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Food Science Questions

Questions for the Arizona FFA Food Science CDE online test
STUDY
PLAY
As popcorn heats, the _____ inside each kernel expands. Pressure builds, causing the corn to pop.
water
Mouthfeel, one of several sensory sensations that contribute to the perception of flavor, is influenced by a food's:
temperature
The preventative food safety concept called _____ has seven principles.
HACCP
The enzyme _____ causes milk to coagulate by converting the milk protein casein into a compound called paracasein.
rennin
The _____ on a package of chocolate chip cookies tells the consumer what nutrients are in the product.
Nutrition Facts panel
When you eat breakfast in the morning, digestion of your cereal starts in your:
mouth
Fat in products such as peanut butter and potato chips can _____ over time to become rancid, causing undesirable flavors and colors.
oxidize
For consumer safety, ground beef should always be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 160 degrees F before it is consumed. This would be equal to _____ degrees C.
71.1
A _____ is a foodborne illness that occurs when microorganisms grow in food and produce a toxin in the food. The toxin causes illness when the food is consumed.
food intoxication
Sulfating is sometimes used for pretreatment of fruits and vegetables that are to be dehydrated in order to:
slow oxidation and enzymatic browning
In the process of canning green beans, the point in the beans that is the last to reach the temperature considered safe for killing microorganisms is known as the:
cold point
The chemical state of the meat protein _____ determines the color of meat.
myoglobin
The addition of vitamin A to margarine is an example of food:
fortification
Food will keep colder longer in an ice chest with ice at 0 degrees C compared to an ice chest with water at 0 degrees C because of the:
latent heat of fusion
Meat is composed of fibrous proteins called:
actin and myosin
BHT is an ingredient added to Cap'n Crunch cereal to:
prevent rancidity
The pH scale is a mathematical scale in which the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is expressed as a number from 0 to ___ to indicate acidity.
14
When a food processing plant is cleaned and sanitized, a bacteriostatic agent may be used that will:
inhibit the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill them
The F-value is the:
number of minutes required to destroy a specific number of microbes at 250 degrees F
Butter contains a high amount (about 4 percent) of _____ acid, which is a short chain fatty acids that gives butter a buttery aroma, especially as it warms up.
butyric
Sugar, one of the most common sweeteners in the world, is derived primarily from:
sugar cane and sugar beets
An egg foam is formed by beating egg white. Denatured by beating, the egg protein forms a:
colloidal dispersion
_____ is a packaging technology used for some vegetable, meat, and potato products that creates a specific gaseous environment so the food product has a longer shelf life.
Modified atmosphere packaging
Since 1963, _____ has helped nations agree on food safety and trade regulation.
Codex Alimentarius
Swiss cheese has holes because it is ripened with organisms that produce:
carbon dioxide gas
Gelatin is made by taking _____, a protein that is not easily soluble in water, and altering its structure, and then reforming it with the addition of a sweetening agent, a flavorant for taste, and a colorant.
collagen
The government agency that created a special class of additives that are generally recognized as safe was the:
FDA
The most important ingredient in bread is _____ because it determines the texture.
flour
_____ is a pigment that contributes to the red color of tomatoes and raspberries.
Anthocyanin
_____ is a nutritive sweetener because it produces calories when it is metabolized in the body.
Sucrose
Vegetables such as lettuce wilt, or become limp, when _____ is lost.
turgor
_____ is an ingredient used in cured meat that inhibits the growth of Clostridium botulinum.
Sodium nitrite
A _____ is a piece of equipment that is used to provide a steady supply of circulated, heated air to dry foods.
dehydrator
Oil and water will not mix together in a salad dressing because they are:
immiscible
Butterscotch pudding that has been thickened with starch can experience retrogradation if held in the refrigerator for a few days and have:
syneresis
_____ is related to a food's hydrogen ion concentration, or with the acid's potential for ionization.
sourness
Hot dogs, cold cuts, and soft cheeses are ready-to-eat foods that have been known to be responsible for foodborne outbreaks due to _____. This organism can survive at greater temperature extremes than most other organisms.
Listeria monocytogenes
_____ is a scale for relating specific gravity to sugar content in a beverage.
Brix
In milk, the enzyme lactase breaks down lactose, or milk sugar, into _____ and glucose.
galactose
Most of the world's supply of cocoa comes from:
West Africa
Sourdough bread has a unique flavor that is due to the presence of:
Lactobacillus
Table sugar is composed of:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Baking powder is a leavening compound that contains baking soda, _____, and starch or some other filler.
dry acids
Cream creates a better foam than milk because:
it is more viscous than milk
Nabisco markets Oreo Double Stuff sandwich cookies. One serving, equivalent to 1 ounce, contains 7 grams of fat, 2.5 grams of saturated fat, 0 mg of cholesterol, 120 mg of sodium, 21 grams of carbohydrates, 1 gram of dietary fiber, 13 grams of sugar, and 1 gram of protein. One serving would be equivalent to _____ calories.
151
After World War II, studies were conducted to replace erucic acid in rapeseed oil with _____ to create canola oil.
oleic acid
To obtain the most reliable sensory information from people about a food product, it is recommended that sensory scientists hold sensory evaluation panels in:
late morning or midafternoon
A component in chili peppers called _____ makes them hot and may cause a burning sensation in your mouth when food containing chili peppers is consumed.
capsaicin
A food scientist is developing a new product and needs to use a sugar that is not only the sweetest, but also the most soluble from an available list of sweeteners that they have in their product development lab. To meet these criteria, which of the of the following sweeteners would you recommend that they use?
Fructose
HACCP, a dynamic, preventative food safety concept, has ___ principles.
7
Less tender cuts of meat can be tenderized by using enzymes in _____ that are extracted from the papaya fruit.
papain
The government agency that has oversight for regulating the safety and quality of seafood is the:
FDA
_____ is a taste component that is best describes as savory, pungent, deliciousness, or musty.
Umami
Water activity is used to determine the:
amount of free water available for microorganisms to grow in a food product
Harry's BBQ company processes their BBQ sauce at ambient temperature, which is currently 68 degrees F. This would be equivalent to ___ degrees C.
20
A solution containing more OH- ions than H+ ions is considered to be a(n) _____ solution.
basic
Isoflavones are phytochemicals that have been shown to possibly help reduce the risk of some cancers. Isoflavones are found in products such as Silk®, a non dairy beverage, and are derived from:
soy
Oxidases are enzymes in vegetables that are activated by:
blanching
Castleberry's Food Company initiated a voluntary recall of canned chili sauce and meat products dues to the risk of a potent neurotoxin being present from under-processing the canned products. The organism, _____, is responsible for producing this toxin.
