21 terms

Soc. Chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY
Civil Religion
A set of sacred beliefs so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of the national culture
Religion
A system of beliefs and practices around sacred things; a set of shared stories that guide belief and action
Sacred
Describes holy things meant for special use and kept separate from the profane. The sacred realm is unknowable and mystical, so it inspires us with feelings of awe and wonder
Profane
Describes the things of mundane every day life
Theism
The worship of a god or gods an in christianity, islam and hinduism
Ethicalism
The adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life as in buddhism
Animism
The belief that spirits roam the natural world as in totemism
Denominations
Big groups of congregations that share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella
Congregations
Groups of people that gather together, especially for the worship
Secularism
A general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational, scientific orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state
Pluralism
The presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society
Sacred Canopy
Peter Berger's term to describe the entire set of religious norms, symbols and beliefs that express the most important thing in life-namely the feeling that life is worth living, reality is meaningful and ordered and not the random chaos of the stars
Evangelicals
Members of any Protestant denomination distinguished by four traits: the Bible is without error, salvation comes through belief in Jesus Christ, personal conversion is the only path to salvation, and others must also be converted. They proselytize by engaging with wider society.
Fundamentalists
Religious adherents that follow a script using a literal interpretation of the meaning
Religious Experience
An individual's experience of spiritual feelings and acts
Reflexive Spirituality
Contemporary religious movement that encourages followers to look to religion for meaning, wisdom, and profound thought and feeling rather than for absolute truths on how the world works
Supernatural Compensators
Rewards that come in the form of promises of future rewards, such as salvation or eternity in Heaven
Megachurch
Typically, a conservative Protestant church that attracts at least 2,000 worshipers per week
Churches
Religious bodies that coexist in a relatively low state of tension with their social surroundings. They have mainstream or "safe" beliefs and practices relative to those of the general population
Sects
Also called sectarian groups, high tension organizations that don't fit in so well within the existing social environment. They are usually the most attractive to society's less privileged because they renounce worldly pleasure by stressing other worldly promises
Cult
Religious movement that makes some new claim about the supernatural and therefore is not as smoothly swept into the sect-church cycle