated by social needs; healthy individual has a "will to power" or a quest for feelings of superiority, goals outside self and beneficial to society; personality typology based on personal activity and social interest
Individual theory (abnormal theory)
Adler, too affected by inferior feelings to pursue will to power, "yes, but" mentality, if they pursue goals, likely self-serving
Individual theory (therapy)
Adler, psychodynamic approach, unconscious feelings play a role, examination of a person's lifestyle and choices: motivations, perceptions, goals, resources
Individual theory (goal of therapy)
Adler, reduce feelings of inferiority and foster social interest and contribution
Individual theory (criticisms)
Adler, best used with "normal" people in search of growth
Personality typology (types)
Adler, based on personal activity and social interest; ruling-dominant (choleric), getting-learning (phlegmatic), avoiding (melancholic) socially useful (sanguine)
Ruling-dominant type (choleric)
high activity, low social; dominant
Getting-leaning type (phlegmatic)
low activity, high social; dependent
Avoiding type (melancholic)
low activity, low social; withdrawn
Socially useful type (sanguine)
high activity, high social; healthy
Analytical theory (originator)
Carl Gustav Jung, broke away from Freud (over emphasis on libido)
Analytical theory (description)
Jung, psyche directed toward life and awareness; conscious, and personal and collective unconscious; archetype (persona, shadow, anima, animus, self)
Personal unconscious
from individual's own experiences, can become conscious
Collective unconscious
inherited from ancestors, common to all and contains archetypes
Archetypes (+types)
Jung, universally meaningful concepts, passed through collective unconscious; allow us to organize experiences with consistent themes and indicated by cross-cultural similarity in symbols, folklore, myths; persona, shadow, anima, animus, self
outer mask, mediator to external world; masks in cultures
dark side, often projected onto others; devils and evil spirits in cultures
female elements of a man
male elements of a female
full individual potential; Buddha and mandala in cultures
Analytical theory (abnormal theory)
Jung, something wrong in makeup of psyche, clues about how one could be more aware
Analytical theory (therapy)
Jung, to be more aware, unconscious material expressed is explored through analyzing dreams, artwork, personal symbols
Analytical theory (goal of therapy)
Jung, use unconscious messages to become more aware and closer to full potential
Analytical theory (criticisms)
Jung, too mystical or spiritual
Client-centered theory (originator)
Carl Rogers
Client-centered theory (description)
person-centered or Rogerian theory; humanistic, optimistic outlook on human nature; actualizing tendency that directs out of conflict and toward full potential, best in atmosphere that fosters growth
Client-centered theory (abnormal theory)
Rogers; People who lack congruence between real selves and conscious self-concept develops psychological tension; incongruence due to inconsistency between feelings/experiences and the acknowledged self (e.g. perfect self-concept shaken by any failure)
Client-centered theory (therapy)
Rogers, directed by client, decides how often to meet and what to discuss; therapist is nondirective, providing a self-exploration, safe and trusting atmosphere for client; provide empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness/congruence
client-centered therapist must appreciate rather than just observe client's perspective
Unconditional positive regard
client-centered therapist must maintain positivity regardless of choices, feelings or insights
client-centered therapist should speak and act genuinely, not maintain a professional reserve
Client-centered theory (goal of therapy)
Rogers, provide trusting atmosphere for client to self-direct growth and tap his own "vast resources", evidence of growth includes a congruent self-concept, positive self-regard, internal locus-of-evaluation, and willingness to experience
Client-centered theory (criticisms)
no use of diagnostic tools because Rogers believed client-centered therapy applied to any problem
Behaviour Theory (originators)
B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, Joseph Wolpe
Behaviour Theory (description)
Skinner, Pavlov, Wolpe; model based on learning; application of classical and operant conditioning principles, change maladaptive behaviour through new learning; radical behavioralism, neobehaviouralism
Radical behaviouralism
Skinner's operant ideas that behaviour is related only to consequences
Pavlov's classical counterconditioning principles to create new responses to stimuli
Behaviour Theory (abnormal theory)
Skinner, Pavlov, Wolpe; abnormal behaviour is the result of learning and conditioning
Behaviour Theory (therapy) (+types)
Skinner, Pavlov, Wolpe; short-term and directed; thoughts, feelings and unconsciousness not addressed; counterconditioning techniques to help client learn new responses; systematic desensitization, flooding or implosive therapy, aversion therapy, shaping, modeling, assertiveness training, role playing
Systematic desensitization
Joseph Wolpe, applies classical conditioning, exposed to increasingly anxiety-provoking stimuli until anxiety is decreased
Flooding or implosive therapy
classical conditioning, repeatedly exposed to anxiety-producing stimulus so eventually the overexposure leads to lessened anxiety
Aversion therapy
uses operant principle of negative reinforcement, anxiety-reaction created where there was none; usually to treat addiction and fetishes
uses operant conditioning, reinforced for behaviours that come closer and closer to desired action
uses social learning principles, exposes client to more adaptive behaviours
Assertiveness training
provides tools and experience that client can use to be more assertive