Clostridium botulinum
Oil floats above water in salad dressing because oil has a lower _____ than water.
density
Producing food by natural methods that fit with local needs and conditions is considered:
sustainable farming
Milk that has been first sterilized by heat, and then placed in sterilized containers for retail sale at ambient temperature has undergone:
aseptic processing
The D-value is the:
length of time required at a specific temperature to destroy 90% of the microorganisms present
Potato chips are commonly sealed in packages flushed with pure nitrogen to minimize oxidation that would lead to unpleasant flavors, otherwise known as:
rancidity
_____ is a vegetable gum added to evaporated milk before processing to stabilize the casein proteins.
Carrageenin
A complete protein is a protein that contains all the essential:
amino acids
Food components such as fat that do not dissolve in water are considered:
insoluble
Butter is a _____ food emulsion.
water-in-oil
The mass percent of 15 g of salt (sodium chloride) in 85 g of water is equal to:
15
Fermentation is a production step in the process of making _____.
vanilla
_____ wheat is the type of wheat most commonly used to manufacture pasta.
Durum
_____ is an acronym for a special list of additives that contains substances such as spices, natural seasonings, and flavorings that are considered safe for human consumption and not regulated as additives.
GRAS
When you consumer a cracker, the texture that you perceive is the result of several sensations including consistency, mouthfeel, and:
sound
To keep fresh produce from deteriorating during distribution and retail display, produce are often:
treated with a light coat of approved oil-based wax to seal in moisture
The lean part of meat is about _____ percent protein.
15-20
A microorganism that causes a food borne illness is called a:
pathogen
_____ is caused by moisture loss from a ham that is exposed to air during frozen storage, possibly as a result of loose packaging.
Freezer burn
_____ is a required component that must be included on Nutrition Facts panel found on most food products.
Saturated fat
In 1810, an Englishman named _____ patented the tin canister, or can, which became the most popular container for food preservation through canning.
Peter Durand
_____ is the form of carbohydrates found in meat.
Glycogen
Irradiation can be used as a food preservation method called _____. Food is first blanched, and then subjected to high levels of radiation to kill all forms of microorganisms, resulting in a shelf life of several years.
radiation sterilization
The yeast used in making bread products is:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Most starches found in food contain _____ in differing proportions.
amylose and amylopectin
Sodium _____ is an ingredient used to impart a unique flavor and pink color to cured meat products.
nitrite
When glucose and oxygen react with each other, the resulting products are:
carbon dioxide and water
Trans fat is made when _____ is added to vegetable oil in a process called hydrogenation.
hydrogen
When pancakes are cooked on a griddle, the griddle transfers heat to the pancake batter by:
conduction
When a summer sausage is thermally processed in a smokehouse that has excessive air speed and/or too little humidity, the sausage may form a hard outer layer, trapping moisture inside, which could lead to subsequent microbial problems. This is called:
case hardening
In an experiment for a whipped cream company, a scientist tested whipping the cream in a metal or plastic vat to determine which was best for whipping cream. For this experiment, the bowl material would be considered a(n):
independent variable
The first ingredient in the ingredient statement on the can of Mountain Dew soda is listed as "carbonated water." This is actually a solution of the gas _____ dissolved in water.
carbon dioxide
The viscosity of ketchup is a measure of its:
resistance to flow
_____ is formed when the myoglobin in meat becomes oxidized and turns brownish in color.
Metmyoglobin
Cream is classified by the amount of fat it contains. Light whipping cream must contain _____ percent fat.
30-36%
Oscar Mayer markets a product called "Fast Franks" that is a microwavable hot dog in a bun. One serving, equivalent to 1 hot dog with bun, contains 19 grams of fat, 5 grams of saturated fat, 45 mg of cholesterol, 790 mg of sodium, 21 g of carbohydrates, 1 gram of dietary fiber, 5 grams of sugar, and 10 grams of protein. One serving would be equivalent to ___ calories.
295
Quaker® Oats is an example of a company that was permitted by the FDA to place a food-specific health claim on Quaker® Oatmeal because research studies suggested that _____ may lower blood cholesterol slightly.
fiber
Oil and water are two immiscible liquids found in salad dressings that can be blended together with the addition of a(n):
emulsifier
The water content in fruits, vegetables, and meats ranges between _____ percent.
70-90%
A company that makes fresh bratwurst has received complaints from consumers that the sausage looks uncooked in the center of the product even though the consumer has thoroughly cooked it. A scientist has been called in by the company to look at the product and identify why this is occurring. The ability to view and understand the entire production process well enough to identify potential problem areas is called:
trouble shooting
_____ are substances added to baked goods, such as cakes, to help them lighten or rise during baking.
Leavening agents
The creamy texture of Dannon™ yogurt is an example of a food:
attribute
To deactivate enzymes in fruits and vegetables, the produce is immerse in boiling water in a process called:
blanching
The nutrition label found on many food packages is called:
Nutrition Facts
_____ is the protein found in meat that is responsible for color.
myoglobin
Microwaves do not affect all molecules equally. They have the greatest effect on _____ molecules.
water
_____ is an effective antioxidant that is used in many food products to prevent fat from oxidizing and developing off flavors.
BHT
All foods have a pH, which is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH of most foods is in the _____ range of the pH scale.
acid
The carbon dioxide dissolved in a can of soda is a:
solute
_____ are important in the production of foods that contain water and fat, such as mayonnaise or margarine.
Emulsifiers
The FDA has complied a list of over 600 ingredients considered safe and are not designated as additives. This list is called the _____ list.
Generally Recognized as Safe
_____ is a proteolytic enzyme that is used to coagulate milk to make cheese.
Rennin
If a food product contains 10,000,000 (10⁷) microbes per gram, and experiences a 99.99 percent kill rate, then _____ microbes per gram will survive.
1,000
In the body, enzymes break down _____ into simple sugars.
carbohydrates
Microorganisms that grow at refrigeration temperatures are considered to be ______.
psychrotrophs
The length of time cottage cheese can be safely stored refrigerated before deteriorating is known as:
shelf life
The color of maple syrup is the result of a _____ between a monosaccharide and an amino acid normally found in the sap of the maple tree.
Maillard reaction
_____ is a carbohydrate in some fruits that has the ability to form gels.
Pectin
A 42 g serving of M&Ms® contains 9 grams of fat, 30 grams of carbohydrates, and 2 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.
209
_____ is a microorganism that may be found in the body's nasal passages and on the skin. If perishable food contaminated with this organism is allowed to sit at room temperature for an extended period of time, this organism produces a toxin that causes foodborne illness.
Staphylococcus aureus
_____ flourish in environments of high osmotic pressure, or low water activity, and are responsible for spoilage of dry fruits, fruit juices, and maple syrup.
Osmiophilic yeasts
Commercially canned carrots, peas, and corn are processed in a huge pressure canner called a:
retort
_____ is an example of a pure substance.
Table salt
A low acid food is a food that has:
very little acid
_____ is a pathogen that grows under anaerobic conditions and is a concern in canned food products.
Clostridium botulinum
The _____ is the agency responsible for regulating most non-meat food and food products.
FDA
_____ is a process used to prevent browning in fruit and light colored vegetables.
Sulfating
In the research and development laboratory of a food company, a scientist is deciding on the type of sweetener to use in a cereal product. Which sugar should they choose if they want to use the sweetest sugar from the following choices available to them?
fructose
In _____, a German chemist named Andreas Sigismund Marggraf discovered that the sweetness of sugar beets and of sugar cane was the result of sucrose.
