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As popcorn heats, the _____ inside each kernel expands. Pressure builds, causing the corn to pop.
Mouthfeel, one of several sensory sensations that contribute to the perception of flavor, is influenced by a food's:
The enzyme _____ causes milk to coagulate by converting the milk protein casein into a compound called paracasein.
The _____ on a package of chocolate chip cookies tells the consumer what nutrients are in the product.
Nutrition Facts panel
Fat in products such as peanut butter and potato chips can _____ over time to become rancid, causing undesirable flavors and colors.
For consumer safety, ground beef should always be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 160 degrees F before it is consumed. This would be equal to _____ degrees C.
A _____ is a foodborne illness that occurs when microorganisms grow in food and produce a toxin in the food. The toxin causes illness when the food is consumed.
Sulfating is sometimes used for pretreatment of fruits and vegetables that are to be dehydrated in order to:
slow oxidation and enzymatic browning
In the process of canning green beans, the point in the beans that is the last to reach the temperature considered safe for killing microorganisms is known as the:
Food will keep colder longer in an ice chest with ice at 0 degrees C compared to an ice chest with water at 0 degrees C because of the:
latent heat of fusion
The pH scale is a mathematical scale in which the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is expressed as a number from 0 to ___ to indicate acidity.
When a food processing plant is cleaned and sanitized, a bacteriostatic agent may be used that will:
inhibit the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill them
The F-value is the:
number of minutes required to destroy a specific number of microbes at 250 degrees F
Butter contains a high amount (about 4 percent) of _____ acid, which is a short chain fatty acids that gives butter a buttery aroma, especially as it warms up.
Sugar, one of the most common sweeteners in the world, is derived primarily from:
sugar cane and sugar beets
An egg foam is formed by beating egg white. Denatured by beating, the egg protein forms a:
_____ is a packaging technology used for some vegetable, meat, and potato products that creates a specific gaseous environment so the food product has a longer shelf life.
Modified atmosphere packaging
Gelatin is made by taking _____, a protein that is not easily soluble in water, and altering its structure, and then reforming it with the addition of a sweetening agent, a flavorant for taste, and a colorant.
The government agency that created a special class of additives that are generally recognized as safe was the:
_____ is a nutritive sweetener because it produces calories when it is metabolized in the body.
_____ is an ingredient used in cured meat that inhibits the growth of Clostridium botulinum.
A _____ is a piece of equipment that is used to provide a steady supply of circulated, heated air to dry foods.
Butterscotch pudding that has been thickened with starch can experience retrogradation if held in the refrigerator for a few days and have:
_____ is related to a food's hydrogen ion concentration, or with the acid's potential for ionization.
Hot dogs, cold cuts, and soft cheeses are ready-to-eat foods that have been known to be responsible for foodborne outbreaks due to _____. This organism can survive at greater temperature extremes than most other organisms.
Baking powder is a leavening compound that contains baking soda, _____, and starch or some other filler.
Nabisco markets Oreo Double Stuff sandwich cookies. One serving, equivalent to 1 ounce, contains 7 grams of fat, 2.5 grams of saturated fat, 0 mg of cholesterol, 120 mg of sodium, 21 grams of carbohydrates, 1 gram of dietary fiber, 13 grams of sugar, and 1 gram of protein. One serving would be equivalent to _____ calories.
After World War II, studies were conducted to replace erucic acid in rapeseed oil with _____ to create canola oil.
To obtain the most reliable sensory information from people about a food product, it is recommended that sensory scientists hold sensory evaluation panels in:
late morning or midafternoon
A component in chili peppers called _____ makes them hot and may cause a burning sensation in your mouth when food containing chili peppers is consumed.
A food scientist is developing a new product and needs to use a sugar that is not only the sweetest, but also the most soluble from an available list of sweeteners that they have in their product development lab. To meet these criteria, which of the of the following sweeteners would you recommend that they use?
Less tender cuts of meat can be tenderized by using enzymes in _____ that are extracted from the papaya fruit.
The government agency that has oversight for regulating the safety and quality of seafood is the:
_____ is a taste component that is best describes as savory, pungent, deliciousness, or musty.
Water activity is used to determine the:
amount of free water available for microorganisms to grow in a food product
Harry's BBQ company processes their BBQ sauce at ambient temperature, which is currently 68 degrees F. This would be equivalent to ___ degrees C.
