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Political party

an organization of citizens who wish to influence government by getting their members elected to office


where political parties select candidates or name them to run for a public office


a party's statement of its official stand on major public issues


a platform is made up of these, position statements on each specific issue in a party's platform.


go door-to-door seeking support for their candidate.


voting districts


the system in which party leaders do favors for local party supporters

Straight tickets

voting for the candidate of only one party

Split ticket

voting for the candidate of more than one party on the same ballot

Independent voters

people who do not support a particular political party


means declaring that you are running for office

Write in candidate

asks voters to write his or her name on the ballot


a meeting of party leaders to discuss issues to choose candidates.

Direct primary

an election in which members of a political party choose candidates to run for office

Closed primary

a primary in which a voter must be registered as a party member in order to vote

Open primary

a primary in which voters do not need to declare a party before voting


people that have representatives to count on, (regular people/citizens) people that a member of Congress represents

Interest Groups

groups of people who work together for similar interests or goals


people who represent interest groups


a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a lawmaking body


redrawing of district lines by the majority party


just one party strongly


a set of basic principals and laws that state the powers and duties of the government.


a support system of government called a republic. In this system people are elected to be representatives of the people.

Limited government

all leaders have to obey the laws and no one had total power, ex: some states make their courts outside of the governor's control.


voting rights. Said that white men who paid taxes, sometimes white men who owned property, and even some states let free African Americans men vote.

Virginia Statue for Religions Freedom

promoted the separation of the church and state in Virginia. Thomas Jefferson supported for freedom of religion. By 1833 all the other states had separate churches outside of the government.

Articles of Confederation

13 people, one from each state came up with this. It stated that each state would have a vote in Congress and the national government didn't have a court system or president.

Land Ordinance of 1785

set up a system for surveying and dividing the public territory. Each township was divided into 36 spare miles including 36 lots of 640 acres. One lot was for a public school and 4 for veterans.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

created the Northwest Territory, north of the Ohio River, and formed a political system for it.

Northwest Territory

the area that is now Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin.


takes on importing and exporting goods

Interstate commerce

trade between 2 or more states


increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money


people who owe money


people who lend money


a period of low economic activity combined with a rise in unemployment.


military force from the colonists that fill in for the soldiers/ civilians serving as soldiers.


the first Europeans to settle in the frontier.


thinly populated frontier area between the costal settlements and the Appalachian Mountains.


killed, injured or captured soldiers

Sugar Act

taxes were put on molasses and sugar imported by the colonists. Was the first act passed specifically to raise money in the colonies, rather than to regulate trade.

Stamp Act

required colonists to pay for an official stamp or seal, whenever they bought paper items. It had to be paid on legal documents, licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, and even playing cards. If refused you were sent to jail. Act was passed in 1765 by Parliament.

Tea Act

1773. Parliament decided that to get the colonists to buy tea they should lower the prices to decrease smuggling and collect more tax money. British East India Tea Company convinced the Parliament that they could go to America to sell tea for cheaper prices.

Declaratory Act

stated that Parliament had the power to make laws for the colonies in all cases whatsoever.

Townshend Act

put taxes on imported glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. The money paid for military costs and salaries of colonial governors.

Committees of Correspondence

groups that contacted other towns and colonies to share ideas about the new British laws and ways to challenge them.

Sons of Liberty

secret society, used violence to scare off tax collectors.

Daughters of Liberty

less violent used boycotts and protests.

Boston Massacre

March 5 1770 started as a fight between a British solider and a colonist. A crowd gathered around and soldiers fired guns. Called the Boston massacre from the colonists. Soldiers not found guilty, 5 killed, propaganda helped start the revolution.

Boston Tea Party

Dec 16 1773 colonists were angry about tea, dressed up as American Indians, snuck on 3 ships in the harbor carrying tea and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor, no tea was left.

Intolerable Act

taxes made to punish Massachusetts because of the Boston tea party and because the colonists were getting out of control. 1. Boston Harbor was closed until Boston paid for the lost tea 2. The Massachusetts charter was cancelled. The government decided if and when the legislature could meet. 3. Royal officials accused of crimes were sent to Britain for trial. This let them face a more friendly judge and jury. 4. The Quartering Act forced colonists to quarter, or house and supply soldiers. 5. General Thomas Gage became the new governor of Massachusetts.

Writes of Assistance

special forms allowed tax collectors to search for smuggled goods, violated the colonists rights


gives one side of an argument, try to believe one side over another, over exaggeration of one side, stretching the truth.


end an act


refuse to buy goods

James Otis

lawyer from Boston, one of the first people to protest taxation, said British couldn't take a person property. Believed the sugar act violated colonists rights.

Samuel Adams

agreed with James Otis, Parliament shouldn't tax without colonists consent. Helped form the Committees of Correspondence. Argued that accepting taxes on trade would just encourage more taxes.

Unalienable Rights

life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

Declaratory Rights

life liberty and property


states the rulers should protect the rights of the citizens

George Grenville

first prime minister to tax colonists for military costs. The sugar act was passed because of him. In charge of the money for great Britain and made decision with Parliament.

James Otis

lawyer from Boston, one of the first people to protest taxation, said British couldn't take a person property. Believed the sugar act violated colonists rights.

Samuel Adams

agreed with James Otis, Parliament shouldn't tax without colonists consent. Helped form the Committees of Correspondence. Argued that accepting taxes on trade would just encourage more taxes.

Patrick Henry

presented a series of resolutions to the House of Burgesses in Virginia. Stated that the stamp act violated the rights of colonists. "Treason Treason!" Patriot.

Mercy Otis Warren

wrote plays, patriot

Thomas Gage

decided to take away the minutemen's weapons and ammunition and they were stored in Concord, 20 miles form Boston.

George Washington

commanded to defend the colonies, in charge of continental army.

Thomas Paine

wrote Common Sense

Thomas Jefferson

main author of the Declaration for Independence

Abigail Adams

wife of John Adams, a letter she asked her husband to protect women's rights.

John Adams

Samuel Adams' cousin, patriot

William Pitt

important in Parliament, also agreed the stamp act was unfair


the process of signing up to be a voter.

General election

an election in which voters make final decisions about candidates and issue.


an agreement to end the debate on a bill.


the use of long speeches to prevent a vote on a bill.


a process for removing elected officials from office.


gives voters the chance to approve or reject a law.


a process by which citizens can propose laws.


favoring one point of view over another.


candidate already holds the office for which he or she is running.


a message that is meant to influence people's ideas, opinions or actions.


candidates get their message out through advertisements in the television, radio, newspapers and magazines.

Direct Mail

sending messages to large groups of people through the mail.

Glittering Generalities

use words ad phrases that sound appealing and that everyone agrees with.

Card Stacking

use only those facts that support your argument.

Plain Folks

Tell voters that you are just like them-an ordinary person with similar needs and ideas

Name Calling

attach negative labels to your opponent.


appeals to desire to follow the crowd.


connect yourself to a respected person, group or symbol.


sets terms for electoral college (presidential election)


allows D.C. to vote


sets the official voting age to 18

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