1774
During bread production, Saccharromysces cerevisiae causes bread to rise through the process of:
fermentation
To stabilize liquids in some foods, _____ such as citric acid, maltic acid, and tartaric acid, are added to surround metal ions and prevent them from catalyzing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.
sequestrants
_____ is a scientific term that is used to describe how food feels in the mouth.
Mouthfeel
If a food product is altered so that it appears to be of a higher quality than it actually is, this is considered to be:
food adulteration
When people work in a food processing establishment, employees are taught to wash their hands and wear appropriate clothing and a hairnet. These steps are part of the company's _____ to produce safe and wholesome food.
good manufacturing practices
Liquid oil is changed into margarine through a process known as:
hydrogenation
A greed radura symbol displayed on a food package label indicated the product has undergone:
irradiation
Milk is supplemented with Vitamin ___ because it is essential to the growth and repair of bones.
D
The process that breaks down fat globules in milk to make them smaller and more uniform in size is called:
homogenization
Meat grading is a:
voluntary procedure conducted by the USDA
Fermentation is a production step in the process of making _____.
chocolate
Scientists at Calgene Company isolated the gene responsible for the deterioration of a tomato when it is picked, then used this knowledge to create the Flavr-Savr® tomato. This is an example of applying _____ to alter the genetic makeup of a food.
biotechnology
The stretchy, elastic protein found in wheat that gives bread its final shape and structure is called:
gluten
The major or main part of a meal is called:
an entrée
The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Bologna is an example of a _____ in food.
biological hazard
_____ is the scale used to relate specific gravity of a beverage such as Diet Coke® to sugar content.
Brix
The study of food production, processing, preparation, evaluation, and use is called:
food science
To prevent oil from separating in a jar of peanut butter, _____ are added to the formulation.
stabilizers
Any microorganism that can cause disease is called a:
pathogen
The use of computers in interactive engineering drawing and storage of designs is known as CAD, or ______.
Computer-Aided Design
Taste buds are sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue. If you were eating salty pretzels, you would perceive the salty taste on the _____ of the tongue.
tip
When steam undergoes a phase change to liquid water, _____ occurs.
condensation
You are developing a new food product that requires a rapidly dissolving sugar. Given a choice of using equal amounts of granulated sugar, brown sugar, powdered sugar, or a sugar cube, which type of sugar would dissolve the fastest?
powdered sugar because it has more surface area per gram of solid
As eggs age, the egg white becomes thinner because the pH of the egg:
becomes more basic due to decreased carbon dioxide levels inside of the egg
At sea level, pure water freezes at:
0 degrees C
The ability to thicken when a starch has begun to cool is called:
retrogradation
The government agency responsible for ensuring that food such as ketchup is safe and wholesome is the:
Food and Drug Administration
The process if adding hydrogen to unsaturated fat molecules causing double bonds to break and be replaced with single bonds resulting in liquid oil being converted to a semi-solid fat is known as:
hydrogenation
_____ is a protein found in milk.
Casein
_____, in the form of carotene, is found in large amounts in carrots, sweet potatoes, and apricots.
Vitamin A
_____ is a heat treatment that destroys all pathogens but does not destroy all spoilage organisms.
Pasteurization
During digestion, proteins are broken down into:
amino acids
Blanching is a process used during preservation of fruits and vegetables to deactivate _____ prior to freezing.
enzymes
_____ bacteria are used to make vinegar.
Acetic acid
Yeast breads are made from soft dough and rely on yeast fermentation to make the bread rise. The one sugar yeast cannot ferment is:
lactose
To make fermented milk products such as cottage cheese or yogurt, a starter culture is added to pasteurized milk in a step known as:
inoculation
A food contains 11 grams of fat, 6 carbohydrates, and 8 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.
155
_____ is a microorganism that can cause a foodborne intoxication.
Staphylococcus aureus
The advent of large scale food dehydration began during:
World War I
Canned foods are processed in a commercial canner called a:
retort
Freeze drying food is based on the phase change called:
sublimation
Food ingredients that are GRAS, also known as _____, are considered safe for human consumption.
Generally Recognized as Safe
Identifying critical control points is an important principle of:
HACCP
Water that is potable is:
safe for drinking
A compound that inhibits the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill bacteria is:
bacteriostatic
The Hershey Company is marketing a Hershey milk chocolate bar containing Reese's pieces called Twosomes. This is an example of a:
line extension
A sensory scientist evaluates characteristics such as texture, aroma, and flavor of food products. These are also called:
food attributes
An example of a non-digestible complex carbohydrate is:
fiber
The portion of a label found on food packages that presents nutritional information is called:
Nutrition Facts
The method of heating that occurs during canning of solid-pack canned foods like tuna or ham is:
conduction
In the process of freezing food, _____ in the food product if a slow freezing process is used.
large ice crystals will form
The amount of heat required to convert water from a liquid to a gas at its boiling point is called:
heat of vaporization
The more _____ a lipid contains, the softer or more oily a lipid will be.
unsaturated fatty acids
_____ is required, by law, to be on all food labels.
The ingredient statement
Papain is a protease isolated from:
papaya
_____ is sweeter than sucrose.
Aspartame
Water activity, the degree of availability of water in food, is measured on a scale of:
0-1
During _____, the interaction of an amino acid and a reducing sugar results in non-enzymatic browning.
the Maillard reaction
The _____ a fatty acid chain becomes, the more solid a fat will be at room temperature.
longer
A microorganism that can grow at refrigeration temperatures is a:
psychrophile
_____ is one of the top 8 foods that account for 90% of food-allergic reactions.
Peanut
The presence of a cherry pit in a container of yogurt is an example of a:
physical hazard in food
Calcium or sodium propionate is added to bread to inhibit:
the growth of mold
The carbonation of soft drinks such as Pepsi or Coke results from a reaction between a form of carbonate and a(n):
acid
When ground beef that is packaged in a Styrofoam tray and covered in plastic wrap is stored under refrigeration for several days, the color changes from bright cherry red color to brown or:
Metmyoglobin
Fats and oils are part of a family of compounds called:
lipids
The government agency responsible for ensuring that meat and poultry are safe and wholesome is the:
USDA
It is important for a food technologist to measure the relative number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a food system. This is also known as measuring the _____ of a food.
pH
_____ reacts with amino acids when milk is heated to contribute to the tan color and slightly caramelized flavor of cooked milk products.
Lactose
An additive that can keep a compound, mixture, or solution from changing its form or chemical nature is called a:
stabilizer
Flavor is sensed by taste buds which are located on parts of the tongue. The taste buds on the sides of the tongue respond to what flavors?
Sour
The process that changes the shape of a protein molecule without breaking its covalent bonds is called:
denaturation
A food technologist developing a formulation for a soft dough should use:
three parts flour to one part liquid
_____ is the complete destruction of all microorganisms, except for some bacterial spores.
Commercial sterilization
A synthetic sweetener made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine that is found in many diet soft drinks is called:
Aspartame
_____ is an alternative name for baking soda.
Sodium bicarbonate
Vegetables are stored in individual rooms within a warehouse. The room storing _____ would be expected to generate the most heat in one 24 hour period in their confined storage space.
lima beans
The use of biochemical techniques to alter the genetic makeup of a plant to enhance characteristics for food production is called:
biotechnology
The use of food additives in the US is regulated by the:
Food and Drug Administration
Fruits and vegetables discolor when bruised or cut due to:
enzymatic browning
The part of a cauliflower used for food by consumers is (are) the:
flower buds
A food contains 8 grams of fat, 4 grams of carbohydrates, and 5 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.