Isoflavones are phytochemicals that have been shown to possibly help reduce the risk of some cancers. Isoflavones are found in products such as Silk®, a non dairy beverage, and are derived from:
Castleberry's Food Company initiated a voluntary recall of canned chili sauce and meat products dues to the risk of a potent neurotoxin being present from under-processing the canned products. The organism, _____, is responsible for producing this toxin.
Producing food by natural methods that fit with local needs and conditions is considered:
Milk that has been first sterilized by heat, and then placed in sterilized containers for retail sale at ambient temperature has undergone:
The D-value is the:
length of time required at a specific temperature to destroy 90% of the microorganisms present
Potato chips are commonly sealed in packages flushed with pure nitrogen to minimize oxidation that would lead to unpleasant flavors, otherwise known as:
_____ is a vegetable gum added to evaporated milk before processing to stabilize the casein proteins.
_____ is an acronym for a special list of additives that contains substances such as spices, natural seasonings, and flavorings that are considered safe for human consumption and not regulated as additives.
When you consumer a cracker, the texture that you perceive is the result of several sensations including consistency, mouthfeel, and:
To keep fresh produce from deteriorating during distribution and retail display, produce are often:
treated with a light coat of approved oil-based wax to seal in moisture
_____ is caused by moisture loss from a ham that is exposed to air during frozen storage, possibly as a result of loose packaging.
_____ is a required component that must be included on Nutrition Facts panel found on most food products.
In 1810, an Englishman named _____ patented the tin canister, or can, which became the most popular container for food preservation through canning.
Irradiation can be used as a food preservation method called _____. Food is first blanched, and then subjected to high levels of radiation to kill all forms of microorganisms, resulting in a shelf life of several years.
Sodium _____ is an ingredient used to impart a unique flavor and pink color to cured meat products.
When pancakes are cooked on a griddle, the griddle transfers heat to the pancake batter by:
When a summer sausage is thermally processed in a smokehouse that has excessive air speed and/or too little humidity, the sausage may form a hard outer layer, trapping moisture inside, which could lead to subsequent microbial problems. This is called:
In an experiment for a whipped cream company, a scientist tested whipping the cream in a metal or plastic vat to determine which was best for whipping cream. For this experiment, the bowl material would be considered a(n):
The first ingredient in the ingredient statement on the can of Mountain Dew soda is listed as "carbonated water." This is actually a solution of the gas _____ dissolved in water.
_____ is formed when the myoglobin in meat becomes oxidized and turns brownish in color.
Cream is classified by the amount of fat it contains. Light whipping cream must contain _____ percent fat.
Oscar Mayer markets a product called "Fast Franks" that is a microwavable hot dog in a bun. One serving, equivalent to 1 hot dog with bun, contains 19 grams of fat, 5 grams of saturated fat, 45 mg of cholesterol, 790 mg of sodium, 21 g of carbohydrates, 1 gram of dietary fiber, 5 grams of sugar, and 10 grams of protein. One serving would be equivalent to ___ calories.
Quaker® Oats is an example of a company that was permitted by the FDA to place a food-specific health claim on Quaker® Oatmeal because research studies suggested that _____ may lower blood cholesterol slightly.
Oil and water are two immiscible liquids found in salad dressings that can be blended together with the addition of a(n):
A company that makes fresh bratwurst has received complaints from consumers that the sausage looks uncooked in the center of the product even though the consumer has thoroughly cooked it. A scientist has been called in by the company to look at the product and identify why this is occurring. The ability to view and understand the entire production process well enough to identify potential problem areas is called:
_____ are substances added to baked goods, such as cakes, to help them lighten or rise during baking.
To deactivate enzymes in fruits and vegetables, the produce is immerse in boiling water in a process called:
Microwaves do not affect all molecules equally. They have the greatest effect on _____ molecules.
_____ is an effective antioxidant that is used in many food products to prevent fat from oxidizing and developing off flavors.
All foods have a pH, which is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH of most foods is in the _____ range of the pH scale.
_____ are important in the production of foods that contain water and fat, such as mayonnaise or margarine.
The FDA has complied a list of over 600 ingredients considered safe and are not designated as additives. This list is called the _____ list.
Generally Recognized as Safe
If a food product contains 10,000,000 (10⁷) microbes per gram, and experiences a 99.99 percent kill rate, then _____ microbes per gram will survive.
