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Anatomical Position

Subject standing with an upright posture, feet parallel and close, and palms facing forward.

Fundamental Position

Subject standing with an upright posture, feet parallel and close, and palms facing the body.

Superior (Cranial)

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body: above, higher

Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below, lower.

Anterior (ventral)

Toward or at the front of the body; in front of.

Posterior (dorsal)

Toward or at the back of the body; behind


Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.


Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.


closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.


Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Superficial (external)

Toward or at the body surface.

Deep (internal)

Away from the body surface; more internal


On the same side


On the opposite side


Toward the head


toward the feet


Toward the nose.


pertaining to the palm of the hand or flexor surface of wrist


the front or palm of the hand


the sole of the foot


pertaining to the leg


The fleshy part of the hand at the base of the thumb

Axial portion

head, neck, and trunk

appendicular portion

appendages or limbs

Sagittal plane

A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions

midsagittal (Median)

EQUAL right and left portions


UNEQUAL right and left portions

Coronal (frontal) plane

A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions.

Transverse (horizontal) plane (Axial)

A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.

Oblique Plane

A plane that passes diagonally between the axes of two other planes.

1. Right midclavicular plane
2. Left midclavicular plane
3. transpyloric plane
4. transtubercular plane

Right upper quadrant

right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, small and large intestines

left upper quadrant

left lobe of liver, stomach, tail of the pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestines

right lower quadrant

cecum, appendix, portions of small intestine, right ureter, right ovary, right spermatic cord

left lower quadrant

most of small intestine, portions of large intestine, left ureter, left ovary, left spermatic cord.



What is contained in the pleural cavities

each houses a lung

what is contained in the mediastinum

contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs

what is contained in the pericardial cavity

encloses the heart

What is contained in the abdominal cavity

contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, blood vessels and peritoneum

what is contained in the pelvic cavity

contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

Parietal Layer of the serous membrane

Lines the internal surface of the body wall

Visceral layer of the serous membrane

covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity

Serous membrane in the thoracic cavity

Pleura & Pericardium

Serous membrane in the abdominopelvic cavity


What are the Meninges

The 3 membrane layers in the dorsal body cavity that protect the delicate nervous tissue from the hard protective bone that encloses it.

Dura Mater

outermost layer of the meninges

Arachnoid mater

middle layer of the meninges

Pia mater

innermost layer of the meninges

How many bones in the skull

22 bones

List the bones in the cranium

parietal (2)
temporal (2)

List the facial bones

Nasal (2)
lacrimal (2)
maxilla (2)
palatine (2)
zygoma/malor bone (2)
Inferior nasal conchae (2)

anterior cranial fossa

frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. contains the frontal loves of the brain, olfactory bulbs.

middle cranial fossa

temproal bones & sphenoid bone. contains the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, temporal lobes of the brain, and internal carotid artery

posterior cranial fossa

occipital and temporal bone. contains the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain (brainstem).

1. Internal table
2. Diploe
3. Exernal table
4. Ethmoid notch of frontal bone
5. Orbital plate of frontal bone
6. Crista galli
7. Cribiform plate
8. Sella turcica
9 Foramen rotundum
10. Foramen ovale
11. Foramen lacerum
12. Foramen spinosum
13. Internal auditory canal
14. Mastoid foramen
15. Hypoglossal canal
16. internal occipital protuberance
17. foramen magnum
18. Occipital bone
19. jugular foramen
20. temporal bone
21. end of carotid canal
22. sphenoid bone
23. lesser wing of sphenoid bone
24. ethmoid bone
25. frontal bone

Label the Cranial fossae


spongy bone


a layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the inner surface of the skull.

vertical portion of the frontal bone

forms the forehead and the anterior vault of the cranium. The frontal sinus communicates with the nasal cavity

horizontal portion of the frontal bone

the superior part of the orbits. the orbital plate

supraorbital notch of the frontal bone

passage of nerves and arteries

ethmoid notch

receives the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

What is the Foramen Magnum

A large oval aperture in the Occipital Bone which allows the brainstem to continue as the spinal cord.

The Sphenoid Bone

Articulates with all the other bones of the cranium, also several facial bones. forms the posterior side of the orbit. It is the anchor for all of the bones in the skull.