108
A food technologist is formulating a low carbohydrate pasta. They need to select a grain that has the highest amount of protein and lowest amount of carbohydrates. Which grain should they use?
hard wheat
Food that is dried at too high a temperature during dehydration can become _____ on the outside of the product.
Case Hardened
Sodium benzoate is used in soft drinks primarily to inhibit:
mold growth
A company is formulating a high quality ice cream and wants to use milk from a breed of cow that will provide the highest percentage of butterfat in its milk. Which breed of cow should be used?
Jersey
Vitamin D is added to milk to prevent a condition called:
rickets
Energy lost when water molecules form ice crystals is called:
latent heat
A compound that destroys bacteria on contact and has residual activity to continue to kill bacteria on a surface is called:
bactericide
The purpose for using a leavening agent such as baking soda or baking powder in cakes and cookies is to provide a source of:
carbon dioxide
To test a food manufacturing process with batches larger than bench top size, but smaller than full scale industry size, processors will use:
pilot scale production
Once food production operations are finished, a sanitation crew will remove all visible dirt, grime, and grease. This step is also called:
cleaning
Fruits and vegetables are primarily composed of:
water
_____ is (are) required by law to be on al food labels.
The quantity
Butter is made by agitating cream to form a _____ emulsion.
water-in-oil
Water activity is the degree of availability of water in food. The water activity of pure water is:
1
The sugar _____ is sweeter than sucrose.
fructose
To control crystal size when making candy, an interfering agent such as _____ is added.
cream of tartar
The protein in meat that is primarily responsible for meat color is:
myoglobin
Inorganic elements essential for human health and growth are called:
minerals
The technical name for freeze drying is:
lyophilization
_____ is a globular protein that is found in milk.
Casein
Aspartame, a common low-calorie sweetener used in beverages such as Diet Coke™ is __________________________.
a dipeptide consisting of aspartic acid and phenylalanine
Milk aseptically processed and marketed in a box that can be stored without refrigeration for three months or more if unopened is called _______________ milk.
UHT
A _______________ is a substance that reduces, but not necessarily eliminates microbial contamination on inanimate surfaces to levels that are considered to be safe from a public health standpoint.
sanitizer
If a food product undergoing slow freezing is improperly wrapped, the airflow past the food will increase water loss from the frozen product into the air. This could result in __________ on the product surface.
Freezer burn
The acid found in vinegar is __________ acid.
acetic
It takes approximately ______ pounds of milk to make 1 pound of butter.
22.8
The presence of an agricultural pesticide in a food product would be considered a ______ hazard in a HACCP plan.
chemical
Which of the following products would NOT contain trans fat?
Oreo cookies made with canola oil
A food chemist conducting research in a laboratory must know how to use all chemicals properly and keep an ____________ for each chemical in the lab that describes the safe use of the chemical and steps to take in case of an accident.
MSDS
To assess the effectiveness of a heat treatment when processing food, companies use a _________________________ which is a graph that plots microbes killed against time at a particular temperature
thermal death time curve
As the starch concentration increase in a mixture, the resulting paste becomes more _______.
viscous
______________ is a linear polymer of D-galacturonic acid that forms an ester with methanol and is used as an ingredient to make jelly.
pectin
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are _________________.
fat soluble vitamins
When water boils, a phase change occurs so that liquid turns into a gas. This phase change is called ________________.
vaporization
Fermentation of glucose with yeast produces________________________.
ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
Cream produces foam or whipped cream because of its viscosity and it ________________.
has a low surface tension
A Hershey's Milk Chocolate bar contains 13 g fat, 8 g saturated fat, 26 g total carbohydrates, 1 g dietary fiber, 24 g sugar, and 3 g protein. Based on this information, the chocolate bar would contain ____________ calories.
233
Because triglycerides molecules are ___________, they resist the hydrogen bonding that dissolves sugars in water.
non-polar
In __________, the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act required food labels to carry basic nutrition information.
1990
________________ is a heat resistant connective tissue found in meat.
Elastin
Celery wilts when placed in a dry environment because water leaves the cells through a process called ____________.
osmosis
At the Country Farms Soup Company, a food scientist is evaluating the sensory properties of a new chicken soup and wants to evaluate the impact of savory, or _________, characteristics.
umami
The government regulates irradiation as ______________________.
an additive
An avocado will turn brown after it has been cut and bruised due to __________________.
enzymatic browning
To prevent or slow oxidative rancidity in a food product, a food processor could ________.
prevent light transmission through the use of opaque or non-light-transmitting packaging
Fresh fruits, vegetables, and meats are __________ percent water.
70-90
The color of ground beef color changes from bright cherry red to brown or ____________ when packaged in an oxygen permeable package.
Metmyoglobin
In the U.S., the Food Guide ________________ is a visual reminder of what makes up a balanced diet and the icon is found on the labels of some food packages.
pyramid
_______________ is a process of preserving food through a combination of partial drying and freezing.
Dehydrofreezing
A company that manufactures potato chips inspects the product for color, chip size, thickness, and other attributes to assess the degree of acceptability of the chips. In other words, the company is checking __________________.
product quality
Gluten in flour contains fibrous and globular _____________ and gives baked goods their structure and shape.
proteins
When cabbages are stored they undergo a process termed __________ that yields principally water and carbon dioxide.
respiration
The ________________ has the responsibility for regulating additives that are used in food processing.
FDA
Sugar is considered ______________________________.
a compound
MREs or meals ready-to-eat are processed in ___________ and have an extended shelf life of up to 3 years.
retort pouches
To prevent butterfat from separating out as cream when milk stands during retail display and storage, milk is __________.
homogenized
To make ready-to-reheat and eat pancakes that are sold frozen in retail stores, the manufacturing company must cook the pancakes before the freezing process. When pancake batter is poured into a pan that is made hot by energy released from a heating element, the pan transfers the heat by __________ to the batter.
conduction
A low acid food is a food ________________________________.
with very little acid (pH>4.6)
__________ is important in baking yeast bread since it acts as a catalyst for the breakdown of a disaccharide into simples sugars, that in turn, break down to produce carbon dioxide which causes dough to rise.
maltase
An IQF process means that a food product has been __________________________.
individually quick-frozen
A pizza company printed a new package for frozen pizza and the consumer cooking instructions on the package states that the pizza should be reheated to a final temperature of 77°C. The cooking instructions should have listed the final cooking temperature in °F instead of °C. You have been asked to convert 77°C into °F. What should the final cooking temperature be in °F on the label?