The length of time cottage cheese can be safely stored refrigerated before deteriorating is known as:
The color of maple syrup is the result of a _____ between a monosaccharide and an amino acid normally found in the sap of the maple tree.
A 42 g serving of M&Ms® contains 9 grams of fat, 30 grams of carbohydrates, and 2 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.
_____ is a microorganism that may be found in the body's nasal passages and on the skin. If perishable food contaminated with this organism is allowed to sit at room temperature for an extended period of time, this organism produces a toxin that causes foodborne illness.
_____ flourish in environments of high osmotic pressure, or low water activity, and are responsible for spoilage of dry fruits, fruit juices, and maple syrup.
Commercially canned carrots, peas, and corn are processed in a huge pressure canner called a:
_____ is a pathogen that grows under anaerobic conditions and is a concern in canned food products.
In the research and development laboratory of a food company, a scientist is deciding on the type of sweetener to use in a cereal product. Which sugar should they choose if they want to use the sweetest sugar from the following choices available to them?
In _____, a German chemist named Andreas Sigismund Marggraf discovered that the sweetness of sugar beets and of sugar cane was the result of sucrose.
During bread production, Saccharromysces cerevisiae causes bread to rise through the process of:
To stabilize liquids in some foods, _____ such as citric acid, maltic acid, and tartaric acid, are added to surround metal ions and prevent them from catalyzing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.
If a food product is altered so that it appears to be of a higher quality than it actually is, this is considered to be:
When people work in a food processing establishment, employees are taught to wash their hands and wear appropriate clothing and a hairnet. These steps are part of the company's _____ to produce safe and wholesome food.
good manufacturing practices
A greed radura symbol displayed on a food package label indicated the product has undergone:
The process that breaks down fat globules in milk to make them smaller and more uniform in size is called:
Scientists at Calgene Company isolated the gene responsible for the deterioration of a tomato when it is picked, then used this knowledge to create the Flavr-Savr® tomato. This is an example of applying _____ to alter the genetic makeup of a food.
The stretchy, elastic protein found in wheat that gives bread its final shape and structure is called:
The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Bologna is an example of a _____ in food.
_____ is the scale used to relate specific gravity of a beverage such as Diet Coke® to sugar content.
To prevent oil from separating in a jar of peanut butter, _____ are added to the formulation.
The use of computers in interactive engineering drawing and storage of designs is known as CAD, or ______.
Taste buds are sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue. If you were eating salty pretzels, you would perceive the salty taste on the _____ of the tongue.
You are developing a new food product that requires a rapidly dissolving sugar. Given a choice of using equal amounts of granulated sugar, brown sugar, powdered sugar, or a sugar cube, which type of sugar would dissolve the fastest?
powdered sugar because it has more surface area per gram of solid
As eggs age, the egg white becomes thinner because the pH of the egg:
becomes more basic due to decreased carbon dioxide levels inside of the egg
The government agency responsible for ensuring that food such as ketchup is safe and wholesome is the:
Food and Drug Administration
The process if adding hydrogen to unsaturated fat molecules causing double bonds to break and be replaced with single bonds resulting in liquid oil being converted to a semi-solid fat is known as:
_____, in the form of carotene, is found in large amounts in carrots, sweet potatoes, and apricots.
_____ is a heat treatment that destroys all pathogens but does not destroy all spoilage organisms.
Blanching is a process used during preservation of fruits and vegetables to deactivate _____ prior to freezing.
Yeast breads are made from soft dough and rely on yeast fermentation to make the bread rise. The one sugar yeast cannot ferment is:
To make fermented milk products such as cottage cheese or yogurt, a starter culture is added to pasteurized milk in a step known as:
A food contains 11 grams of fat, 6 carbohydrates, and 8 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.
Food ingredients that are GRAS, also known as _____, are considered safe for human consumption.
