44 terms

Criminology Test 1

Objective of Criminology
create a system of justice that in society can agree on
Legalistic Definition of Crime
human conduct that violates a criminal law and is subject to punishment
Rousseau and Locke's Argument During Enlightenment Period
the law at the time was irrational and useless in protecting society
Trials by Ordeal
based on the principle that divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
Jeremy Bentham
founder of psychology that said people operate on a moral calculus, weighing the prose and cons of actions
the belief that human behavior is a function of forces beyond a person control and uses the scientific method to conduct research
Consensus Perspective of Crime
assumes that if a law is in place, it must be right, because we put it there
Emile Durkheim
felt that crime was normal because it is impossible to imagine a society in which criminal behavior is totally absent
Edwin Sutherland's Social-Psychological View
stated that lack of legitimate opportunities drive some people to crime
interactions people have with various individuals, organizations, institutions, and processes of society that help them mature and develop
Substantive Criminal law
the written code that defines crimes and their punishment
Consensus View of Crime
links illegal behavior to the concept of social harm
Interactionist View of Crime
crime is a reflection of the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in a particular legal jurisdiction
Functions of Criminal Law
maintenance and order, deterrence of criminal behavior, and reflection of public opinion and moral values
mala in se
the intent to commit a criminal act
Reason Criminologists Measure Crime and Criminal Behavior
to help the CJ agencies facilitate daily operations and anticipate future needs
Self-Report Survey Research
asking participants to describe their recent and lifetime criminal activity
Conflict Perspective Arguments
the power elite control society, society is made up of competing groups of people, and an act becomes a crime when it threatens the interests of elites
NCVS has the ability to measure unreported crime
Uniform Crime Report
the best-known and most important source of official crime data
Criticism of the UCR
multiple crimes occurring in one situation are counted only once
the taking or attempt to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person by force or threat of force or violence
Advantages of the National Incident-Based Reporting System vs. UCR
it provides info on the relationship between victim and offender, it distinguishes between attempted vs. complete crime, and it includes more offenses than are listed in the UCR
Aggravated Assault
an unlawful act by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury
involves gathering data from previous studies
National Crime Victimization Survey
found that the fear of crime tends to be worse than the actual experience
Self Report Surveys
have been found to be more accurate than many criminologists believe
Instrumental Crimes
crimes that result when a person is unable to obtain desired goods and services through conventional means
Chivalry Hypothesis
the criminality of females is masked because of the generally benevolent and protective attitude toward women in our society
Cycle of Violence
the abuse-crime phenomenon
Fraud Schemes and the Elderly
the elderly are more vulnerable because they possess financial resources that make them attractive targets
Target Antagonism
characteristics that increase victimization risk because they arouse anger, jealousy, or destructive impulses in potential offenders
Active Precipitation
when victims act provocatively, use threats or fight words, or attack first
Carrying a Weapon
a "surefire way to become a crime victim"
Routine Activities Theory
certain characteristics make certain people motivated offenders (ex. unemployed teenagers)
Suitable Targets
in Routine Activities Theory, easily accessible objects
Impact Statement
the victim's ability to address the sentencing judge and tell of his or her experiences as a result of the victimization
Repeat/ Chronic Victimization
most repeat victimizations occur soon after a previous crime has been committed
Target Hardening
using security devices to make dwellings or belongings crime-proof
Deviant Behavior
departs from social norms
Classical Theory of Crime
suggests people have free will to choose criminal or unlawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems
White-Collar Crime
business related offenses
Failure to Act is a Crime if...
the parties are bound by relationship, the sate has a statute requiring that people give aid, and if a contractual relationship exists
Defense Against Criminal Charges
when people defendthemselves against criminal charges, they must refute one or more of the elements of the crime for which they have been accused