171
Amino acids are the building blocks of .
proteins
__________________ produces a heat stable toxin so even prolonged heating doesn't destroy this toxin if present in food.
Staphylococcus aureus
_____________ is the basic sugar molecule from which all other carbohydrates are built.
glucose
One of the functions of sodium nitrite in cured meat products is to .
provide flavor
Hard wheat will yield a flour that has a higher _______________ than that of flour from soft wheat.
protein-to-starch
Lard, or rendered ____________________, is popular in the baking industry for use in pastries, cakes, and frostings.
pork fat
The word sanitation is derived from the Latin word sanitas, meaning "_____________."
health
Certain foods having a blue or red shade get their hue from pigments called ___________ that are sensitive to pH changes. In acid solutions, they turn red, while they turn blue in basic solutions.
anthocyanins
If a food scientist measures a quantity of salt several times with similar results for a formulation, this measurement would be considered ___________________.
precise
Good Manufacturing Practices are used to:
evaluate the design of food processing plants
FSIS stands for:
Food Safety and Inspection Service
The HACCP process uses ________ to show the entire food processing operation.
flow charts and diagrams
Poultry consumption in the United States has increased ________ from 1976 to 1989.
25%
In HACCP systems, critical points should be identified so that hazard can be ________.
eliminated
A synthetic hormone to increase milk production is ________.
BST
Bacteria cannot grow in all ________ environment because of lack of available moisture.
sugar
Which of the following is NOT a type of food processing?
Rehydration
Which of the following processes changes liquid oils into semisolids and makes the oil less susceptible to oxidation and rancidity?
hydrogenation
The demand for which of the following food products would go up the least if per capita income increased significantly?
dairy products
An addition of a nutrient to foods such as adding Vitamin D to milk is called ________.
fortification
If acidic foods (such as tomatoes) are added to milk,
casein coagulates
Which of the following foods cannot be effectively frozen?
lettuce
Which of the following is not an essential function of a food container?
refrigerator fit
A discovery by a 19th century economist relating family income with food purchases as a proportion of total expenditures is often referred to as:
Engle's Law
A major criticism of American diets and eating patterns is that our diet contains far too much
fat
Only three processes have been identified to safely eliminate living micro-organisms. They are:
heat, selected chemicals, and irradiation
A list of ingredients must be included on a food label. The first ingredient listed is by its amount of:
total weight
In most cases, which phrase means that the food product in question contains no nutritive carbohydrate sweetener, either added or naturally occurring, and is a low or reduced calorie food?
"sugar free"
Three kinds of information must be found on a food label. One of those listed is incorrect. Which one of the following is incorrect?
sources of food ingredients
If NOEL value of a pesticide is 1 gram, what is the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for each kilogram of body weight?
0.1 gram
Antioxidants perform all of the following except:
Prevent protein degradation
A chemical linked to long-term effect such as cancer, sterility and birth defects could cause which of the following:
chronic toxicity
LD50 represents:
The concentration of a chemical at which half of the test animals die
A toxin commonly found in corn and peanuts is:
Aflatoxins
Which of the following is NOT a way to control food pathogens?
keep food at 40-140F (x)
Which one of the following is NOT a type of food preserved by mold?
pickles
The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of a non-carcinogen is:
1/100 of a no-observed effect level (NOEL)
Cholesterol is a chemical that actually belongs to the _____ family.
alcohol
Which of the following food component is primarily derived from red meat and poultry?
protein
Which of the following is not a primary function of protein?
provides good and readily available source of energy
To make some ready-to-eat cereals, manufacturers use:
flaking and shredding
Using salt to control the unwanted growth of microorganisms in food:
has been used for many years and is only effective if foods are stable
When a food scientist appraises a food using sight, smell, taste and possibly touch, this is often referred to as:
sensory evaluation
Bacteria do not thrive below 40 degrees F or above _______ degrees F.
150F
All meat should be cooked to the following temperature to kill Salmonella species:
145F
The terms "chewy," "fibrous," "gritty," "mealy," and "sticky" are important in the _____ of foods.
texture
Which of the following food processing operations IS NOT for cooling food products?
extrusion
If Joe's daily intake is 2000 calories and he consumes a candy bar that contains 220 calories, what percent of Joe's calorie intake is in that candy bar?
11%
FDA stands for:
Food and Drug Administration
Which of the following is NOT true about the Consumer Price Index (CPI)?
it is a comparison between raw food and fast food prices
The amount of foods and food service that would be bought at a given price is called ________.
demand
Which of the following would most likely NOT be a science involved in the making of a pizza?
zoology
Surface-like agents that prevent like-particle conglomeration are:
emulsifiers
The main purpose of blanching vegetables would be:
to inactivate plant enzymes
Which one of the following is not a type of food preserved by fermentation?
whole milk
Which of the following would NOT be a requirement or function of a commercial food container?
degradable
Which of the following is not a type of microorganism?
Mitochondria
During fermentation the Saccharomyces cerevisiae compound sugars are hydrolyzed to form ________.
alcohol and carbon dioxide
Desirable microbial growth in foods is important for the production of all of the following times but:
chocolate, pasta, meats
Common food poisoning can be avoided by taking simple preventative steps. Which of the following steps is the most important?
cleanliness
Two factors that accelerate rancidity in food products are:
light and oxygen
Prior to purchasing dairy foods at the grocery store, the ________ should be checked:
expiration date of the product
It is estimated that the average consumer spends approximately what percent of his/her food dollar on food prepared outside of the home?
45%
Which of the following is not a factor in controlling insects, fungi, weeds, and molds in crops raised for food consumption?
synthetic fertilizers
The ________ regulates genetically engineered microbes used in natural pesticides.
Environmental Protection Agency
Complementary DNA ________ and is used for cloning
is synthesized from a messenger DNA
Genetic engineering used in plant development can help increase
drought resistance
The Delaney Clause passed in 1958 states that
no carcinogens shall be added to the food supply
An emulsifier
prevents the separation of oil and water in food
What is a toxin?
A substance that can cause extreme illness or death
What substance do potatoes contain which can cause severe reactions in people?
Solanine
Why should you be concerned about excessive use of black pepper?
it can become a strong carcinogen
________ stands for a system that is used to assure food safety in food processing, packaging, storage, distribution, and preparation.
hazard analysis and critical control point
The ________ registers or approves the use of pesticide tolerance levels for pesticide levels in food.
EPA
________ are places in the food processing system where the lack of proper control can result in a safety risk for the consumer.
critical control points
Poisons produced by certain species of molds are:
mycotoxins
Tomatoes are stored and shipped at temperatures between:
50-65 degrees F
________ determines the stringiness of celery and the softness of bananas:
texture
A bacteria that can contaminate poultry products and cause foodborne illness in humans is ________.
Salmonella
When roasting meats and poultry, an oven temperature of at least ________ should be used.
325 degrees F
Which of the following processes will NOT eliminate living microorganisms in food?
microwaving foods
Which of the following foods would be exempt from nutritional labeling?
coffee
The food pyramid indicates that the _____ group is the where you should obtain the most servings each day.
bread
Which of the following vitamins must be declared first on a nutritional label for a food product?
Vitamin A
Which of the following food component is primarily derived from fruits, vegetables, and grains?
carbohydrates
No more than _____% of your day's food intake should be protein.