Generally Recognized as Safe
A compound that inhibits the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill bacteria is:
The Hershey Company is marketing a Hershey milk chocolate bar containing Reese's pieces called Twosomes. This is an example of a:
A sensory scientist evaluates characteristics such as texture, aroma, and flavor of food products. These are also called:
The portion of a label found on food packages that presents nutritional information is called:
The method of heating that occurs during canning of solid-pack canned foods like tuna or ham is:
In the process of freezing food, _____ in the food product if a slow freezing process is used.
large ice crystals will form
The amount of heat required to convert water from a liquid to a gas at its boiling point is called:
heat of vaporization
During _____, the interaction of an amino acid and a reducing sugar results in non-enzymatic browning.
the Maillard reaction
The carbonation of soft drinks such as Pepsi or Coke results from a reaction between a form of carbonate and a(n):
When ground beef that is packaged in a Styrofoam tray and covered in plastic wrap is stored under refrigeration for several days, the color changes from bright cherry red color to brown or:
The government agency responsible for ensuring that meat and poultry are safe and wholesome is the:
It is important for a food technologist to measure the relative number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a food system. This is also known as measuring the _____ of a food.
_____ reacts with amino acids when milk is heated to contribute to the tan color and slightly caramelized flavor of cooked milk products.
An additive that can keep a compound, mixture, or solution from changing its form or chemical nature is called a:
Flavor is sensed by taste buds which are located on parts of the tongue. The taste buds on the sides of the tongue respond to what flavors?
The process that changes the shape of a protein molecule without breaking its covalent bonds is called:
A food technologist developing a formulation for a soft dough should use:
three parts flour to one part liquid
_____ is the complete destruction of all microorganisms, except for some bacterial spores.
A synthetic sweetener made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine that is found in many diet soft drinks is called:
Vegetables are stored in individual rooms within a warehouse. The room storing _____ would be expected to generate the most heat in one 24 hour period in their confined storage space.
The use of biochemical techniques to alter the genetic makeup of a plant to enhance characteristics for food production is called:
A food contains 8 grams of fat, 4 grams of carbohydrates, and 5 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.
A food technologist is formulating a low carbohydrate pasta. They need to select a grain that has the highest amount of protein and lowest amount of carbohydrates. Which grain should they use?
Food that is dried at too high a temperature during dehydration can become _____ on the outside of the product.
A company is formulating a high quality ice cream and wants to use milk from a breed of cow that will provide the highest percentage of butterfat in its milk. Which breed of cow should be used?
A compound that destroys bacteria on contact and has residual activity to continue to kill bacteria on a surface is called:
The purpose for using a leavening agent such as baking soda or baking powder in cakes and cookies is to provide a source of:
To test a food manufacturing process with batches larger than bench top size, but smaller than full scale industry size, processors will use:
pilot scale production
Once food production operations are finished, a sanitation crew will remove all visible dirt, grime, and grease. This step is also called:
Water activity is the degree of availability of water in food. The water activity of pure water is:
To control crystal size when making candy, an interfering agent such as _____ is added.
cream of tartar
Aspartame, a common low-calorie sweetener used in beverages such as Diet Coke™ is __________________________.
a dipeptide consisting of aspartic acid and phenylalanine
Milk aseptically processed and marketed in a box that can be stored without refrigeration for three months or more if unopened is called _______________ milk.
A _______________ is a substance that reduces, but not necessarily eliminates microbial contamination on inanimate surfaces to levels that are considered to be safe from a public health standpoint.
If a food product undergoing slow freezing is improperly wrapped, the airflow past the food will increase water loss from the frozen product into the air. This could result in __________ on the product surface.
The presence of an agricultural pesticide in a food product would be considered a ______ hazard in a HACCP plan.
A food chemist conducting research in a laboratory must know how to use all chemicals properly and keep an ____________ for each chemical in the lab that describes the safe use of the chemical and steps to take in case of an accident.
To assess the effectiveness of a heat treatment when processing food, companies use a _________________________ which is a graph that plots microbes killed against time at a particular temperature
thermal death time curve
As the starch concentration increase in a mixture, the resulting paste becomes more _______.
______________ is a linear polymer of D-galacturonic acid that forms an ester with methanol and is used as an ingredient to make jelly.
When water boils, a phase change occurs so that liquid turns into a gas. This phase change is called ________________.
Fermentation of glucose with yeast produces________________________.
ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
Cream produces foam or whipped cream because of its viscosity and it ________________.
has a low surface tension
A Hershey's Milk Chocolate bar contains 13 g fat, 8 g saturated fat, 26 g total carbohydrates, 1 g dietary fiber, 24 g sugar, and 3 g protein. Based on this information, the chocolate bar would contain ____________ calories.
Because triglycerides molecules are ___________, they resist the hydrogen bonding that dissolves sugars in water.
In __________, the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act required food labels to carry basic nutrition information.