Role playing
allows client to practice new behaviours and responses
Behaviour Theory (goal of therapy)
Skinner, Pavlov, Wolpe; to change behaviour to more desired or adaptive; successful in treating phobias, fetishes, OCD, sexual problems, and childhood disorders (especially nocturnal enuresis)
Behaviour Theory (criticisms)
Skinner, Pavlov, Wolpe; treating symptoms rather than underlying problem
Cognitive Theory (originator)
Aaron Beck
Cognitive Theory (description)
Beck; emphasizes conscious thought patterns (rather than emotions or behaviours), interpretation of an experience rather than the experience itself; Beck Depression Inventory
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
measures cognitive triad and gauges severity of diagnosed depression; determines number of depressive symptoms, for research and clinical settings
Cognitive Theory (abnormal theory)
Beck; maladaptive cognitions lead to abnormal behaviour or disturbed affect; cognitive triad
Cognitive triad
negative views about the self, the world, and the future; causes depression
Maladaptive cognitions (types)
arbitrary inference, overgeneralization, magnifying/minimizing, personalizing, dichotomous thinking
Arbitrary inference
drawing conclusion without solid evidence (e.g. "Boss hates me because he never asks me to play golf")
mistaking isolated incidents for the norm (e.g. "no one will ever want to be with me")
making too much or little of something (e.g. "it was luck that I did well")
inappropriately taking responsibility (e.g. "our failed project was all my fault")
Dichotomous thinking
black and white thinking (e.g. "if I don't score 100% I have no future")
Cognitive Theory (therapy)
directed therapy helps expose and restructure maladaptive thought and reasoning patterns, generally short-term, therapist focuses on tangible evidence of client's logic (what client says and does)
Cognitive Theory (goal of therapy)
correct maladaptive cognitions
Cognitive Theory (criticisms)
Similar to behaviour therapy, addresses how a person thinks, rather than why the thought patterns developed; removing symptoms may not cure problem
Rational-Emotive Theory (originator)
Albert Ellis
Rational-Emotive Theory (description)
Ellis; includes elements of cognitive, behavioural, and emotion theory; intertwined thoughts and feelings produce behaviour
Rational-Emotive Theory (abnormal theory)
Ellis; psychological tension created when (a)ctivating even occurs, and client has certain (b)eliefs about the event, leading to (c)onsequence of emotional disruption
Rational-Emotive Theory (therapy)
Ellis; highly directive; therapist leads client to (d)ispute previously applied irrational beliefs
Rational-Emotive Theory (goal of therapy)
Ellis; goal is (e)ffective rational beliefs to replace previous self-defeating ones, then client's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours can coexist
Rational-Emotive Theory (criticisms)
Ellis; Like cognitive and behaviour theory, considered too sterile and mechanistic
Gestalt Theory (originators)
Fritz Perls, Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka
Gestalt Theory (abnormal theory)
Perls, Wetheimer, Koffka; abnormality derived from disturbances of awareness, client may not have insight or fully experience present situation (choosing not to acknowledge certain aspects)
Gestalt Theory (therapy)
Perls, Wetheimer, Koffka; therapist engages in a dialogue with client rather than leading toward a goal; client learns from dialogue, and together focus on here-and-now experience rather than the past
Gestalt Theory (goal of therapy)
Perls, Wetheimer, Koffka; goal is exploration of awareness and full experiencing of the present; success is connecting client with present existence
Gestalt Theory (criticisms)
Perls, Wetheimer, Koffka; not suited for low-functioning or disturbed clients
Existential Theory (originator)
Victor Frankl
Existential Theory (description)
Frankl; revolves around philosophical issues particularly the issue of meaning; one`s greatest struggles are being vs. nonbeing, and meaningfulness vs. meaninglessness; individual constantly strives to rise above a simple behavioural existence and toward a "will to meaning"
Existential Theory (abnormal theory)
Frankl; response to perceived one's meaninglessness is neurosis or neurotic anxiety (as opposed to normal or justified anxiety)
Existential Theory (therapy)
Frankl; Rollo May is a major contributor; talking therapy, deep questions relating to perception and meaning of existence
Existential Theory (goal of therapy)
Frankl; goal is to increase sense of being and meaningfulness, to alleviate neurotic anxiety
Existential Theory (criticisms)
Frankl; considered too abstract for severely disturbed individuals
use of medication to treat mental illness, do not cure but some are effective at alleviating symptoms; often used with therapy
Psychopharmacology (abnormal theory)
believed some emotional disturbances at least partly caused by biological factors
Psychopharmacology (therapy)
aim to affect neurotransmitters; commonly dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine (monoamines)
Monoamines (examples)
class of neurotransmitter that dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine belongs to
first drugs for psychopathology; usually to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine receptors and inhibiting dopamine production (ex. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), and haloperidol (Haldol®))
drugs for bipolar disorder, mania appears to be from excessive monoamines; inhibit monoamines such as norepinephrine and serotonin (ex. Lithium)
Antidepressants (+types)
reduces depressive symptoms, opposite action of antimanics; depression appears to be from abnormally low levels of monoamines; increase production and transmission of various monoamines; Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); at least 6 weeks to begin working; often used in treatment either because of fast relief from symptoms so client can attend therapy, or because of unsuccessful psychotherapy
