frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. contains the frontal loves of the brain, olfactory bulbs.
middle cranial fossa
temproal bones & sphenoid bone. contains the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, temporal lobes of the brain, and internal carotid artery
posterior cranial fossa
occipital and temporal bone. contains the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain (brainstem).
1. Internal table 2. Diploe 3. Exernal table 4. Ethmoid notch of frontal bone 5. Orbital plate of frontal bone 6. Crista galli 7. Cribiform plate 8. Sella turcica 9 Foramen rotundum 10. Foramen ovale 11. Foramen lacerum 12. Foramen spinosum 13. Internal auditory canal 14. Mastoid foramen 15. Hypoglossal canal 16. internal occipital protuberance 17. foramen magnum 18. Occipital bone 19. jugular foramen 20. temporal bone 21. end of carotid canal 22. sphenoid bone 23. lesser wing of sphenoid bone 24. ethmoid bone 25. frontal bone
Label the Cranial fossae
a layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the inner surface of the skull.
vertical portion of the frontal bone
forms the forehead and the anterior vault of the cranium. The frontal sinus communicates with the nasal cavity
horizontal portion of the frontal bone
the superior part of the orbits. the orbital plate
supraorbital notch of the frontal bone
passage of nerves and arteries
receives the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
What is the Foramen Magnum
A large oval aperture in the Occipital Bone which allows the brainstem to continue as the spinal cord.
The Sphenoid Bone
Articulates with all the other bones of the cranium, also several facial bones. forms the posterior side of the orbit. It is the anchor for all of the bones in the skull.
Body of the Sphenoid bone. Houses the pituitary gland.
another name for pituitary gland
The Ethmoid Bone
smallest of the cranial bones. Cribriform plate (horizontal portion). contains many foramina for the passage of olfactory neves, forms the roof of the nasal cavity. The perpendicular plate (vertical portion) projects inferiorly to form the superior 2/3 of the nasal septum.
The triangular process that projects superiorly from the horizontal portion of the cribriform plate of the occipital bone to act as an attachment for the FALX CEREBRI.
1. Parietal eminence 2. Vertex 3. Sagittal Suture 4. Lambdoidal Suture 5. Occipital bone 6. Temporal Bone 7. Frontal bone 8. Coronal suture 9. Squamous suture
boundaries formed by the coronal suture
transverse, anterior, frontal and parietal bones
boundaries formed by the sagittal suture
midsagittal, between the two parietal bones
boundaries formed by the lambdoid Suture
transverse, posterior, occipital and parietal bones
boundaries formed by the squamous suture
on each side of the skull, squamous portion of temporal bones to the parietal bones
junction of occipital, temporal, and parietal bones
Name the facial bones
a. 2 Nasal bones-form the bridge of nose b. 2 Lacrimal bones-Medial wall of each orbit. Lacrimal groove c. Maxillary bones-fuse at midline, largest immovable facial bones. d. 2 Palatine bones-L shaped bone, forms part of the hard palate, nasal cavity, and medial wall of orbit. e. 2 Zygoma (malar) bones- cheeks and lateral part of orbit. f. 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae-Similar to the superior & middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone but are separate bones. g. Vomer-forms the bony nasal septum (inferior) together with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. h. Mandible-Largest facial bone
warm and humidify air Lighten skull & resonate the voice
The Hyoid bone
Inferior to mandible Does not articulate directly with any other bone Crucial for human speech. Connected to the styloid process of the temporal bone by the stylohyoid ligaments.
1. skin of scalp 2. periosteum 3. bone of skull 4. periosteal 5. meningeal 6. arachnoid mater 7. Pia mater 8. Arachnoid villus 9. blood vessel 10. Falx cerebri 11. Superior sagittal sinus 12. subdural space 13. superior sagittal sinus
Coronal cross section of meninges and subarachnoid space.
Outermost, strongest membrane of the meninges. double layered (Periosteal layer & meningeal layer), Dural Venous Sinuses (Veins that drain the head) contains the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer and the dural venous sinuses (veins that drain the head) run between these two.
middle layer of the meninges. delicate, transparent membrane composed of a web of collagen and elastic fibers (Arachnoid Trabeculae) which pass from the arachnoid through the subarachnoid space to blend with the tissue of the pia mater. Subarachnoid Space contains CSF.