Celery wilts when placed in a dry environment because water leaves the cells through a process called ____________.
At the Country Farms Soup Company, a food scientist is evaluating the sensory properties of a new chicken soup and wants to evaluate the impact of savory, or _________, characteristics.
An avocado will turn brown after it has been cut and bruised due to __________________.
To prevent or slow oxidative rancidity in a food product, a food processor could ________.
prevent light transmission through the use of opaque or non-light-transmitting packaging
The color of ground beef color changes from bright cherry red to brown or ____________ when packaged in an oxygen permeable package.
In the U.S., the Food Guide ________________ is a visual reminder of what makes up a balanced diet and the icon is found on the labels of some food packages.
_______________ is a process of preserving food through a combination of partial drying and freezing.
A company that manufactures potato chips inspects the product for color, chip size, thickness, and other attributes to assess the degree of acceptability of the chips. In other words, the company is checking __________________.
Gluten in flour contains fibrous and globular _____________ and gives baked goods their structure and shape.
When cabbages are stored they undergo a process termed __________ that yields principally water and carbon dioxide.
The ________________ has the responsibility for regulating additives that are used in food processing.
MREs or meals ready-to-eat are processed in ___________ and have an extended shelf life of up to 3 years.
To prevent butterfat from separating out as cream when milk stands during retail display and storage, milk is __________.
To make ready-to-reheat and eat pancakes that are sold frozen in retail stores, the manufacturing company must cook the pancakes before the freezing process. When pancake batter is poured into a pan that is made hot by energy released from a heating element, the pan transfers the heat by __________ to the batter.
__________ is important in baking yeast bread since it acts as a catalyst for the breakdown of a disaccharide into simples sugars, that in turn, break down to produce carbon dioxide which causes dough to rise.
An IQF process means that a food product has been __________________________.
A pizza company printed a new package for frozen pizza and the consumer cooking instructions on the package states that the pizza should be reheated to a final temperature of 77°C. The cooking instructions should have listed the final cooking temperature in °F instead of °C. You have been asked to convert 77°C into °F. What should the final cooking temperature be in °F on the label?
__________________ produces a heat stable toxin so even prolonged heating doesn't destroy this toxin if present in food.
Hard wheat will yield a flour that has a higher _______________ than that of flour from soft wheat.
Lard, or rendered ____________________, is popular in the baking industry for use in pastries, cakes, and frostings.
Certain foods having a blue or red shade get their hue from pigments called ___________ that are sensitive to pH changes. In acid solutions, they turn red, while they turn blue in basic solutions.
If a food scientist measures a quantity of salt several times with similar results for a formulation, this measurement would be considered ___________________.
The HACCP process uses ________ to show the entire food processing operation.
flow charts and diagrams
Which of the following processes changes liquid oils into semisolids and makes the oil less susceptible to oxidation and rancidity?
The demand for which of the following food products would go up the least if per capita income increased significantly?
An addition of a nutrient to foods such as adding Vitamin D to milk is called ________.
A discovery by a 19th century economist relating family income with food purchases as a proportion of total expenditures is often referred to as:
Only three processes have been identified to safely eliminate living micro-organisms. They are:
heat, selected chemicals, and irradiation
A list of ingredients must be included on a food label. The first ingredient listed is by its amount of:
In most cases, which phrase means that the food product in question contains no nutritive carbohydrate sweetener, either added or naturally occurring, and is a low or reduced calorie food?
Three kinds of information must be found on a food label. One of those listed is incorrect. Which one of the following is incorrect?
sources of food ingredients
If NOEL value of a pesticide is 1 gram, what is the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for each kilogram of body weight?
A chemical linked to long-term effect such as cancer, sterility and birth defects could cause which of the following:
The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of a non-carcinogen is:
1/100 of a no-observed effect level (NOEL)
Which of the following is not a primary function of protein?
provides good and readily available source of energy
Using salt to control the unwanted growth of microorganisms in food:
has been used for many years and is only effective if foods are stable
When a food scientist appraises a food using sight, smell, taste and possibly touch, this is often referred to as:
The terms "chewy," "fibrous," "gritty," "mealy," and "sticky" are important in the _____ of foods.
If Joe's daily intake is 2000 calories and he consumes a candy bar that contains 220 calories, what percent of Joe's calorie intake is in that candy bar?