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
Tricyclic chemical structure; ex. amitriptyline (Elavil®)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Ex. phenelzine (Nardil®)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
most frequently prescribed because fewer side effects than tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); Ex. fluoxetine (Prozac®), paroxetine (Paxil®), sertraline (Zoloft®)
used to reduce anxiety or to induce sleep; increases effectiveness of GABA (inhibitory); high potential for causing habituation and addiction; Ex. barbiturates and benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium®) and alprazolam (Xanax®)
Antabuse ®
drug that changes metabolism of alcohol, resulting in severe nausea and vomiting when combined; countercondition alcoholics
Psychopharmacology (goal of therapy)
to provide relief from symptoms of psychopathology
Psychopharmacology (criticisms)
drugs that take away symptoms do not provide interpersonal support
Hans Eysenck
criticized effectiveness of psychotherapy after analyzing studies that indicated psychotherapy was no more successful than no treatment at all; other studies contradict this
Anna Freud
applied Freud ideas of child psychology and development
Melanie Klein
object-relations theory; "objects" relationships: real others and one's internalized image of others; psychoanalysis with children
Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan
Karen Horney
emphasized culture and society over instinct; suggested neuroticism expressed as movement toward, against, and away from people
Harry Stack Sullivan
emphasized social and interpersonal relationships; what one does is meant to elicit particular reactions
Psychodynamic theory
general term that refers to theories that emphasize role of unconscious (including individual or analytical)
Humanistic theory
general term that refers to theories that emphasize the positive, evolving free will in people (such as client-centered, Gestalt, or existential); optimistic about human nature; "Third Force"
Third Force
in psychotherapy, in reaction to psychoanalysis and behavioralism
Abraham Maslow
leader of humanistic movement; hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of needs
people work their way up hierarchy toward self-actualization by satisfying needs at the previous level: physiological needs, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization
Play therapy
child clients; emotions, situations, or disturbances conveyed might otherwise go unexpressed
Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)
delivers electric current to brain to induce convulsions; effective for severely depressed patients
Family therapy
treats family as a whole as client
Donald Meichenbaum
Stress-inoculation training
Stress-inoculation training
prepares people for foreseeable stressors
Neal Miller
proved experimentally that abnormal behaviour can be learned
Evidence-based treatment
treatment shown to produce results in empirical studies; many argue only this is ethical; others argue controlled experiments not like real treatments, less useful and applicable
Konrad Lorenz
founder of ethology, imprinting, animal aggression, releasing stimuli, fixed action patterns
Lorenz, certain species (often birds) young attach to first moving object they see, "following response", sensitive learning period: doesn't matter what their later experiences are
Animal aggression
Lorez, certain aggression necessary for survival of species, instinctual rather than learned
Releasing stimuli
aka releasers or sign stimuli, Lorenz, continued by Tinbergen, elicits fixed action patterns from another individual in the same species
Fixed action patterns
Lorenz, triggered by releasing stimuli, automatic and innate, instinctual, complex chains of behaviour; four defining characteristics: uniform patterns, performed by most members, more complex than simple reflexes, cannot be interrupted
Nikolaas Tinbergen
models in naturalistic settings, stickleback fish and herring gull chicks
Stickleback fish
Tinbergen, males develop red coloration on belly, which is the releasing stimulus for attacks; males attacked red-bellied crude models rather than the detailed but non-red models
Herring gull chicks
Tinbergen, peck at end of parents' bills which have a red spot on the tip, parents then regurgitates food for chicks; chicks pecked more at a red-tipped model bill than at a plain model bill; the greater the contrast between bill and red spot even when unnaturally strong; supernormal sign stimulus
Supernormal sign stimulus
Tinbergen, artificial stimuli that exaggerate naturally occurring sign stimulus or releaser, more effective than natural
Walter Cannon
coined "fight or flight", proposed idea homeostasis
made of DNA molecules, organized in chromosomes
sperm or ovum, haploid (23 single chromosomes)
fertilized egg cell, two separate sets of 23 chromosomes come together for 23 pairs, diploid
Genetic drift
how particular genotypes selected out or eliminated from a population over time
ability to reproduce and pass on genes
Inclusive fitness
animals invested also in survival of genes of their kin
Instinctual or innate behaviours
present in all normal members of a species, stereotypic in form throughout members even for the first time, independent of learning or experience
Interaction between instinct and learning
e.g. rodents reared in isolation perform instinctual nest-building but much less efficient and successful than those exposed to learning opportunities
behaviour that solely benefits another, group mentality, will help if benefit outweighs cost or expect to be repaid
Biological clocks
internal rhythms that keep animal in sync with environment; circadian, circannual, lunar, tidal rhythms
