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116 terms

Sectional Anatomy Quiz 1

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Anatomical Position
Subject standing with an upright posture, feet parallel and close, and palms facing forward.
Fundamental Position
Subject standing with an upright posture, feet parallel and close, and palms facing the body.
Superior (Cranial)
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body: above, higher
Inferior (caudal)
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below, lower.
Anterior (ventral)
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of.
Posterior (dorsal)
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
Proximal
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Distal
Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial (external)
Toward or at the body surface.
Deep (internal)
Away from the body surface; more internal
Ipsilateral
On the same side
Contralateral
On the opposite side
Cranial/Cephalic
Toward the head
Caudal
toward the feet
Rostral
Toward the nose.
Volar
pertaining to the palm of the hand or flexor surface of wrist
palmar
the front or palm of the hand
plantar
the sole of the foot
Crural
pertaining to the leg
Thenar
The fleshy part of the hand at the base of the thumb
Axial portion
head, neck, and trunk
appendicular portion
appendages or limbs
Sagittal plane
A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions
midsagittal (Median)
EQUAL right and left portions
Parasagittal
UNEQUAL right and left portions
Coronal (frontal) plane
A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions.
Transverse (horizontal) plane (Axial)
A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Oblique Plane
A plane that passes diagonally between the axes of two other planes.
1. Right midclavicular plane
2. Left midclavicular plane
3. transpyloric plane
4. transtubercular plane
Right upper quadrant
right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, small and large intestines
left upper quadrant
left lobe of liver, stomach, tail of the pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestines
right lower quadrant
cecum, appendix, portions of small intestine, right ureter, right ovary, right spermatic cord
left lower quadrant
most of small intestine, portions of large intestine, left ureter, left ovary, left spermatic cord.
viscera
organs
What is contained in the pleural cavities
each houses a lung
what is contained in the mediastinum
contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
what is contained in the pericardial cavity
encloses the heart
What is contained in the abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, blood vessels and peritoneum
what is contained in the pelvic cavity
contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Parietal Layer of the serous membrane
Lines the internal surface of the body wall
Visceral layer of the serous membrane
covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity
Serous membrane in the thoracic cavity
Pleura & Pericardium
Serous membrane in the abdominopelvic cavity
Peritoneum
What are the Meninges
The 3 membrane layers in the dorsal body cavity that protect the delicate nervous tissue from the hard protective bone that encloses it.
Dura Mater
outermost layer of the meninges
Arachnoid mater
middle layer of the meninges
Pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges
How many bones in the skull
22 bones
List the bones in the cranium
Occipital
frontal
sphenoid
ethmoid
parietal (2)
temporal (2)
List the facial bones
Nasal (2)
lacrimal (2)
maxilla (2)
palatine (2)
zygoma/malor bone (2)
Inferior nasal conchae (2)
vomer
mandible
anterior cranial fossa
frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. contains the frontal loves of the brain, olfactory bulbs.
middle cranial fossa
temproal bones & sphenoid bone. contains the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, temporal lobes of the brain, and internal carotid artery
posterior cranial fossa
occipital and temporal bone. contains the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain (brainstem).
1. Internal table
2. Diploe
3. Exernal table
4. Ethmoid notch of frontal bone
5. Orbital plate of frontal bone
6. Crista galli
7. Cribiform plate
8. Sella turcica
9 Foramen rotundum
10. Foramen ovale
11. Foramen lacerum
12. Foramen spinosum
13. Internal auditory canal
14. Mastoid foramen
15. Hypoglossal canal
16. internal occipital protuberance
17. foramen magnum
18. Occipital bone
19. jugular foramen
20. temporal bone
21. end of carotid canal
22. sphenoid bone
23. lesser wing of sphenoid bone
24. ethmoid bone
25. frontal bone
Label the Cranial fossae
Diploe
spongy bone
Periosteum
a layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the inner surface of the skull.
vertical portion of the frontal bone
forms the forehead and the anterior vault of the cranium. The frontal sinus communicates with the nasal cavity
horizontal portion of the frontal bone
the superior part of the orbits. the orbital plate
supraorbital notch of the frontal bone
passage of nerves and arteries
ethmoid notch
receives the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
What is the Foramen Magnum
A large oval aperture in the Occipital Bone which allows the brainstem to continue as the spinal cord.
