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a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution

aqueous solution

a solution in which water is a solvent


the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of and element

atomic number

the number of protons in each atom of a particular element


a substance that decreases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution


a chemical substance that resist changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donation hydrogen ions to solutions

chemical bond

an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells

chemical reactions

a process leading to chemical changes in matter, involving the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds


the attraction between molecules of the same kind


a substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ratio; for example, tale salt (NaCl) consists of one atom of the element sodium (Na) for every atom of chlorine (Cl)

covalent bond

an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons; symbolized by a single line between the atoms


a subatonic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom


a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means; scientists recognize 92 chemical elements occuring in nature

evaporative cooling

the property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state


the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter; heat is energy in its most random form

hydrogen bonds

a type of weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule (or in another part of the same macromolecule)

ionic bond

an attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges; the electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together


a variant form of an atom, isotopes of an element have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons

mass number

the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus


a measure of the amount of material in an object


anything that occupies space and has mass


a group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds


an electrically charged neutral particle (a particle having no electrical charge), found in the nucleus of an atom

pH scale

a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic); pH stands for potential hydrogen and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)

polar molecule

a molecule containing polar and covalent bonds (having opposite charges on opposite ends)

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