Circadian rhythms
endogenous rhythms that revolve around a 24 hour time period
behaviours that precede sexual acts that lead to reproduction, to attract and isolate a mate
Displacement activities or irrelevant behaviours
behaviours that seem out of place, illogical, and no particular survival function (e.g. scratching your head while thinking)
period in which a female is sexually receptive
breeding within same family, evolutionary controls prevent this (e.g. swan facial markings of same family)
evolved form of deception, harmless species may mimic coloration and pattern of more poisonous ones to escape predation
Instinctual drift
when animal replaces a trained or forced response with a natural or instinctive response
chemicals detected by vomeronasal organ, acts as messengers between animals, primitive form of communication, can transmit states such as fear or sexual receptiveness
Reproductive isolating mechanisms (+types)
prevent interbreeding between two different (but closely related / genetically compatible) species, four types: behavioural isolation, geographic isolation, mechanical isolation, isolation by season
Sensitive or critical periods
times when developing animal most vulnerable to learning effects (e.g. birds learning their species' song, if reared in isolation cannot develop normal song later
Sexual dimorphism
structural differences between sexes, arisen through both natural and sexual selections
Sexual selection
form of natural selection, not the fittest that win but those with greatest chance of being chosen as a mate (best fighters, most attractive, etc)
Selective breeding
mates intentionally paired to increase chances of producing offspring with particular traits
Karl von Frisch
dance of the honeybees, and also studied senses of fish
Communication of bees
von Frisch, once a scouting bee locates a promising food source, returns to hive and conveys the location through movements; round or waggle dance, the longer the dance the farther the food, the more vigorous display the better food; performed on vertical sheets of the hive where the angle is a vertical line and direction of bee orients when dancing is the same angle as between sun and food sources; also communicates potential nesting sites
Round dance
bees dance to indicate food is extremely nearby
Waggle dance
bees dance to indicate food is far away
Navigation of bees
scouting bees look for food and nesting sites; can use landmarks as simple location cues, also sun, polarized light, and magnetic fields as aids
Hierarchy of bees
only one queen bee, which produces a chemical that suppresses ovaries in all other female bees, constantly tended to and fed, lays thousands of eggs in the spring; when eggs mature, scouts finds new site for old queen and her workers, a new queen emerges
Mating of bees
very few drones (male bees) produced, only for mating with queen, same mating areas used year after year even though no bee survives from one year to the next, unknown how they know to gather there
Flower selection of bees
bees can see UV light, sees certain markers on flowers (honey guides) that people do not
Navigation of animals
some use map-and-compass navigation (landmarks and sun or stars), some have true navigational abilities and can point toward their goal with no landmarks and from any position (e.g. captured birds eventually arrive at their usual goal anyway); birds and bees are expert navigators
Atmospheric pressure
pigeons sensitive to pressure changes in altitude as navigational cue
pigeons can hear extremely low-frequency sounds (e.g. emitted by surf) that travel great distances as a navigational cue
Magnetic sense
pigeons and bees have magnetic sensitivity, allows them to use earth`s magnetic forces as navigational cue
Sun compass
pigeons and bees can compensate for daily solar movements for navigational cue
Star compass
many birds can use star patterns and movements as navigational cue
Polarized light
when sun is obscured by clouds, bees can use this navigational cue to infer sun positioning
generally replaces sight, marine mammals and bats, emit high-frequency sounds and locate nearby objects from the echo; bats can fly through grids of thin nylon strings and can locate and eat small flying insects at 2/s
Hearing of owls
navigate at night but do not use echolocation, like humans localize sound by binaural cues (compare intensities, arrival times), but better at determining elevation of sound source due to asymmetrical ears
Wolfgang Kohler
worked with chimpanzees and insight in problem solving, chimps could perceive the whole situation to create new solutions rather than by trial and error; chimps had to use tools or create props to retrieve rewards; aha experience
Harry Harlow
researched development with rhesus monkeys in terms of social isolation, contact comfort, and learning to learn
Social isolation from rhesus monkeys
Harlow, isolated monkeys, lack of interaction and socialization hampered social development, once brought together with others, males did not display normal sexual functioning and females lacked maternal behaviours
Contact comfort from rhesus monkeys
Harlow, mother-infant attachment, infants placed with two surrogate mothers (wire with feeding bottle, and terrycloth with no bottle); infant spent most time with terrycloth mother especially when afraid, only approached wire mother to feed; infants attach to mothers through comforting experience rather than through feeding
Learning to learn from rhesus monkeys
Harlow, monkeys became better at learning tasks as they acquired different learning experiences, eventually learned after only one trial
R. C. Tyron
bred "maze bright" and "maze full" rats to demonstrate heritability of behaviour
R.M. Cooper and John Zubek