The inner layer of the meninges. Thin, highly vascular layer that adheres to the brain and follows every contour of the brain surface. Epidural space, subdural space, subarachnoid space.
1. body of right lateral ventricle 2. frontal horn of left lateral ventricle 3. temporal horn of left lateral ventricle 4. lateral aperture (foramen of Luschka) 5. Central canal 6. Fourth ventricle 7. Cerebral aqueduct (Aqueduct of Sylvius) 8. Third ventricle 9. Interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)
Anterior view of ventricles
Cranial Dural Septa
folds of dura mater that separate the structures of the brain.
Sickle-like form, in midsagittal plane, projects into the longitudinal fissure separating the Rt & Lt lobes of the cerebrum
Separates the occipital and temporal lobes from the cerebellum, projects into transverse fissure. between cerebrum and cerebellum.
Divides the Rt & Lt cerebellar hemispheres
What is the Ventricular System
-cavities located in the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -continuous with one another as well as the central canal of the spinal cord -contains CSF which bathes the CNS -CSF is produced by the choroid plexus in each ventricle
Where does the Choroid Plexus originate
The Pia Mater
What is the Choroid Plexus
-Cluster of capillaries that lines certain parts of all the ventricles -Manufactures CSF by filtration and secretion -highest concentration is in the collateral trigone of lateral ventricles.
1. Frontal horn of lateral ventricle 2. interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) 3. Massa Intermedia (Interthalmic adhesion) 4. Trigone (Atria) 5. Occipital horn of lateral ventricle 6. Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) 7. Lateral Aperture (Foramen of Luschka) 8. Central Canal 9. Fourth ventricle 10. Temporal horn of lateral ventricle 11. third ventricle 12. Lamina terminalis 13. Median aperture (foramen of Magendie)
Lateral view of ventricular system
What is the largest facial bone
What is the largest immobile facial bone
1. Frontal bone 2. coronal suture 3. Parietal bone (2) 4. Sphenoidal bone 5. Temporal bone (2) 6. Ethmoidal bone 7. Inferior Nasal Concha (2) 8. Vomer 9. Mandible 10. Maxilla (2) 11. Zygomatic (malar) bone (2) 12. Lacrimal bone (2) 13. Nasal bone (2)
Located within dural sinus. project into the dural Venous Sinuses and drain excess CSF. enlargements are called granulations.
What is the function of CSF
Cushioning of CNS Buoyancy, support of brain, brain suspended in CSF Transport of nutrients, chemical messengers and removal of waste products.
Highest concentration of choroid plexus.
Lateral ventricles Foramen of Monro (interventricular foramen) third ventricle cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius) fourth ventricle lateral apertures (foramen of magendie) subarachnoid space central canal of spinal cord
what are cisterns
pooling areas for subarachnoid space. Basal Cisterns. Named after the brain structure they border.
largest, between the medulla oblongata and cerebellar hemispheres
between peduncles of the midbrain
anterior and inferior to pons
courses laterally around midbrain
between the splenium of corpus callosum and superior surface of cerebellum
suprasellar (chiasmatic) cistern
contains the optic chiasm and the circle of Willis
LARGEST PORTION OF THE BRAIN. 2 HALVES-Rt & Lt hemispheres, separated by a deep longitudinal fissure along midsagittal plane. (Christa Galli of the ethmoid bone) surface neural tissue folds into elevated ridges called gyri which are separated by shallow depressions called sulci cerebral cortex-outermost portion consists of gray matter white matter lies deep to the cortex, within the masses of white matter, there are discrete internal clusters of gray matter called basal nuclei aka cerebral nuclei
white matter bundles contain fibers that create pathways for transmission of nerve impulses the largest and densest bundle of white matter fibers connects the two cerebral hemispheres and provides the main method of communication between them forms the roof of the lateral ventricles 4 parts Rostrum, genu, body and splenium Anterior commisure connects the anterior portions of each temporal lobe
Posterior commisure transmits the nerve impulses for pupillary light reflexes crosses midline to third ventricle provides the main method of communication bw the two hemispheres.