15
Which of the following is not a function of protein?
absorption of water and fiber
Anemia is a disease resulting from a low red blood cell count. The red blood cells are the cells that carry ________ throughout the body.
oxygen
Fiber is not digestible, it passes through the intestine system and is removed in the stools. It absorbs water on its way through the digestive system and results in a softer stool, reducing the risk of:
hemorrhoids
Yogurt is made with ________.
bacteria
A consumer concerned wanting information about the irradiation of foods should contact:
NRC
________ means that the product contains bacteria that can make more of the product.
active culture
Cooking food properly:
destroys the organism that can form clostridium botulinum destroys a large portion of microorganisms destroys a large portion of natural enzymes
When freezing foods, it is important to note that the freezing point of various foods is:
below 0 degrees C
When a food is labeled "Calorie Free," this means that the food has:
Less than 5 calories per serving
________ is a measure of the responsiveness of quantity of a commodity demanded to a change in the market price.
Elasticity of demand
The average American spends less money on food than most nations of the world. The average American spends what percent of total disposable income on food?
11%
Some food scientists are employed by federal, state and local government agencies responsible for the enforcement and administration of food laws. The food scientist engaged in this work is doing:
production/operations management work
Conditions under which natural toxins will NOT cause problems in humans are:
An abnormal food constituent is eaten moderately
The first food product to use modern biotechnology (bioengineering) is:
cheese
Major program(s) used by food processors to assure foods aren't contaminated during processing is (are):
GMPs and HACCP
The HACCP system for preventing hazards in food processing and ensuring food safety has the following number of steps:
Seven
According to the National Agricultural Chemicals Association, crops without protection chemicals would have:
dramatic losses in food production rapid increases in consumer prices health risks due to poorer diets
Total counts of microorganisms in foods are:
An indication of the sanitary quality Performed by the Standard Plate Count assay A reflection of the handling history or decomposition of the food
A deaerator:
removes the air from peanut butter
Proteins:
build and repair body tissue
The % Daily Value is based on a _____-calorie diet.
2000
Which of the following may NOT be used as a claim on a food label?
low sugar
Which of the following foods is NOT exempted from food labeling?
unpopped popcorn
The basal metabolism rate of a human being is NOT affected by ________.
diet
Water functions in the body to ________.
serve as a medium for chemical reactions
A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise ____ of water one degree ________.
1 gram, Centigrade
In food, carbohydrates supply _____Kcal. Per gram.
4
In food, proteins supply _____Kcal. Per gram.
4
Which one of the following is a type of food preserved, in part, by bacteria?
yogurt
Protein is required for:
production of antibodies
Which of the following work together to maintain chemical, fluid, and electrical balance between tissue cells and blood?
sodium and potassium
Which of the following cannot be digested, absorbed, but looks, feels, and behaves like fat?
olestra
Which of the following is a macromineral needed by our bodies to maintain health?
magnesium
To ensure that the foods you store maintain their safety and quality, make sure your refrigerator is at _____ degrees Fahrenheit.
40
A fatty acid does NOT contain which of the following elements?
nitrogen
To increase shelf life, the air in a controlled atmosphere storage room containing apples should contain only _____% oxygen rather than the 21% found in normal air.
3
The ________ dose is the largest dose that the animal in an experiment can take without endangering its health.
maximum tolerated dose
Application efficiency of pesticides can be improved by:
scouting fields
A left-over hot dish needs to be reheated prior to serving again. The internal temperature of the food should reach _____ degrees F.
165
In which of the following foods is solanine considered a toxin?
potato
A food additive that retards rancidity of unsaturated oils and prevents browning in fruits and vegetables that occur during exposure to oxygen is called an:
antioxidant
Starch is a:
carbohydrate
If the legal maximum of nitrite (NO2) is 156 ppm, how much sodium nitrite can you legally add to 1 kg. of meat?
156 mg
A food additive that promotes or produces a desired physical state or texture is called a(n):
formulation aid
________ is defined as individual cells of crop plants exhibiting desirable characteristics, which are selected and grown into mature plants.
Somaclonal variation
The most effective way to eliminated living microorganisms in spices is:
irradiation
A method of food preservation that does destroy microorganisms and enzymes is:
freezing
Only Lactic acid bacteria can ferment sugars and nutrients in pickles because they:
are tolerant of salt levels
________ grams of a day's food intake should be protein.
45
Soy sauce is made with the use of:
mold
"Yellow jewel" is the name given by the Chinese to ________.
soybeans
The great advance in world food production in the 1960s was called the ________.
Green Revolution
The percentage of an average U.S. worker's pay that is used for food is ________.
9.9 percent
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. food dollar is spent on meals away from home?
35 percent
Which of the following products is native to North America?
sunflowers
In the United States, more than one-half of the fresh fruits and vegetables are grown in which states?
California, Florida, and Texas
When you spend one dollar for food, approximately how much goes into the labor required to harvest, and then process that food after it leaves the farm?
$0.76
Approximately what percentage of all the jobs in the food and fiber system is related to wholesale and retail sales?
30 percent
Superstores are likely to carry how many items?
15,000
Which of the following is NOT a carbohydrate?
meat
The number of minerals needed by the body is approximately ________.
20
How much food from the meat and beans group is recommended for teenagers?
5 to 6 oz.
The butterfat content of table cream is approximately ________.
38 to 40 percent
To which milk product is sugar added during processing?
condensed milk
Which mineral is added to most drinking water in the United States to assist in tooth development?
fluorine
Iron is important in the diet for the development of _______.
blood
Traditional aging of meat takes approximately _______.