interaction between heredity and environment, bright rats performed better than dull only when both sets raised in normal conditions, both groups performed well in enriched environment (lots of food and activities), both performed poorly in impoverished environment
Edward Thorndike
instrumental learning in animals, trial, error, accidental success, led to law of effect that successful behaviours are likelier to be repeated; cats in puzzle boxes: eventually accidentally press escape door lever and be free, later the cat activates lever right away
Cross fostering experiments
attempt to separate effects of heredity and environment, sibling mice separated at birth and placed with different parents or situations; differences in aggression attributed to experience rather than genetics
Eric Kandel
studied sea slug Aplysia, chose due to few, large, easily identifiable nerve cells; learning and memory by changes in synapses and neural pathways
Central Nervous System
made up of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
pathway that runs to and from CNS
Afferent fibers
PNS fibers that run towards CNS
Efferent fibers
PNS fibers that run away from CNS
Peripheral nervous system (subsystems)
made up of somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
PNS, interacts with external environment by controlling voluntary movements of striated muscles
Autonomic nervous system
PNS, interacts with internal environment, "fight or flight" response, involuntary functions including smooth muscles, digestion, blood circulation, breathing
Autonomic nervous system (subsystems)
made up of sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
ANS, controls arousal mechanisms (increase BP, HR, respiration, pupil dilation, threat and fear response)
Parasympathetic nervous system
ANS, recuperation after arousal (decrease HR, BP, respiration)
Gray matter
inner core of spine, cell bodies and dendrites
White matter
outer covering of spine, nerve fibers, axon bundles, myelin sheathing
Brain evolution
extension of the spine, developed from base to the front
consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and reticular formation
Hindbrain, medulla; reflexes, sleep, attention, movement
Of hindbrain, has pons and cerebellum; muscle coordination, balance, posture
Reticular formation
base in hindbrain, rest in midbrain; oldest brain area; alertness, thirst, sleep, involuntary muscles
midbrain; contains tectum and tegmentum
Of mesencephalon, vision and hearing
Of mesencephalon, rest of reticular formation; sensorimotor system, analgesic effect of opiates
Corticospinal tract
connections between brain and spine
Forebrain (division)
divided into diencephalon and telencephalon
made of thalamus and hypothalamus
Of diencephalon, channels sensory information to cerebral cortex
Of diencephalon, controls autonomic nervous system biological motivations (hunger, thirst) and pituitary gland
consists of limbic system, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus
Limbic system
Of telencephalon, structures in brain stem involved in 4Fs (flight, feed, fight, fornicate)
Of telencephalon, transfer STM into LTM, new neurons can form in adult mammalian brain
Of telencephalon, controls emotional reactions such as fear and anger
Cingulate gyrus
Of telencephalon, links brain areas dealing with emotion and decisions
Cerebral cortex
outer half-inch of cerebral hemispheres; sensory and intellectual functions; split into frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal lobes; 90% neocortex 6 layers, 10% < 6 layers and more primitive
Frontal lobe
controls speech (Broca's area), reasoning, problem solving
Occipital lobe
responsible for vision
Parietal lobe
responsible for somatosensory system
Temporal lobe
responsible for hearing, also Wernicke's area
tough connective tissues that cover/protect brain and spinal cord
Blood-brain barrier
makes it difficult for toxic substances to pass from the blood into the brain, since blood vessel cells in the brain are tightly packed
chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid that insulate brain from shock
Superior colliculus
controls visual reflexes
Inferior colliculus
controls auditory reflexes
Basal ganglia
control large voluntary muscle movements, degeneration related to motor dysfunction in Parkinson's and Huntington's
Cortical association areas
correspond to certain functions; the larger the area, the more sensitive and highly accessed the function
inability to organize movement
difficulty processing sensory information
inability to read
inability to write
Broca's aphasia
language disorder from damage to Broca's area, in left frontal lobe; can understand speech but has difficulty speaking (slow, laborious, omits words)
Wernicke's aphasia
language disorder from damage to Wernicke's area, in left temporal lobe; can speak but doesn't understand how to correctly choose words (fluent but nonsensical)
overeating with no satiation of hunger; leads to obesity; damage to ventromedial region of hypothalamus
Sham rage
incredible rage easily provoked when cerebral cortex is removed
Stereotaxic instruments
used to implant electrodes into animals' brains in experiments
measures oxygen flow in different brain areas, used most in cognitive psych to measure activity in different brain regions during certain tasks
scans glucose metabolism to measure activity in various brain regions
Blooming and pruning
process in which neural pathways are connected and then some die out
neuron branches, receive impulses, branching patterns change throughout life
Cell body (soma)
gray matter, has a nucleus that directs neuron's activity
Axon hillock
where soma and axon connect
transmits impulses, bundles of these are nerve fibers (white matter); the wider nerve fiber, the faster its conduction
Myelin sheath
fatty, insulating sheath on some axons for faster conduction
Nodes of Ranvier
between myelin sheath, help send impulse down axon
Terminal buttons
contain synaptic vessels that hold neurotransmitters
Cell membrane
