58 terms

World History Chapter 5

Mrs. Wilde "Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. - 300 B.C."
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Mycenaean
The Indo-European people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 BC.
Trojan War
A ten year war, between the Mycenaean Greeks and the city-state of Troy, in Anatolia. In the myth the war was caused when a Tojan Prince kidnapped Helen, the wife of a Greek King.
Dorian
A Greek-speaking people that, according to tradition, migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization around 1200 B.C. Under the Dorian rule the economy collapsed and the people lost the art of writing.
Homer
An ancient Greek epic poet, who is believed to have written the Iliad ,and the Odyssey around 850 B.C.
Epic
A long poem that tells about legendary or heroic deeds.
Myth
The traditional stories of a culture that tell about their gods and heroes.
Polis
Also known as a city-state, this was a political unit that was made up of a city and its surrounding area.
Acropolis
This was a fortified hilltop where people would go for portection, and to discuss government issues.
Monarchy
A government ruled by a king or queen.
Aristocracy
A government in which power is in the hands of the nobility, or wealthy, landowning families.
Oligarchy
A system of government in which a small group of people holds power.
Tyrant
In ancient Greece, a powerful individual who gained control of the government by appealing to the common people for support.
Democracy
A form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people.
Helot
These were what the ancient Messenians were called after they were conquered by the Spartans in 725 B.C. They became the slave labor, forced to live on the land they worked for the Spartans.
Phalanx
An ancient military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields, grouped closely together. One of the most powerful battle tactics of the ancient world.
Persian Wars
A number of conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus.
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
Classical Art
The art of ancient Greece in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized. It portrayed ideal beauty instead of the realistic form.
Tragedy
One of the two main types of drama, writen by the ancient Greeks, it usually had a tragic hero who is brought down in the end by a personal fatal flaw. The main themes of these serious dramas were; love, hate, war, and betrayal.
Comedy
A type of drama writen by the ancient Greeks in which respected people and ideas are made rediculous through crude humor and slap stick.
Peloponnesian War
A war, lasting from 431 to 404 B.C., in which Athens and its allies were eventually defeated by Sparta and its allies.
Philosopher
Means a person who is a "Lover of Wisdom", and searches for truth no matter where it leads them.
Socrates
A Greek philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong. He encouraged his students to question themselves and their beliefs, which would later lead to his being arested and forced to drink poisonous Hemlock.
Plato
He was one of Socrates' students and considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of western civilization. He explained his ideas about government when he wrote "The Republic".
Aristotle
He was a student of Plato who tutored Alexander the Great, and invented a method for arguing according to rules of logic. This eventually led to the idea of the scientific method.
Philip II of Macedonia
He became the king of Macedonia, Greece, in 359 B.C. As a brilliant, yet ruthless leader he transformed his people into an army that would later conquer all of Greece. He would later be succeded by his son Alexander the Great.
Macedonia
The Kingdom, ruled by Philip II, and later by Alexander the Great, that was located north of Greece. The poeple who lived in this mountainous region did not live in city-states, but in small villages. The people of lower Greece viewed the Macedonians as uncivilized.
Alexander the Great
As the son of Philip II, he took power after his fathers death and conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India. This began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences. (356 BCE-323 BCE)
Darius III
Persian king who lost his empire to Alexander the Great.
Hellenistic
The blending of Greek cultures with those of Persia, Egypt, and India following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Alexandria
A city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great, which became the center of the Hellenistic culture. It contained the famous Library and the Museum and was a center of commerce and trade.
Euclid
The Greek mathematician who lived in Alexandria and wrote a book called "The Elements", a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry.
Archimedes
A Hellenistic mathmatician and physicist who was the first to correctly estimate the value of pi. He also explained the law of the lever, invented simple machines such as the screw and pulley.
Colossus of Rhodes
The largest known Hellenistic statue was created on the island of Rhodes. This bronze statue stood more than 100 feet high. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world was toppled by an earthquake about 255 B.C., later the bronze was sold for scrap.
Achilles
He was the great Greek warrior, from the Iliad, whose only weak spot was his heel. He is eventually killed at the battle of Troy, when he is shot through his heel by Paris, a prince of Troy.
Athena
She is the daughter of Zeus, and goddess of wisdom, skills, and warfare.
Battle of Chaeronea
A battle in which Philip II of Macedon defeated the Athenians and Thebans (338 BC) ending Greek independence.
Cleisthenes
An aristocrat, and Athenian leader who created a council of 500 and helped form Athenian democracy. He also broke up the power of the nobility by dividing the population into ten groups based on location instead of wealth.
Demosthenes
The Athenian orator who tried to warn the Greeks of the threat Philip II and his army posed. He was later defeated in battle at Chaeronea.
Eratosthenes
A Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the moon and sun (276-194 BC)
Epicurus
He developed the school of though called Epicureanism in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure.
Epicurean
A person who follows the ideas of Epicurus in being devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink).
Gaugamela
The site of a battle in 331 BC between Alexander the Great and Darius III. Alexander emerged victorious. The defeat began the elimination of the Persian Empire.
Hector
He was the courageous, and noble hero of Troy, in the story of the Iliad. He was killed in battle with Achilles, the Greek hero, during the Trojan War.
Hesiod
The Greek poet who wrote the "Theogony", an epic poem that talks about the Greek gods. Along with Homer, his works provided a lot of the Greek mythology of their gods and heroes.
Hipparchus
Greek astronomer and mathematician who discovered the precession of the equinoxes, and made the first known star chart, He is also believed to have been the inventor of trigonometry.
Iliad
The epic poem, by Homer, that tells of the Trojan War.
Mount Olympus
The highest mountain in Greece, where the ancient Greeks believed many of their gods and goddesses lived.
Pheidippides
The man who ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon (490 BC), and then died.
Persepolis
The capital and greatest palace-city of the Persian Empire, destroyed by Alexander the Great.
Solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt; citizens gained more power. He also split society into 4 classes based on weath, creating a higher-achy.
Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, and discouraged the arts.
Salamis
The naval battle, during the Pursian War, where the Greek forces defeated the Persians, shortly after the battle at Thermopylae. The Greek ships were smaller and more maneuverable than the Persian ships.
Stoicism
A philosophy founded by Zeno, in Hellenistic Athens that taught that happiness came not from following emotions, but from following reason and doing one's duty. It taught that people should live virtuous lives in line with the laws of the gods, and natural laws.
Themopylae
A narrow mountain pass where 300 Spartan soldiers held off the Persian army so that the rest of the Greek soldiers could escape. The Persian army eventually broke through with the help of a traitor who showed them a way around the pass.
Theogony
The epic poem by Hesiod that provided a lot of the Greek mythology.
Zeno
A Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy called Stoicism that believed in a divine power that ruled the universe. He thought that people should live a virtuous life in harmony with natural law, promoted social unity.
Zeus
King of the Greek gods and ruler of Mount Olympus. He was the god of the sky, thunder, and justice.
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