The Sphenoid Bone
Articulates with all the other bones of the cranium, also several facial bones. forms the posterior side of the orbit. It is the anchor for all of the bones in the skull.
Sella Turcica
Body of the Sphenoid bone. Houses the pituitary gland.
Hypophysis
another name for pituitary gland
The Ethmoid Bone
smallest of the cranial bones. Cribriform plate (horizontal portion). contains many foramina for the passage of olfactory neves, forms the roof of the nasal cavity. The perpendicular plate (vertical portion) projects inferiorly to form the superior 2/3 of the nasal septum.
Crista Galli
The triangular process that projects superiorly from the horizontal portion of the cribriform plate of the occipital bone to act as an attachment for the FALX CEREBRI.
1. Parietal eminence
2. Vertex
3. Sagittal Suture
4. Lambdoidal Suture
5. Occipital bone
6. Temporal Bone
7. Frontal bone
8. Coronal suture
9. Squamous suture
boundaries formed by the coronal suture
transverse, anterior, frontal and parietal bones
boundaries formed by the sagittal suture
midsagittal, between the two parietal bones
boundaries formed by the lambdoid Suture
transverse, posterior, occipital and parietal bones
boundaries formed by the squamous suture
on each side of the skull, squamous portion of temporal bones to the parietal bones
name the 6 fontanels
1. Anterior (Bregma)
2. Posterior (Lambda)
3&4 2 Anterolateral (sphenoid)
5 & 6 2 Posterolateral (mastoid)
Anterior (Bregma) fontanel
Largest, junction of frontal and parietal bones
Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
Junction of parietal and occipital bones
2 Anterolateral (sphenoid) fontanels
Parietal and sphenoid
2 Posterolateral (mastoid) fontanels
junction of occipital, temporal, and parietal bones
Name the facial bones
a. 2 Nasal bones-form the bridge of nose
b. 2 Lacrimal bones-Medial wall of each orbit. Lacrimal groove
c. Maxillary bones-fuse at midline, largest immovable facial bones.
d. 2 Palatine bones-L shaped bone, forms part of the hard palate, nasal cavity, and medial wall of orbit.
e. 2 Zygoma (malar) bones- cheeks and lateral part of orbit.
f. 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae-Similar to the superior & middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone but are separate bones.
g. Vomer-forms the bony nasal septum (inferior) together with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.
h. Mandible-Largest facial bone
Paranasal sinuses
warm and humidify air
Lighten skull & resonate the voice
The Hyoid bone
Inferior to mandible
Does not articulate directly with any other bone
Crucial for human speech. Connected to the styloid process of the temporal bone by the stylohyoid ligaments.
Name the 5 layers of the scalp
1. Skin
2. Connective tissue
3. Aponeurosis
4. Loose connective tissue
5. Periosteum
1. skin of scalp
2. periosteum
3. bone of skull
4. periosteal
5. meningeal
6. arachnoid mater
7. Pia mater
8. Arachnoid villus
9. blood vessel
10. Falx cerebri
11. Superior sagittal sinus
12. subdural space
13. superior sagittal sinus
Coronal cross section of meninges and subarachnoid space.
Dura Mater
Outermost, strongest membrane of the meninges. double layered (Periosteal layer & meningeal layer), Dural Venous Sinuses (Veins that drain the head)
contains the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer and the dural venous sinuses (veins that drain the head) run between these two.
Arachnoid Mater
middle layer of the meninges. delicate, transparent membrane composed of a web of collagen and elastic fibers (Arachnoid Trabeculae) which pass from the arachnoid through the subarachnoid space to blend with the tissue of the pia mater. Subarachnoid Space contains CSF.
Pia Mater
The inner layer of the meninges. Thin, highly vascular layer that adheres to the brain and follows every contour of the brain surface. Epidural space, subdural space, subarachnoid space.
1. Falx Cerebri
2. Cerebrum
3. Tentorium Cerebelli
4. Cerebellum
Cranial Dura Septa
1. body of right lateral ventricle
2. frontal horn of left lateral ventricle
3. temporal horn of left lateral ventricle
4. lateral aperture (foramen of Luschka)
5. Central canal
6. Fourth ventricle
7. Cerebral aqueduct (Aqueduct of Sylvius)
8. Third ventricle
9. Interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)
Anterior view of ventricles
Cranial Dural Septa
folds of dura mater that separate the structures of the brain.
