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patho class 3 Disorders of the Skeletal System, Metabolic and Rheumatic Disorders
Terms in this set (93)
Differentiate among the types of soft tissue injuries and describe the healing process of these types of injuries
A contusion: is an injury, or bruise, that results from direct trauma and is usually caused by striking the body part against a hard object. The injured tissue undergoes a well-defined sequence of events including microscopic rupture of blood vessels and damage muscle cells.
Hematoma: A large area of local hemorrhage. The pain and swelling of a hematoma take longer to subside than those accompanying a contusion
Strain definition and manifestations
Partial tear, often during muscle contraction
Risk increases with age b/c collagen fibres less elastic
Common in back, cervical spine, elbow, shoulder
Sports injuries: strains of muscle units around the hip, hamstring, and quadriceps commonly associated with athletic injuries
-Often no visible signs unless inflammation
-Stiffness, swelling, tenderness
Sprain definition and manifestation
Tearing or rupture of supporting ligament or capsule surrounding joint
d/t abnormal/excess joint movement
common - ankles
Not visible on X-ray unless bone fragment
Rapid swelling limits movement
Last longer than strain
Ankle joint most commonly involved
-Able to heal to original tensile strength
-Capillaries bring oxygen/nutrients
-Fibroblasts produce collagen, capillaries infiltrate the injured are during the initial healing process and supply the fibroblasts with the materials they need to produce large amounts of collagen.
-Collagen bundles strengthen over time
-Compression, accomplished through the use of adhesive wraps, helps to reduce swelling and provide support. Immobilization may be required for severe sprains, especially those severe enough to warrant surgical repair
Contraction can pull healing apart and result is lengthened position upon final healing
Abnormal displacement of articulating surfaces of joint. Usually follows severe trauma that disrupts the holding ligaments
History, assessment, x-rays
Pain, Deformity, Limited movement. Treatment depends on the site, mechanism of injury, and associated injuries such as fractures.
Some surface contact
Common joint dislocations
Congenital (inherited) dislocations
Hip or knee usual
MVA: Due to the direction of impact - hip
Athletics: May become recurrent - shoulder, knee
Fall: elderly population - wrist ankle
Complication of infection, rheumatoid arthritis, neuromuscular disease
Composed of three bones: Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus
Clavicle fracture common d/t childhood falls/blow
Most resolve without surgery
Immobilize with sling
Common athletic injury: Classic cause; direct blow to the acromion with the humerus in an adducted position. Can also be caused by indirect trauma, such as falling on an outstretched arm or elbow.
Very common dislocation: Most common to likely develop problems with instability. Fall on an outstretched arm or elbow to the posterior shoulder.
- When arm is extended
Rotator Cuff Injury:
• Function of cuff is to stabilize the humoral head against the glenoid
• shoulder joints are inherently unstable
Rotator Cuff Injury: Common resulting conditions: account for substantial majority of shoulder problems.
• Subacromial bursitis
• Partial/complete tears
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