covers whole neuron, selective permeability, sometimes lets ions through
Presynaptic cell
end of a neuron (terminal buttons)
Postsynaptic cell
beginning of neuron (dendrites)
Glial cells
help support neurons; oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
provide myelin in central nervous system
Schwann cells
provide myelin in peripheral nervous system
Steps in neural transmission
(1) resting potential, -, does not let ions in; (2) presynaptic cell releases neurotransmitters from terminal buttons; (3) post synaptic receptors open ion channels; (4) excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP); (5) action potential (nerve impulse) (+ enough) and fires [all-or-none law]; (6) AP travels down axon, salutatory conduction; (7) at the terminal buttons, neurotransmitters released to the next cell; (8) absolute refractory period; (9) relative refractory period; (10) reuptake of neurotransmitter or deactivation by enzymes
Excitatory postsynaptic potential
depolarization, + from outside allowed into cell, increase firing
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
hyperpolarization, + let out, - compared to outside, decrease firing
All-or-none law
once minimum threshold is met, intensity always the same regardless of amount of stimulation
Saltatory conduction
jumping from one node of Ranvier to the next due to insulation by myelin sheath
Absolute refractory period
time after a neuron fires which it cannot respond to stimulation
Relative refractory period
time after absolute refractory period, neuron can fire but needs a much stronger stimulus
released at neuromuscular junction to cause contraction of skeletal muscles, also involved in parasympathetic nervous system
linked to pleasure and analgesia; can be endogenous (opioid peptides) or exogenous (morphine or heroin)
comprise two classes of neurotransmitters, indolamines and catecholamines
include serotonin, lack linked with depression
include dopamine, lack linked with Parkinson's, excess linked with schizophrenia, involved in feelings of reward and therefore addiction
Amino acids
present in fast-acting, directed synapses
an amino acid, most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
an amino acid, most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter
like neurotransmitters but cause long-term changes in postsynaptic cell
increase effects of a neurotransmitter (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [for depression] increase serotonin activity)
decrease effects of a neurotransmitter (e.g. botox is an acetylecholine antagonist that decreases muscle activity)
Pituitary gland
controlled by hypothalamus, regulation of hormones in the body
Organizational hormones
occur during specific periods in development, permanent or long-lasting effects; presence of H-Y antigen in development causes fetus to develop into a male, absence to female; androgens in males and estrogen in females causes secondary sex characteristics; menarche
Activational hormones
anytime during adulthood, short periods, often transient or reversible (current/recent circulation); menstrual cycle (estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)); LH and FSH in females regulate ovum development and trigger ovulation, in males regulate development of sperm and testosterone production; oxytocin facilitates birth, breast feeding, pair bonding (mother-child or romantic)
regulate water levels in body and therefore BP
Thyroid stimulating hormone
activates thyroid
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stress hormone, increases androgen and cortisol production
Non-REM sleep (4 stages of sleep)
takes about half an hour; (0) neural synchrony; alpha waves; relaxed and drowsy; (1) alpha waves give way to irregular theta waves; loses responsiveness to stimuli, fleeting thoughts, eyes roll; (2) theta wave stage, characterized by sleep spindles; muscle tension and gradual decline in HR, respiration, temperature; (3) delta waves and fewer sleep spindles; 30 min after falling asleep; (4) delta waves >50% of the time; deepest level of sleep when HR, respiration, temperature, and blood flow to brain reduced and growth hormones secreted; when awoken here, groggy and confused
Rapid Eye Movement sleep
neural desynchrony, beta waves; 20% (90-120min) sleep time, interspersed with non-REM every 30-40min, dreams, paradoxical sleep, physiological signs resemble waking state but muscle tone decreases to point of paralysis with sudden twitches (esp. In face and hands); lasts 15 minutes at beginning of sleep cycle to one hour at the end; comprises 50% of total sleep at birth, decreases to 25%
Alpha waves
stage 0 & 1 non-REM sleep, low-amplitude and fast-frequency waves
Theta waves
stage 1 & 2 non-REM sleep (with sleep spindles), lower-amplitude and slower frequency waves
Delta waves
stage 3 (less sleep spindles) & 4 non-REM sleep, high-amplitude and low-frequency
Beta waves
REM-sleep, low-amplitude and fast-frequency waves that characterize waking states
Sleep spindles
fast frequency bursts of brain activity, inhibits processing to keep tranquil state
Rebound effect
occurs when people deprived of REM sleep, compensate by spending more time in REM sleep later in the night
Sleep cycles
4-6 complete ones, each about 90 minutes, early in the night most time in stage 3 and 4, 2 and REM sleep predominate later
Sleep hours for infants and elderly respectively
16 hours of sleep a day, 6 hours
Sensory transduction
physical sensation into electrical messages
Nativist theory
perception and cognition are innate
Structuralist theory
perception is through bottom-up processing
Gestalt psychology
perception is through top-down processing
Current thinking of perception
partially inate/sensory, partially learned/conceptual
James Gibson
perceptual development as increasing ability through development to make finer discriminations among stimuli; optic array
Optic array