Falx Cerebri
Sickle-like form, in midsagittal plane, projects into the longitudinal fissure separating the Rt & Lt lobes of the cerebrum
Tentorium Cerebelli
Separates the occipital and temporal lobes from the cerebellum, projects into transverse fissure. between cerebrum and cerebellum.
Falx Cerebelli
Divides the Rt & Lt cerebellar hemispheres
What is the Ventricular System
-cavities located in the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
-continuous with one another as well as the central canal of the spinal cord
-contains CSF which bathes the CNS
-CSF is produced by the choroid plexus in each ventricle
Where does the Choroid Plexus originate
The Pia Mater
What is the Choroid Plexus
-Cluster of capillaries that lines certain parts of all the ventricles
-Manufactures CSF by filtration and secretion
-highest concentration is in the collateral trigone of lateral ventricles.
1. Frontal horn of lateral ventricle
2. interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)
3. Massa Intermedia (Interthalmic adhesion)
4. Trigone (Atria)
5. Occipital horn of lateral ventricle
6. Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius)
7. Lateral Aperture (Foramen of Luschka)
8. Central Canal
9. Fourth ventricle
10. Temporal horn of lateral ventricle
11. third ventricle
12. Lamina terminalis
13. Median aperture (foramen of Magendie)
Lateral view of ventricular system
What is the largest facial bone
The mandible
What is the largest immobile facial bone
The maxilla
1. Frontal bone
2. coronal suture
3. Parietal bone (2)
4. Sphenoidal bone
5. Temporal bone (2)
6. Ethmoidal bone
7. Inferior Nasal Concha (2)
8. Vomer
9. Mandible
10. Maxilla (2)
11. Zygomatic (malar) bone (2)
12. Lacrimal bone (2)
13. Nasal bone (2)
frontal skull
1. Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
2. Posterolateral (Mastoid) fontanel (2)
3. Frontal (Metopic) suture
4. Anterior (Bregma) Fontanel
5. Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
6. Anterolateral (Sphenoid) fontanel (2)
Baby skull
Parts of the mandible
Body, Ramus, Mental foramen, Condyloid process (condyle)
The bony orbit
-frontal
-sphenoid
-maxilla
-zygomatic
-palatine
-lacrimal
-ethmoid
The Arachnoid Villi
Located within dural sinus. project into the dural Venous Sinuses and drain excess CSF. enlargements are called granulations.
What is the function of CSF
Cushioning of CNS
Buoyancy, support of brain, brain suspended in CSF
Transport of nutrients, chemical messengers and removal of waste products.
Trigone
Highest concentration of choroid plexus.
CSF Flow
Lateral ventricles
Foramen of Monro (interventricular foramen)
third ventricle
cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius)
fourth ventricle
lateral apertures (foramen of magendie)
subarachnoid space
central canal of spinal cord
what are cisterns
pooling areas for subarachnoid space. Basal Cisterns. Named after the brain structure they border.
cisterns
Cisterna Magna
Interpenduncular cistern
pontine cistern
ambient cistern
quadrigeminal cistern
suprasellar (chiasmatic) cistern
Cisterna magna
largest, between the medulla oblongata and cerebellar hemispheres
Interpenduncular cistern
between peduncles of the midbrain
pontine cistern
anterior and inferior to pons
ambient cistern
courses laterally around midbrain
quadrigeminal cistern
between the splenium of corpus callosum and superior surface of cerebellum
suprasellar (chiasmatic) cistern
contains the optic chiasm and the circle of Willis
CEREBRUM
LARGEST PORTION OF THE BRAIN.
2 HALVES-Rt & Lt hemispheres, separated by a deep longitudinal fissure along midsagittal plane. (Christa Galli of the ethmoid bone)
surface neural tissue folds into elevated ridges called gyri which are separated by shallow depressions called sulci
cerebral cortex-outermost portion consists of gray matter
white matter lies deep to the cortex, within the masses of white matter, there are discrete internal clusters of gray matter called basal nuclei aka cerebral nuclei
Corpus Callosum
white matter bundles contain fibers that create pathways for transmission of nerve impulses
the largest and densest bundle of white matter fibers
connects the two cerebral hemispheres and provides the main method of communication between them
forms the roof of the lateral ventricles
4 parts
Rostrum, genu, body and splenium
Anterior commisure connects the anterior portions of each temporal lobe

Posterior commisure transmits the nerve impulses for pupillary light reflexes
crosses midline to third ventricle
provides the main method of communication bw the two hemispheres.