1 to 6 weeks
Obesity
weighing twenty percent or more above desirable weight for height; in an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more
Diabetes mellitus
lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream
Absorption
the passage of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells
Trace elements
elements or minerals needed in very small amounts
Deficiency disease
a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body; examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter, kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis
Water soluble vitamin
a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex vitamins, that dissolves in water; are not stored in the body
Glucose
type of simple sugar; the body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system; the basic sugar molecule from which all other carbohydrates are built
Vitamins
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes
Taste buds
sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue
Fat soluble vitamin
vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fats; includes vitamins A, D, E and K
RDA
suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people
Digestion
the process by which the body breaks down food into useable nutrients
Amino acid
one of the building blocks of protein molecules
Saliva
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow
Nutrition
the study of nutrients and how they are used by the body
Osteoporosis
a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss of bone density
Nutrient
chemical substances in food that help to maintain the body
Calorie
a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body; in science, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius
Metabolism
the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities
Fallacy
a mistaken belief
Malnutrition
poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by inadequate diet or the body
Appetite
a desire to eat
Refrigeration
involves storing food at an approximate temperature of 4 C
Radiation
kills micro-organisms
Freezing
involves storing food at a temperature colder than 0 C
Salting
involves the use of salt to draw the moisture from the cells of the food
Drying
eliminates water through the process of evaporation
Smoking
meat would be cut in strips and hung in the smoke from a wood fire to add flavor
Canning
keeps air out
Pickling
requires the use of vinegar and other acids
Amino group
two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of nitrogen and is written - NH2
Chalaza
the twisted, rope like structure in an egg that keeps the egg yolk center
Complete protein
a protein that contains all the essential amino acids
Foam
air bubbles incorporated and trapped in the protein film by whipping as in meringue
High-quality protein
a protein that contains all the essential amino acids
Amino acids
type of organic acid
Albumen
egg white
Peptide bonds
bonds between the nitrogen of one amino acid and the carbon of a second amino acid
Denaturation
a process that changes the shape of a protein molecule without breaking its peptide bonds
Gluten
an elastic substance formed by mixing water with the proteins found in wheat; produced when dough is kneaded
Coagulation
to change a liquid into a soft semisolid or solid mass
Polypeptide
a single protein molecule containing ten or more amino acids linked in peptide chains
Antibodies
very large proteins that weaken or destroy foreign substances in the body
Essential amino acids
nine amino acids that cannot make itself
Incomplete protein
a protein lacking one or more essential amino acids
Macromolecules
large molecules containing many atoms
Standing time
the time during which foods finish cooking by internal heat after being removed from the cooking appliance
Combination oven
an oven that can do two types of cooking, such as conventional and convection
Hot spots
areas of food that during cooking reach a higher temperature than surrounding areas due to receiving a greater concentration of energy
Convection oven
an oven that uses a fan to circulate hot air over food
Energy guide
a yellow tag that is displayed on all newly purchased major appliances which shows an estimated, yearly energy usage for the product
Wave patterns
the repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube
Convection cooking
method of cooking in which foods are baked or roasted in a stream of heated air
Work center
section in a kitchen that has been designed around a specific activity
Warranty
a written promise by a manufacturer that a product will meet specified standards of performance
Service contract
repair and maintenance insurance purchased to cover a product for a specific length of time
Work triangle
imaginary triangle formed by the refrigerator, stove and sink; are the focal points of the major work centers in a kitchen
Microwave oven
a cooking device which uses invisible waves of energy that cause water molecules to rub against each other and produce heat which cooks the food
Molds
multi- or unicellular eukaryotes
Protein hydrolysates
perform as both flavorings and enhancers
Intoxication
a toxin is formed by the microorganism prior to ingestion
Water activity
is a measure of the availability of water molecules
Essential fatty
acids are required in the diet for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and because they aren't synthesized by the body
Sterols
are required for proper brain function and to produce key hormones
Cell division
most reproduction is by
Extrinsic
refer to environmental characteristics that surround the food product
Bioavailability
refers to the degree to which nutrients are digested and absorbed
Very low-density lipoproteins
carry cholesterol and TGs from liver to body
Hydrogenation
the forced addition of hydrogen atoms to the unsaturated bonds of fatty acids to raise the melting point of the fat (harden)
Threshold level
the dose above which adverse effects are produced
Stationary
as many cells are dying as are being created
Character-impact compounds
associated with particular products: Benzaldehyde - cherry or almond; Isoamyl acetate - banana
Water holding capacity
the ability to retain moisture during the application of external forces like heating, grinding and pressing
Roasting
proteins and protein break down products react with sugars
Primary
the linear sequence of amino acids
Fermentation
acids, protein break down products - containing nitrogen
Preservatives
citric acid, benzoic acid are examples of this
Infection
the live microorganism must be ingested to cause disease
Carotenoids
fat soluble ranging from yellow to red-orange
Transport
is the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to all of the body's cells by the vascular (aka circulatory) system
Lipids
defined as chemical compounds that are soluble in organic solvents but not soluble in water
Quaternary
overall spatial structure if the protein has more than one polypeptide
Oxidation
result of oxygen reacting with the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids to produce a rancid flavor or aroma
Enzymes
are largely responsible for the digestion and breakdown of food molecules into absorbable units and are protein molecules that cause chemical reactions to occur without being altered in the process
Grains
are a source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber
Polymerization
fatty acids can occur after fatty acids are hydrolyzed from glycerol
Aerobes
require oxygen
Protozoa
are single-celled eukaryotes; classified by their morphology, locomotion and life cycle; they do not grow in foods, but are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle
Glycogen
an animal starch stored in muscles as a source of energy
Hydrolyzed vegetable protein
derived from soybeans
Dietary fiber
does not provide energy but does avert or decrease some problems
Colorant
a pigment used to impart color to a food or beverage
Pigments
chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyanins, betalains are examples of these
Fractionation
involves splitting oils into high and low melting point components
Bacteriocins
are chemicals produced by bacteria that inhibit others
Nutrient requirements
vary with the type of organism, but most foods provide high nutrient availability for microorganisms
Lag
no or slow growth, getting use to the environment
Intrinsic factors
refer to the food composition and characteristics that influence microbial growth in the food
Indirect additives
contaminants but are often anticipated at a minimal level
Proteins:
are important macronutrients and provide essential amino acids; proteins provide structure in foods
High-density lipoproteins
carry cholesterol back to the liver
Caramel
from nonenzymatic thermal processing of sugars
Theobromine
weak CNS stimulant
Maillard reaction products
made by heating amino acids with reducing sugars
Myoglobin
the primary pigment in meat
Lakes
insoluble for food surfaces
Anthocyanins
are water soluble compounds ranging from purple to orange
Food flavorists
study natural flavors in foods and develop flavor additives
Yeast
are unicellular eukaryotes
Salt and sugar
the most common preservatives and work by decreasing water activity
Low-density lipoproteins
carries cholesterol from liver to body cells
All viruses
are parasitic and are generally host-specific
Epidemiology
the science of identifying the causes of disease outbreaks
Toxins
solanine, amygdaline are examples of this
Product development
flavor, texture, shelf-life (preservatives), fortification
Emulsions
two-phase systems in which one phase is dispersed in the other
Chlorophylls
have a porphyrin ring with Mg and green color
Interesterification
a rearrangement or recombination of fatty acids from a triglyceride
Hydrolysis
results in degradation to primary structure by enzymes, heat or extremes of pH
Food additive
any substance added to food
Food chemistry
the systematic evaluation and understanding of water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other ingredients, such as additives, as they undergo chemical interaction/reaction during the harvest, storage and distribution of foods
Preservations
these work by slowing, stopping or killing microbes
Retrogradation
crystallization of starch molecules in stale bread
Inhibitors
are chemical compounds that slow the growth of microbes
Dyes
water soluble for entire food
Phenylethylamine
releases dopamine which is released by all addictive drugs
Unsaturated
this fat has two configurations defined by their structure at the double bonds
Superglycerination
process of incorporating 3-6% emulsifier into shortening to improve its baking qualities
Hydrolytic
due to lipid hydrolysis-Enzyme driven (lipase)
Vegetable oil
oil bearing portion of the seed is cleaned, ground and tempered. Pressing or solvent extraction. Refined. Bleached. Deodorized.