Gibson, all things a person sees, trains people to perceive; perceptual development
clear protective coating
behind cornea
Ciliary muscles
accommodates lens to focus an image onto retina
back of the eye, receives light images, 132 million photoreceptor cells and other cell layers that process information
Receptor cells
rods and cones on retina, for sensory transduction through chemical alteration of photopigments
dim light and night vision; concentrated along sides of retina, peripheral vision, more rods needed per ganglion cell (cones see better)
color and day vision; center of retina, fovea; area with greatest visual acuity, fewer cones per ganglion cell (sees better than rods)
Visual pathway
light, receptors, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, ganglion cells (make up optic nerves, one to each eye), optic chiasm (half fibers from each optic nerve cross over to other eye for full picture), striate cortex, visual association areas
Ewald Hering
Opponent-color or opponent process
Opponent-color or opponent process
Hering, color vision, two types of color-sensitive cells: blue-yellow, red-green; when one of the pair is stimulated the other is inhibited; therefore never see bluish yellow or reddish green; also may see afterimage
Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz
Tri-chromatic theory
Tri-chromatic theory
Young and von Helmholtz, three types of receptors in retina: cones that respond to red, blue, or green
Where opponent-process and tri-chromatic theory works respectively
lateral geniculate body, retina
Hermann von Helmholtz (vision)
color blindness theory
Lateral inhibition
allows eye to see contrast and prevents repetitive information sent; once a receptor is stimulated, others nearby are inhibited
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
complex and specialized cells that respond to certain types of stimuli (e.g. only to vertical lines, some to right angles)
Depth perception cues (list)
binocular disparity (two slightly different angles), apparent size, interposition (overlap to show which object closer), linear perspective (parallel lines seem to converge with distance), texture gradient (texture/fine detail changes from different distances), motion parallax (perceived different pace of movement through displacement of objects over time)
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk
visual cliff apparatus, animals and babies avoided "cliff" regardless of glass, appears depth perception is innate
McCollough effect
afterimages; due to fatigued receptors and then overshadowing of its opposite, in oppositional system
Dark adaptation
result of regeneration of retinal pigment
Gestalt idea that experience will be organized as meaningful, symmetrical, and simple whenever possible, includes closure, proximity, continuation, symmetry, size and color constancy, minimum principle (tendency to see what is easiest or logical)
Impossible objects illusion
objects that have been drawn and can be perceived but geometrically impossible
Moon illusion
shows context affects perception, on horizon visual cues make moon seem more distant than overhead sky, because we cannot correct for distance with no cues
Phi phenomenon
apparent motion; tendency to perceive smooth motion, why motion is inferred when there is none
Muller-Lyer illusion
two lines of equal length appear unequal; <--> vs. >--<
Ponzo illusion
two lines of equal length appear unequal; /=\
Autokinetic effect
point of light viewed in darkness appears to shake or move due to our eye movement
Purkinje shift
perceived color brightness changes with level of illumination, extremes like red & green seen as less bright in low light
Pattern recognition
template matching and feature detection (e.g. look for letter o, look for rounded edges first, etc)
inability to recognize faces, sees jumble of facial features
Robert Fantz
infants prefer relatively complex and sensical displaces
Absolute threshold
minimum to detect stimuli 50% of the time
E. H. Weber
Differential threshold
Differential threshold
Weber, just noticeable difference; minimum difference between two stimuli to be perceived as different intensities
Terminal threshold
upper limit above which stimuli can no longer be perceived
Weber's law
a stimulus needs to be increased by a constant fraction of its original value to be noticed as different (K=ΔI/Io); applies to all senses but a limited range of intensities
Fechner's law
built upon Weber's law; strength of a stimulus must be significantly increased to produce a slight difference in sensation; S (sensation strength) = k log R (log of original intensity)
J.A. Swet's Theory of Signal Detection (TSD)
subjects detect stimuli not only because they can but also because they want to; factors in motivation (rewards/costs in detection) to explain inconsistencies in response; response bias
Response bias
J.A. Swet's Theory of Signal Detection; interplay between response bias and stimulus intensity determines response (false alarm, hit, miss, correct rejection, receiver operating characteristic)
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves
graphical representations of a subject's sensitivity to a stimulus; specificity (x) vs. sensitivity (y)
loudness from sound wave
pitch (Hz) from sound wave, ~1000Hz best heard by humans
quality/characteristic of sound from complexity of sound wave
Outer ear
pinna and auditory canal which vibrations move down to middle ear
Middle ear
begins with tympanic membrane stretched across auditory canal, vibrations transferred to ossicles (malleus-incus-stapes)
Inner ear
begins with oval window which is tapped by stapes, activates cochlea, cochlear fluid to hair-cell receptors on basilar membrane (traveling wave) and organ of corti for hearing; vestibular sacs (also hair movement) sensitive to tilt for balance; receptors activate nerves to form electrical message