Which of the following is NOT true about the Consumer Price Index (CPI)?
it is a comparison between raw food and fast food prices
The amount of foods and food service that would be bought at a given price is called ________.
Which of the following would most likely NOT be a science involved in the making of a pizza?
Which of the following would NOT be a requirement or function of a commercial food container?
During fermentation the Saccharomyces cerevisiae compound sugars are hydrolyzed to form ________.
alcohol and carbon dioxide
Desirable microbial growth in foods is important for the production of all of the following times but:
chocolate, pasta, meats
Common food poisoning can be avoided by taking simple preventative steps. Which of the following steps is the most important?
Prior to purchasing dairy foods at the grocery store, the ________ should be checked:
expiration date of the product
It is estimated that the average consumer spends approximately what percent of his/her food dollar on food prepared outside of the home?
Which of the following is not a factor in controlling insects, fungi, weeds, and molds in crops raised for food consumption?
The ________ regulates genetically engineered microbes used in natural pesticides.
Environmental Protection Agency
________ stands for a system that is used to assure food safety in food processing, packaging, storage, distribution, and preparation.
hazard analysis and critical control point
The ________ registers or approves the use of pesticide tolerance levels for pesticide levels in food.
________ are places in the food processing system where the lack of proper control can result in a safety risk for the consumer.
critical control points
A bacteria that can contaminate poultry products and cause foodborne illness in humans is ________.
When roasting meats and poultry, an oven temperature of at least ________ should be used.
325 degrees F
Which of the following processes will NOT eliminate living microorganisms in food?
The food pyramid indicates that the _____ group is the where you should obtain the most servings each day.
Which of the following vitamins must be declared first on a nutritional label for a food product?
Which of the following food component is primarily derived from fruits, vegetables, and grains?
Anemia is a disease resulting from a low red blood cell count. The red blood cells are the cells that carry ________ throughout the body.
Fiber is not digestible, it passes through the intestine system and is removed in the stools. It absorbs water on its way through the digestive system and results in a softer stool, reducing the risk of:
Cooking food properly:
destroys the organism that can form clostridium botulinum destroys a large portion of microorganisms destroys a large portion of natural enzymes
When freezing foods, it is important to note that the freezing point of various foods is:
below 0 degrees C
When a food is labeled "Calorie Free," this means that the food has:
Less than 5 calories per serving
________ is a measure of the responsiveness of quantity of a commodity demanded to a change in the market price.
Elasticity of demand
The average American spends less money on food than most nations of the world. The average American spends what percent of total disposable income on food?
Some food scientists are employed by federal, state and local government agencies responsible for the enforcement and administration of food laws. The food scientist engaged in this work is doing:
production/operations management work
Conditions under which natural toxins will NOT cause problems in humans are:
An abnormal food constituent is eaten moderately
Major program(s) used by food processors to assure foods aren't contaminated during processing is (are):
GMPs and HACCP
The HACCP system for preventing hazards in food processing and ensuring food safety has the following number of steps:
According to the National Agricultural Chemicals Association, crops without protection chemicals would have:
dramatic losses in food production rapid increases in consumer prices health risks due to poorer diets
Total counts of microorganisms in foods are:
An indication of the sanitary quality Performed by the Standard Plate Count assay A reflection of the handling history or decomposition of the food
A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise ____ of water one degree ________.
1 gram, Centigrade
Which of the following work together to maintain chemical, fluid, and electrical balance between tissue cells and blood?
sodium and potassium
Which of the following cannot be digested, absorbed, but looks, feels, and behaves like fat?
To ensure that the foods you store maintain their safety and quality, make sure your refrigerator is at _____ degrees Fahrenheit.
To increase shelf life, the air in a controlled atmosphere storage room containing apples should contain only _____% oxygen rather than the 21% found in normal air.
The ________ dose is the largest dose that the animal in an experiment can take without endangering its health.
maximum tolerated dose
A left-over hot dish needs to be reheated prior to serving again. The internal temperature of the food should reach _____ degrees F.
A food additive that retards rancidity of unsaturated oils and prevents browning in fruits and vegetables that occur during exposure to oxygen is called an:
If the legal maximum of nitrite (NO2) is 156 ppm, how much sodium nitrite can you legally add to 1 kg. of meat?
A food additive that promotes or produces a desired physical state or texture is called a(n):
________ is defined as individual cells of crop plants exhibiting desirable characteristics, which are selected and grown into mature plants.
