103 terms

AP Human Geography Vocabulary Unit 3: Cultural Patterns & Processes

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Culture
the beliefs, behaviors, and characteristics of a particular group (e.g. Islamic _________ )
Folk (Local) Culture
A type of culture that is traditionally practiced, primarily by small homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas
Folklore
The oral traditions of a folk culture (e.g. tales, fables, legends, customary observations, and moral teachings)
Popular Culture
A type of culture more commonly found in large, heterogeneous societies, and is a constantly changing mix of material/non-material elements available through mass production and media (e.g. Hip Hop, McDonald's)
Material Culture
The tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a particular culture group which are reflective of their traditions, lifestyles, and technologies (e.g. Cars, Buildings, Recreational Activities, Arts)
Built Environment
The part of the physical landscape that represents the material culture (i.e the buildings, roads, vehicles, and similar technologies large/small of the cultural landscape)
Non-Material Culture
The intangible elements of a particular culture group (e.g. oral traditions, songs, stories, beliefs, and customary behaviors)
Cultural Appropriation
The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures for their own benefit
Neolocalism
The renewed interest in preserving and promoting the the identity of a community and restoring the aspects that make it culturally unique in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
Ethnic Neighborhoods
A "safe place" or area in which a local culture can freely practice its customs; usually in urban areas and created by local cultures
Commodification
The process by which something is given monetary value
Distance Decay
The process of diminishing contact due to increasing distance and vice versa
Time-Space Compression
The speed of transportation causing places to become 'closer' together in terms of social distance
Reterritorialization
When people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture (in popular culture)
Hierarchical Diffusion
An cultural idea or innovation that spreads by passing first among the most connected places or people, then second most, and so on...
Contagious Diffusion
The spread of a cultural idea or innovation in a way that almost all individuals and areas outward from the from the source region are affected by its spread
Stimulus Diffusion
A type of diffusion in which a cultural idea or innovation, though not the specific trait itself, causes imitative behavior within a population
Relocation Diffusion
A type of diffusion in which a cultural idea or innovation is spread through the physical movement of humans from one place to another as they evacuate old areas and vacate new ones
Assimilation
The complete blending of a person/group with a host culture which causes the loss of most if not all of a group's previous distinctive ethnic traits
Acculturation
A process that occurs when immigrant populations take on enough of the values, attitudes and customs of the receiving society to function economically and socially
Cultural Landscape
The visible imprints of human activities on the physical landscape
Sequent Occupance
The theory that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, contributing to the cultural landscape
Placelessness
The loss of uniqueness of place in a cultural landscape to the point that one place looks like the next
Global-Local Continuum
The theory that what happens on a global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa
Glocalization
The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
Adaptive Strategy
A society's system of economic production which helps explain some of the differences between societies that are influenced by the economy
Folk-Housing Regions
A region in which the people of that local culture live in traditional houses according to their culture
Anglo-American Landscape
A landscape distinguished by a set of cultural traits such as language, belief, customs, behavior norms, social institutions, way of life, artifacts (etc.)
Traditional Architecture
A type of construction/architecture that uses locally available resources to address local needs
Folk Songs
The songs belonging to a certain group of people or area; has many versions which vary from region to region
Folk Food
The particular regional food choices of every traditional society
Gender
The state of being male of female which usually references to social and cultural differences (rather than biological ones; sex)
Identity
The fluid, ever-changing way we see ourselves, constructed through experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
Identifying Against
A process that allows us to construct an identity by defining ourselves in contrast to other people and cultures
Race
The combination of physical attributes in a population
Racism
The suggestion that socioeconomic differences can fuel the sense of superiority attached to race
Residential Segregation
The physical separation of two or more groups in which they live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment
Sense of Place
A component of identity which is the process of infusing a place with meaning and feeling
Ethnicity
A social background of an individual that shares a culture, language, or religion with a population
Ghetto
A section of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority
Dowry Deaths
A death which is caused by a dispute/argument over the price to be paid by the bride's family to the groom's father (dowry); abundant in India
Infanticide
The crime committed when one kills a child under 1 year old; especially parents
Barrio
A spanish-speaking neighborhood in an urban area
Language
An organized system of spoken words by which people communicate with one another with mutual understanding; an essential element of culture, possible the most important medium by which culture is transmitted
Standard Language
A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught around the world due to its prominence in daily life
Dialect
A regional variation of a language distinguished by pronunciation, spelling, and vocabulary
Isogloss
A border drawn on a dialect map which encloses an area within which a particular linguistic feature is found
Mutual Intelligibility
A relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort
Dialect Chains
A range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater (e.g. regions in Kashmir in which local Muslims declare their language Urdu; Sikh, Punjabi, and Hindus declare Hindu)
Language Family
A group of languages descended from a single common early language (e.g. Indo-European Family)
Language Subfamily
A smaller group of related languages within a language family (e.g. Germanic)
Language Groups
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Indo-European Language