Auditory system to auditory cortex
olivary nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, A1
Hermann von Helmholtz (audition)
place-resonance theory; different parts of basilar membrane respond to different frequencies
Sound localization
gives us information about sound origin; high-frequency localized by intensity differences, low-frequency localized by phase differences; binaural cues and spectral cues (pinna)
Dichotic presentation
study selective attention, often asked to shadow one message to ensure the other message is not consciously attended to
Selective attention
process of tuning in to something specific while ignoring background stimuli
Subliminal perception
unconsciously perceiving a stimulus, such as the unattended message in dichotic presentation or tachistoscopic presentations
hair receptors in nostrils to olfactory bulb at base of brain, smell strongly connected to memory and taste
sweet, bitter, sour, salty, umami (meaty/savory); saliva mixes with food so flavour can flow to taste receptors (taste buds or papillae) on tongue
deal with thirst
Kinesthetic sense or proprioception
information from receptors in joints and muscles that senses body positioning
Cutaneous/tactual senses
touch, pain, cold, warmth
Free nerve endings
detect pain and temperature
Merkel cells
detect pressure and texture; superficial
Meissner's corpuscles
detect flutter, touch or contact; superficial
Ruffian corpuscles
detect stretch
Pacinian corpuscles
detect vibration, displacements of skin
Size of two-point threshold for touch
determined by density and layout of nerves in skin
Physiological zero
temperature sensed as neither warm nor cold
Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall
Gate Control Theory of Pain
Gate Control Theory of Pain
process rather than simple unpleasant sensation, related to interaction of large and small nerve fibers that run to and from spine; pain perception influenced by many factors including cognition
neuromodulators that reduce or eliminate pain perception
Orienting reflex
tendency to turn toward an object that touched you
use perceptual cues to make artificial situations seem real
represents relationship between two things
test relationships then to form concepts
Mental set
preconceived notion of how to look at a problem
ideas about the way events typically unfold
new perspective on old problem
Convergent thinking
find the one solution to a problem (e.g. math)
Divergent thinking
more than one possibility exists in a situation (e.g. chess or creative thinking)
Functional fixedness
development of closed minds about the function of objects, difficult to think outside the box
Problem space
sum total of possible moves that one might make to solve a problem
problem solving strategy, considers every possible solution to arrive at correct one, time consuming
thinking about thinking, knowing what solving strategies to apply and when, or knowing how to adapt thinking to new situations
intervening mental process that occurs between stimulus and response, what to do or how to respond based on ideas or the past
Computer simulation models
Newell and Simon, designed to solve problems like humans
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon
introduced first computer simulation models, logic theorist, then revamped it, the general problem solver
Deductive reasoning
leads to specific conclusion that must follow from information given
Inductive reasoning
leads to general rules inferred from specifics
Logical reasoning errors (types)
atmosphere effect, semantic effect, confirmation bias
Atmosphere effect
logical reasoning error, conclusion influenced by the way information is phrased
Semantic effect
logical reasoning error, believing in conclusions because of what you know or think to be correct rather that what logically follows
Confirmation bias
logical reasoning error, remembering and using information that confirms what you already believe
Decision making
working on solving a problem until an acceptable solution; usually found by relying on reason and/or emotion, usually based on (rational or irrational) assumptions
frequently debated definition and types; the capacity to use knowledge to improve achievement in an environment
Elizabeth Loftus and Allan Collins
suggested hierarchical semantic networks, people group related items; the more closely related items, the more quickly subject can link them (e.g. Answer T/F quicker to "a canary is a bird" than "a toaster is a bird")
Allan Collins and Ross Quillian
decisions made about relationship between items by searching cognitive semantic hierarchies; parallel distributive processing, or connectionism; the farther apart in hierarchy, the longer it takes to see connection
Associations between pictures and words
slower between pictures than words; pictures must be put into words before associations made
Semantic priming
in a word recognition task, presentation of a related item before the next item; decreases reaction time because it activates node of the second item in semantic hierarchy
Stroop effect
decreased speed of naming color of ink if incongruous to word itself
Automatic processing
effortless task due to higher organization process
eye movements from one fixation point to another
Eye movements and gaze durations
movements and durations indicate information processing while reading
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
physiological responses cause emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
emergency theory; emotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously, body cued to react in the brain (emotion) and in the body (biological response)
Schachter-Singer theory
cognitive theory of emotion; similar to James-Lange theory, emotions are the product of physiological reactions, but interpretation of the physiological arousal is determined by the cognition we attach to a situation, leading to emotion