Sella Turcica

Body of the Sphenoid bone. Houses the pituitary gland.


another name for pituitary gland

The Ethmoid Bone

smallest of the cranial bones. Cribriform plate (horizontal portion). contains many foramina for the passage of olfactory neves, forms the roof of the nasal cavity. The perpendicular plate (vertical portion) projects inferiorly to form the superior 2/3 of the nasal septum.

Crista Galli

The triangular process that projects superiorly from the horizontal portion of the cribriform plate of the occipital bone to act as an attachment for the FALX CEREBRI.

1. Parietal eminence
2. Vertex
3. Sagittal Suture
4. Lambdoidal Suture
5. Occipital bone
6. Temporal Bone
7. Frontal bone
8. Coronal suture
9. Squamous suture

boundaries formed by the coronal suture

transverse, anterior, frontal and parietal bones

boundaries formed by the sagittal suture

midsagittal, between the two parietal bones

boundaries formed by the lambdoid Suture

transverse, posterior, occipital and parietal bones

boundaries formed by the squamous suture

on each side of the skull, squamous portion of temporal bones to the parietal bones

name the 6 fontanels

1. Anterior (Bregma)
2. Posterior (Lambda)
3&4 2 Anterolateral (sphenoid)
5 & 6 2 Posterolateral (mastoid)

Anterior (Bregma) fontanel

Largest, junction of frontal and parietal bones

Posterior (Lambda) fontanel

Junction of parietal and occipital bones

2 Anterolateral (sphenoid) fontanels

Parietal and sphenoid

2 Posterolateral (mastoid) fontanels

junction of occipital, temporal, and parietal bones

Name the facial bones

a. 2 Nasal bones-form the bridge of nose
b. 2 Lacrimal bones-Medial wall of each orbit. Lacrimal groove
c. Maxillary bones-fuse at midline, largest immovable facial bones.
d. 2 Palatine bones-L shaped bone, forms part of the hard palate, nasal cavity, and medial wall of orbit.
e. 2 Zygoma (malar) bones- cheeks and lateral part of orbit.
f. 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae-Similar to the superior & middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone but are separate bones.
g. Vomer-forms the bony nasal septum (inferior) together with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.
h. Mandible-Largest facial bone

Paranasal sinuses

warm and humidify air
Lighten skull & resonate the voice

The Hyoid bone

Inferior to mandible
Does not articulate directly with any other bone
Crucial for human speech. Connected to the styloid process of the temporal bone by the stylohyoid ligaments.

Name the 5 layers of the scalp

1. Skin
2. Connective tissue
3. Aponeurosis
4. Loose connective tissue
5. Periosteum

1. skin of scalp
2. periosteum
3. bone of skull
4. periosteal
5. meningeal
6. arachnoid mater
7. Pia mater
8. Arachnoid villus
9. blood vessel
10. Falx cerebri
11. Superior sagittal sinus
12. subdural space
13. superior sagittal sinus

Coronal cross section of meninges and subarachnoid space.

Dura Mater

Outermost, strongest membrane of the meninges. double layered (Periosteal layer & meningeal layer), Dural Venous Sinuses (Veins that drain the head)
contains the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer and the dural venous sinuses (veins that drain the head) run between these two.

Arachnoid Mater

middle layer of the meninges. delicate, transparent membrane composed of a web of collagen and elastic fibers (Arachnoid Trabeculae) which pass from the arachnoid through the subarachnoid space to blend with the tissue of the pia mater. Subarachnoid Space contains CSF.

Pia Mater

The inner layer of the meninges. Thin, highly vascular layer that adheres to the brain and follows every contour of the brain surface. Epidural space, subdural space, subarachnoid space.

1. Falx Cerebri
2. Cerebrum
3. Tentorium Cerebelli
4. Cerebellum

Cranial Dura Septa

1. body of right lateral ventricle
2. frontal horn of left lateral ventricle
3. temporal horn of left lateral ventricle
4. lateral aperture (foramen of Luschka)
5. Central canal
6. Fourth ventricle
7. Cerebral aqueduct (Aqueduct of Sylvius)
8. Third ventricle
9. Interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)

Anterior view of ventricles

Cranial Dural Septa

folds of dura mater that separate the structures of the brain.