Pectin
polymers of D-galacturonic acid linked alpha1-4 that have various amounts of methylation on carbon #6 (high Methoxy pectin)
What happens to food stored higher than -18 degrees C, even if it is still frozen?
microbes become active, freezer burn more likely; enzymes more active, textural changes can occur, water migrates out
Amino acid structure
basic unit of proteins; contains both a carboxyl groups and an amino acid group
Disadvantage(s) of low temperature preservation
cost; shorter shelf life
Functions of fat in foods
crystal modification, medium for heat transfer, tenderness in baked products, flavor and tenderness in protein foods, body and mouthfeel
Examples of endogenous food enzymes
phenolase, lipoxidase, proteases, amylase
Explain oxidative vs. hydrolytic rancidity
oxidative rancidity occurs at the double bonds (enzymatic); hydrolytic rancidity occurs when short fatty acids are hydrolyzed from the glycerol (non enzymatic)
Examples of enzymes used in food processing: Chymosin
cheese
Common pro-oxidants of fat in food
metals, light, heat
How can freezer burn be controlled?
use moisture-proof packaging and avoid temperature fluctuations
Disadvantage(s) of hydrogenation
lowers nutritional qualities, transfat
You can't add fig, kiwi or fresh pineapple to gelatins because
the proteases hydrolyze peptide bonds
What are some freezing methods?
air freezing, indirect contact freezing, immersion freezing
How do small fat crystals affect creaming properties?
better emulsification, better dispersion, more air pockets
Oxymyoglobin is responsible for the bright cherry red color of
ground beef.
Which of the following statements is true?
Before coagulation occurs, denaturation of proteins is sometimes reversible.
Food science is
the study of producing, processing, preparing, evaluating and using food.
Tartaric acid is used
to control the pH in soft drinks.
The characteristic flavor of sourdough bread is from the microorganism called
Lactobacillus
When food is irradiated, the amount of radiation the food is exposed to during processing is commonly measured in
kilograys.
Fatty acids that have a long carbon chain in which every carbon atom carries a maximum number of hydrogen atoms is called a/an ________ fatty acid.
saturated
When acids dissolve in water, their molecules break apart and release ________ into the solution to make the solution acidic.
hydrogen ions
During the cleaning and sanitizing process following food production, a company will use a ________ which is a chemical compound designed to emulsify fat and solubilize food residue.
detergent
A meat scientist cut open a cured ham and observed a brown spot the size of a penny near the center of the ham and deduced that this was due to the ham being frozen in the center when the cure was injected into the fresh ham. This ability to detect and solve problems is called
troubleshooting.
While milk is in a holding or storage tank and after it has been adjusted for butterfat content, it is fortified with Vitamin
D
When animals are harvested at a meat processing facility, mandatory antemortem and postmortem inspection is conducted by the
United States Department of Agriculture.
Hard wheat flour will yield flour that has a ________ ratio than that of flour from soft wheat.
higher protein-to-starch
________ is a method of heat transfer where heat is transferred by circulatory movement in a liquid or gas.
convection
A food scientist was calibrating a thermometer prior to measuring the internal temperature of a product coming out of an impingement oven. To calibrate their thermometer, they placed the thermometer in boiling water and the thermometer reading stated that the temperature was 102 degrees Celsius. Since the food scientist only had this thermometer to use and they could not physically adjust the thermometer for calibration, they _________ when they take the temperature of the product.
need to add 2 degrees to their temperature reading
________ is a common term for the osmotic process that causes some water-soluble components in vegetable to leave the vegetable for the surrounding medium during the canning process.
Leaching
A compound that is found in many soft drinks has the chemical formula C8H10N4O2 and is called
caffeine.
The term "Daily Value" that is found on a nutrition facts label means
you can determine how the nutrients in a food serving fit with what you can or should have for the day.
When food is prepared in a food service establishment, hot foods should be maintained at
>145 degrees F
When the fat in walnuts begins to oxidize, the flavor of the walnut changes and becomes
rancid.
A manufacturer that produces baked beans might have challenges with their process if they use ________ because the beans will take longer than normal to cook, changing their overall processing time.
hard water
During the sensory analysis of chicken soup, ________ respond to odors in the form of steam rising from the container of hot chicken soup.
olfactory organs
________ caramelizes at 110 degrees Celsius.
Fructose
Processing a food product so that it receives a 5 D treatment means that _____ percent of the microorganisms will be destroyed.
99.999
Food scientists often need to know how much solute a solution contains. What would be the mass percent of sucrose in a solution if 23 g of sucrose was dissolved in 77 g of water?
23%
The enzyme maltase in yeast cells helps in baking yeast bread because it acts as a catalyst for the breakdown of maltose to simple sugars that are then metabolized to produce ________ which causes the dough to rise.
carbon dioxide
Freezing an ice cream mixture ________ will create very small ice crystals.
quickly
Food scientists continually conduct experiments to test processing conditions. In an experiment for a cookie company, a scientist tested spread of a cookie using butter or shortening to determine which was best for minimizing the spread of a cookie. For this experiment, the spread of the cookie would be considered a
dependent variable.
Based on the principles of HACCP, broccoli that is contaminated with a pesticide residue is an example of a
chemical hazard.
A mole of water, salt and sugar cubes are ________ and the masses of each of these products are ________.
the same; different
You are creating a new chocolate product and are using 57 pounds of cocoa powder in the formulation. Your supervisor has asked that you convert the formulation from English units to metric units. How much would the cocoa powder weigh in kilograms?
25.85 kg
Whenever a chemical is used in a food processing lab, a/an _________ must be available in case of an accident.
material safety data sheet
A chemist, ________, discovered that the sweetness of sugar beets and of cane sugar was the result of the same chemical, sucrose.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
Glycogen is the form of _________ that is found in meat.
carbohydrates
________ is sometimes used as an indicator microorganism which means it can provide an index of the sanitary quality of the product and may serve as an indicator of potential for the presence of pathogenic species.
Escherichia coli
During the process of ________, fat particles break down and are surrounded by an emulsifier that keeps the tiny particles permanently separated.
homogenization
The development of Gatorade® G Series Fit to be sold alongside of other Gatorade® products would be considered a
product line extension.
Margarine is a plant oil that was ________ to a semi-solid form to resemble an animal fat product.
hydrogenated
The label on Red Bull Energy beverages must meet the requirements of the _________ for labeling.
United States Food and Drug Administration
Listeria monocytogenes is considered a _________ since it can thrive and grow under refrigeration temperatures.
psychrophile
_________ is an economic term for the transformation that occurs in a product from raw material to finished product.
Value-added
Which of the following products would contain the lowest water content?
peanuts
Processed food products such as cereal and juice may be supplemented with __________ to enhance their nutritional content.
vitamins and minerals
Oil and water separate when mixed together in some salad dressings due to the _________ portions of fatty acids in oil.
hydrophobic
Juice packaged in a foil pouch is kept safe without refrigeration due to
aseptic processing.
_________ is the use of a process to allow a substance or food to keep its useful properties for a longer than normal period.
Preservation
A reaction that occurs _________ is called anaerobic.
in the absence of oxygen
_________ causes a food intoxication and the toxin is not destroyed by heating a food.
Staphylococcus aureus
Carotenoids in pumpkins are considered _________ because they have antioxidant properties and may reduce cancer risk.
a type of phytochemical