American Pageant Chapter 10
Terms in this set (41)
(1797-1801) He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Was the first secretary of war; came to power in 1789; was the first to be entrusted with the infant army and navy.
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
Citizen Edmond Genet
French ambassador sent to US during French Rev. to encourage Americans to send out privateers against Spain and Britain, as well as organizing a militia to assault Spanish-sympathizers in Florida. All actions he takes are condemned by US gov., including Thomas Jefferson, because they threaten to bring US out of neutrality.
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French
Was one of the famous arrestees of the Alien and Sedition Acts. His crime was spitting at a Federalist's face and criticizing Adam's policies
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812, author of Bill of Rights, Federalist.
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace
funding at par
Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
a tax on the manufacturing of an item.
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
A change to the Constitution
The British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the this would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. This was drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory
Convention of 1800
Agreement to formally dissolve the United States' treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War. The difficulties posed by America's peacetime alliance with France contributed to Americans' longstanding opposition to entangling alliances with foreign powers.
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. This was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Any rights not explicitly listed are automatically given to the people. (Meant to appease the Anti-Federalists)
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The 4th Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to this
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
1796 speech by Washington urging US to maintain neutrality and avoid permanent alliances with European nations
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, naming the three French agents in his report to Congress.
An alliance of North American Indians in the Great Lakes region following the American Revolutionary War. This confederacy came together to resist the expansion of the United States into the Northwest Territory after Great Britain ceded the region to the United States after the war.