Falx Cerebri

Sickle-like form, in midsagittal plane, projects into the longitudinal fissure separating the Rt & Lt lobes of the cerebrum

Tentorium Cerebelli

Separates the occipital and temporal lobes from the cerebellum, projects into transverse fissure. between cerebrum and cerebellum.

Falx Cerebelli

Divides the Rt & Lt cerebellar hemispheres

What is the Ventricular System

-cavities located in the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
-continuous with one another as well as the central canal of the spinal cord
-contains CSF which bathes the CNS
-CSF is produced by the choroid plexus in each ventricle

Where does the Choroid Plexus originate

The Pia Mater

What is the Choroid Plexus

-Cluster of capillaries that lines certain parts of all the ventricles
-Manufactures CSF by filtration and secretion
-highest concentration is in the collateral trigone of lateral ventricles.

1. Frontal horn of lateral ventricle
2. interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)
3. Massa Intermedia (Interthalmic adhesion)
4. Trigone (Atria)
5. Occipital horn of lateral ventricle
6. Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius)
7. Lateral Aperture (Foramen of Luschka)
8. Central Canal
9. Fourth ventricle
10. Temporal horn of lateral ventricle
11. third ventricle
12. Lamina terminalis
13. Median aperture (foramen of Magendie)

Lateral view of ventricular system

What is the largest facial bone

The mandible

What is the largest immobile facial bone

The maxilla

1. Frontal bone
2. coronal suture
3. Parietal bone (2)
4. Sphenoidal bone
5. Temporal bone (2)
6. Ethmoidal bone
7. Inferior Nasal Concha (2)
8. Vomer
9. Mandible
10. Maxilla (2)
11. Zygomatic (malar) bone (2)
12. Lacrimal bone (2)
13. Nasal bone (2)

frontal skull

1. Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
2. Posterolateral (Mastoid) fontanel (2)
3. Frontal (Metopic) suture
4. Anterior (Bregma) Fontanel
5. Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
6. Anterolateral (Sphenoid) fontanel (2)

Baby skull

Parts of the mandible

Body, Ramus, Mental foramen, Condyloid process (condyle)

The bony orbit


The Arachnoid Villi

Located within dural sinus. project into the dural Venous Sinuses and drain excess CSF. enlargements are called granulations.

What is the function of CSF

Cushioning of CNS
Buoyancy, support of brain, brain suspended in CSF
Transport of nutrients, chemical messengers and removal of waste products.


Highest concentration of choroid plexus.

CSF Flow

Lateral ventricles
Foramen of Monro (interventricular foramen)
third ventricle
cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius)
fourth ventricle
lateral apertures (foramen of magendie)
subarachnoid space
central canal of spinal cord

what are cisterns

pooling areas for subarachnoid space. Basal Cisterns. Named after the brain structure they border.


Cisterna Magna
Interpenduncular cistern
pontine cistern
ambient cistern
quadrigeminal cistern
suprasellar (chiasmatic) cistern

Cisterna magna

largest, between the medulla oblongata and cerebellar hemispheres

Interpenduncular cistern

between peduncles of the midbrain

pontine cistern

anterior and inferior to pons

ambient cistern

courses laterally around midbrain

quadrigeminal cistern

between the splenium of corpus callosum and superior surface of cerebellum

suprasellar (chiasmatic) cistern

contains the optic chiasm and the circle of Willis


2 HALVES-Rt & Lt hemispheres, separated by a deep longitudinal fissure along midsagittal plane. (Christa Galli of the ethmoid bone)
surface neural tissue folds into elevated ridges called gyri which are separated by shallow depressions called sulci
cerebral cortex-outermost portion consists of gray matter
white matter lies deep to the cortex, within the masses of white matter, there are discrete internal clusters of gray matter called basal nuclei aka cerebral nuclei

Corpus Callosum

white matter bundles contain fibers that create pathways for transmission of nerve impulses
the largest and densest bundle of white matter fibers
connects the two cerebral hemispheres and provides the main method of communication between them
forms the roof of the lateral ventricles
4 parts
Rostrum, genu, body and splenium
Anterior commisure connects the anterior portions of each temporal lobe

Posterior commisure transmits the nerve impulses for pupillary light reflexes
crosses midline to third ventricle
provides the main method of communication bw the two hemispheres.

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