Only Lactic acid bacteria can ferment sugars and nutrients in pickles because they:
are tolerant of salt levels
In the United States, more than one-half of the fresh fruits and vegetables are grown in which states?
California, Florida, and Texas
When you spend one dollar for food, approximately how much goes into the labor required to harvest, and then process that food after it leaves the farm?
Approximately what percentage of all the jobs in the food and fiber system is related to wholesale and retail sales?
Which mineral is added to most drinking water in the United States to assist in tooth development?
weighing twenty percent or more above desirable weight for height; in an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more
lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream
the passage of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells
a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body; examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter, kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis
Water soluble vitamin
a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex vitamins, that dissolves in water; are not stored in the body
type of simple sugar; the body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system; the basic sugar molecule from which all other carbohydrates are built
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes
Fat soluble vitamin
vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fats; includes vitamins A, D, E and K
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow
a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss of bone density
a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body; in science, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius
the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities
poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by inadequate diet or the body
a process that changes the shape of a protein molecule without breaking its peptide bonds
an elastic substance formed by mixing water with the proteins found in wheat; produced when dough is kneaded
the time during which foods finish cooking by internal heat after being removed from the cooking appliance
areas of food that during cooking reach a higher temperature than surrounding areas due to receiving a greater concentration of energy
a yellow tag that is displayed on all newly purchased major appliances which shows an estimated, yearly energy usage for the product
the repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube
a written promise by a manufacturer that a product will meet specified standards of performance
repair and maintenance insurance purchased to cover a product for a specific length of time
imaginary triangle formed by the refrigerator, stove and sink; are the focal points of the major work centers in a kitchen
a cooking device which uses invisible waves of energy that cause water molecules to rub against each other and produce heat which cooks the food
acids are required in the diet for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and because they aren't synthesized by the body
the forced addition of hydrogen atoms to the unsaturated bonds of fatty acids to raise the melting point of the fat (harden)
associated with particular products: Benzaldehyde - cherry or almond; Isoamyl acetate - banana
Water holding capacity
the ability to retain moisture during the application of external forces like heating, grinding and pressing
is the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to all of the body's cells by the vascular (aka circulatory) system
result of oxygen reacting with the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids to produce a rancid flavor or aroma
are largely responsible for the digestion and breakdown of food molecules into absorbable units and are protein molecules that cause chemical reactions to occur without being altered in the process
are single-celled eukaryotes; classified by their morphology, locomotion and life cycle; they do not grow in foods, but are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle
vary with the type of organism, but most foods provide high nutrient availability for microorganisms
refer to the food composition and characteristics that influence microbial growth in the food
are important macronutrients and provide essential amino acids; proteins provide structure in foods
the systematic evaluation and understanding of water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other ingredients, such as additives, as they undergo chemical interaction/reaction during the harvest, storage and distribution of foods
process of incorporating 3-6% emulsifier into shortening to improve its baking qualities
oil bearing portion of the seed is cleaned, ground and tempered. Pressing or solvent extraction. Refined. Bleached. Deodorized.
polymers of D-galacturonic acid linked alpha1-4 that have various amounts of methylation on carbon #6 (high Methoxy pectin)
What happens to food stored higher than -18 degrees C, even if it is still frozen?
microbes become active, freezer burn more likely; enzymes more active, textural changes can occur, water migrates out
Amino acid structure
basic unit of proteins; contains both a carboxyl groups and an amino acid group
Functions of fat in foods
crystal modification, medium for heat transfer, tenderness in baked products, flavor and tenderness in protein foods, body and mouthfeel
Explain oxidative vs. hydrolytic rancidity
oxidative rancidity occurs at the double bonds (enzymatic); hydrolytic rancidity occurs when short fatty acids are hydrolyzed from the glycerol (non enzymatic)
You can't add fig, kiwi or fresh pineapple to gelatins because
the proteases hydrolyze peptide bonds
How do small fat crystals affect creaming properties?
better emulsification, better dispersion, more air pockets
Which of the following statements is true?
Before coagulation occurs, denaturation of proteins is sometimes reversible.
When food is irradiated, the amount of radiation the food is exposed to during processing is commonly measured in
Fatty acids that have a long carbon chain in which every carbon atom carries a maximum number of hydrogen atoms is called a/an ________ fatty acid.