A language family spoken by half the world's people consisting of several hundred related languages and dialects, including the major languages of Europe, Iran, Northern India, Anatolia, and Central Asia (e.g. Germanic, Romance, Slavic etc.)
Lingua Franca
A language used for trade by two people who speak different tongues (e.g. English today)
Pidgin Language
A form of speech that adopts simplified grammar and limited vocabulary from a lingua franca; used for communication between speakers of two different languages; i.e. a combination (e.g. Creole, Hawaiian Pidgin)
Trade Language
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate with each other in order to trade
Creole Language
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with an indigenous language (often pidgins)
Monolingual State
A nation that has only one official language (e.g. France)
Multilingual State
A nation that has many official languages (e.g. United States)
Official Language
A language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state or territory (e.g. Arabic in Saudi Arabia)
Global Language
A language spoken internationally which is learned by many people as a second language (e.g. English)
Religion
The belief and worship of (a) supernatural dieties
Linguistic Diversity
The varied and diverse traits that make up a language such as phonetics and symbols
Toponym
A place name that reflects that place's history and the movement of their people to that place
Monotheistic Religion
A group of religions that believe in the presence of only one All-Mighty God (e.g. Islam, Judaism, Christianity)
Zoroastrianism
A religion based on the concept of a cosmic struggle between good and evil
Polytheistic Religion
A group of religions that believe in the presence of multiple Gods (e.g. Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism (etc.))
Animistic Religion
A group of religions centered on the belief that inanimate objects (i.e. mountains, boulders, rivers, trees) possess spirits and should be worshiped/revered
Universalizing Religion (Proselytic Faith)
A group of religions that actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal (e.g. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism)
Ethnic Religion
A group of religions in which adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought; tend to be spatially concentrated in one region with the exception of Judaism (e.g. South American and African traditional religions) (i.e. opposite of universalizing religion)
Hinduism
A religion based on ancient practices of the Indus River cities which does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins; It is one of the oldest religions in the world, and the third largest (Pakistani Hearth)
Reincarnation
The belief of the process of rebirth of a soul in a new body after death; the cornerstone of belief in Hinduism
Caste System
A hierarchical system that locks people into particular social classes and imposes many restrictions, especially in the lower castes
Sikhism
A religion that retained the Hindu concepts of reincarnation and karma, but disapproved of Idol worship and the caste system
Buddhism
A religion of eastern and central Asia growing out of the teaching of Gautama Buddha in which all desires were to be dispelled to cease life suffering
Shintoism
An indigenous religion of Japan which deals mainly in the cultic devotion of deities of natural forces and veneration of the Emperor as a descendant of the sun goddess
Taoism
A Chinese philosophy (religion) based on the writings of Lao-tzu in the 6th century B.C. which advocated humility and religious piety
Feng-Shui (Geomancy)
A Chinese system which selected a structure or site so that it harmonized with the spiritual forces that inhabit it (i.e. orientation, placement, or arrangement according to these beliefs)
Confucianism
A system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius which stressed love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
Judaism
The monotheistic religion which is a type of Ethnic Religion and is based on the Torah and Talmud
Christianity
The monotheistic religion which is a type of Universalizing Religion and is based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament
Islam
The monotheistic religion which is a type of universalizing religion and is based on the Qur'an and the teachings of Muhammad PBUH
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs (leaders of the Islamic State) as the rightful successors of Muhammad PBUH; one of the two main branches of Islam
Shi'ite
A branch of Islam whose members believe that Ali was the legitimate successor to Muhammad PBUH and reject the first three caliphs (leaders of the Islamic State)
Shamanism
An animistic religion of northern Asia that is based on the belief that the mediation between the reality and spirit worlds is effected by Shamans
Secularism
The belief that states that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education; rejects religion (i.e. separate church and state: education and politics)
Mormonism
A modified sect of Christianity that was originated in 1830 by Joseph Smith in the New England area and now resides in the Utah area
Sacred Sites/Space
A place or space people in a culture infuse with religious meaning
Religious Toponym
The name of a part of a religion that refers to the origin and meaning of it; e.g. St. Peters Basilica
Minaret
A tall, slender tower, usually part of a mosque (Islamic Place of Worship) from which one calls other Muslims to prayer
Hajj (Hadj)
An obligatory Muslim pilgrimage and ritual to the hearth of Islamic culture in Mecca if one is financially, mentally, and physically able to do so
Interfaith Boundaries
The boundaries between the world's major faiths; e.g. religious conflict in Kashmir (Islam v Hinduism)
Intrafaith Boundaries
The boundaries or differences inside one major religion; e.g. Catholics v Protestants)
Enclave
An enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it (e.g. Lesotho)
Exclave
A part of a country that is separated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory (e.g. Kaliningrad)
Genocide
The mass murder of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation due to discrimination and persecution (e.g. Holocaust in Nazi Germany)
Ethnic Cleansing
The mass expulsion or killing of member of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society (e.g. Expulsion of Germans from Polish territories)
Theocracy
A system of government which is based on religious beliefs (e.g. Shari'a Law)
Religious Fundamentalism
A religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
Religious Extremism
religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence (e.g. Radical Islamism: ISIS, Taliban)
Shari'a Law
The system of Islamic Law based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qur'an
Jihad
A war or struggle for 'Allah' or God, mentally or physically
Cargo Cult Pilgrimage
A large, religious movement by a group of people to Melanesia due to a belief that western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits

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