When acids dissolve in water, their molecules break apart and release ________ into the solution to make the solution acidic.
During the cleaning and sanitizing process following food production, a company will use a ________ which is a chemical compound designed to emulsify fat and solubilize food residue.
A meat scientist cut open a cured ham and observed a brown spot the size of a penny near the center of the ham and deduced that this was due to the ham being frozen in the center when the cure was injected into the fresh ham. This ability to detect and solve problems is called
While milk is in a holding or storage tank and after it has been adjusted for butterfat content, it is fortified with Vitamin
When animals are harvested at a meat processing facility, mandatory antemortem and postmortem inspection is conducted by the
United States Department of Agriculture.
Hard wheat flour will yield flour that has a ________ ratio than that of flour from soft wheat.
________ is a method of heat transfer where heat is transferred by circulatory movement in a liquid or gas.
A food scientist was calibrating a thermometer prior to measuring the internal temperature of a product coming out of an impingement oven. To calibrate their thermometer, they placed the thermometer in boiling water and the thermometer reading stated that the temperature was 102 degrees Celsius. Since the food scientist only had this thermometer to use and they could not physically adjust the thermometer for calibration, they _________ when they take the temperature of the product.
need to add 2 degrees to their temperature reading
________ is a common term for the osmotic process that causes some water-soluble components in vegetable to leave the vegetable for the surrounding medium during the canning process.
A compound that is found in many soft drinks has the chemical formula C8H10N4O2 and is called
The term "Daily Value" that is found on a nutrition facts label means
you can determine how the nutrients in a food serving fit with what you can or should have for the day.
When food is prepared in a food service establishment, hot foods should be maintained at
>145 degrees F
A manufacturer that produces baked beans might have challenges with their process if they use ________ because the beans will take longer than normal to cook, changing their overall processing time.
During the sensory analysis of chicken soup, ________ respond to odors in the form of steam rising from the container of hot chicken soup.
Processing a food product so that it receives a 5 D treatment means that _____ percent of the microorganisms will be destroyed.
Food scientists often need to know how much solute a solution contains. What would be the mass percent of sucrose in a solution if 23 g of sucrose was dissolved in 77 g of water?
The enzyme maltase in yeast cells helps in baking yeast bread because it acts as a catalyst for the breakdown of maltose to simple sugars that are then metabolized to produce ________ which causes the dough to rise.
Food scientists continually conduct experiments to test processing conditions. In an experiment for a cookie company, a scientist tested spread of a cookie using butter or shortening to determine which was best for minimizing the spread of a cookie. For this experiment, the spread of the cookie would be considered a
Based on the principles of HACCP, broccoli that is contaminated with a pesticide residue is an example of a
A mole of water, salt and sugar cubes are ________ and the masses of each of these products are ________.
the same; different
You are creating a new chocolate product and are using 57 pounds of cocoa powder in the formulation. Your supervisor has asked that you convert the formulation from English units to metric units. How much would the cocoa powder weigh in kilograms?
Whenever a chemical is used in a food processing lab, a/an _________ must be available in case of an accident.
material safety data sheet
A chemist, ________, discovered that the sweetness of sugar beets and of cane sugar was the result of the same chemical, sucrose.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
________ is sometimes used as an indicator microorganism which means it can provide an index of the sanitary quality of the product and may serve as an indicator of potential for the presence of pathogenic species.
During the process of ________, fat particles break down and are surrounded by an emulsifier that keeps the tiny particles permanently separated.
The development of Gatorade® G Series Fit to be sold alongside of other Gatorade® products would be considered a
product line extension.
Margarine is a plant oil that was ________ to a semi-solid form to resemble an animal fat product.
The label on Red Bull Energy beverages must meet the requirements of the _________ for labeling.
United States Food and Drug Administration
Listeria monocytogenes is considered a _________ since it can thrive and grow under refrigeration temperatures.
_________ is an economic term for the transformation that occurs in a product from raw material to finished product.
Processed food products such as cereal and juice may be supplemented with __________ to enhance their nutritional content.
vitamins and minerals
Oil and water separate when mixed together in some salad dressings due to the _________ portions of fatty acids in oil.
_________ is the use of a process to allow a substance or food to keep its useful properties for a longer than normal period.
_________ causes a food intoxication and the toxin is not destroyed by heating a food.
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