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Science Chapter 4 section 3
6th grade science
Terms in this set (43)
is small solid pieces of material that come from rocks of living things.
In addition to particles of rock, sediment may include shells, bones, leaves, stems, and other remains of living things.
Sedimentary rocks from
when sediment is deposited by water.
Most sedimentary rocks formed through a series of processes:
erosian, deposition, compaction, and cementation.
the process by which running water, wind, or ice loosen and carry away fragments of rock.
is the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it
the process that presses sediments together
the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.
Sedimentary rocks form through
the deposition, compaction and cementation of sediments over millions of years.
What conditions are necessary for sedimentary rocks to form?
destructive forces --- heat and cold, rain, waves, and grinding ice. These forces form sediment.
Erosion-Particles carried away from their source by water or wind
Deposition-Particles deposited as loosely packed sediment
Compaction-Particles squeezed together under great pressure
Cementation-Particles glued together as mineral solutions harden
Three major groups of sedimentary rocks
clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks
sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.
Clastic rocks such as shale, sandstone, conglomerate, and breccia are
sedimentary rocks that form from particles of other rocks.
forms where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers. The term organic refers to substances that once were part of living things or were made by living things
Two important organic or sedimentary rocks are
coal and limestone
sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
Organci rocks such as coal and limestone are sedimentary rocks that form from the remains of living things.
Rock towers in Mono Lake California, are made of tufa a form of limestone
Tufa is a chemical rock that forms from solutions containing dissolved materials.
What type of sedimentary rock is tufa?
Fossils are often found in shale, which splits easily into flat pieces.
many small holes between sand grains allow sandstone to absorb water
rock fragments with rounded edges make up conglomerare.
rock fragments with sharp edges form breccia.
swamp plants that formed millions of years ago slowly changed to form coal.
Coquina is a form of limestone in which the shells that makeup the rock are easy to see.
How does coal form?
Coal forms from remains of swamp plants buried in water. As layer upon layers of plants remains build up, the weight of the layers squeeze the decaying plants. Over millions of years they slowly change into coal.
Uses of sedimentary rock
People have used sedimentary rocks through out history for many different purposes including building materials and tools
is formed when small particles of silica settle out of water. Flint is a hard rock, yet it can be shaped to a point. People made arrowheads out of flint for thousand of years.
Sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and limestone have been used as building materials for thousands of years.
Both types of stone are soft enough to be cut easily into blocks or slabs. The White House in Washington D.C. is built of sandstone.
Builders today use sandstone and limestone on the outside walls of buildings
Industrial uses of limestone
used in making cement and steel
What is sediment?
Small solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things. In addition to particles of rock sediment may include shells, bones, leaves, stems and other remains of living things.
Place the steps in th formation of sedimentary rock in the proper sequence: compaction, erosion, cementation, deposition
erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation
What layer of sedimentary rock is the oldest
...Cementation is the oldest >the oldest rocks are in the lowest layers and as you move up the layers, the rocks get younger
Three main types of sedimentary rock
clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks
Which type of sedimentary rock froms from the remains of living things?
Explain how organic rocks form
forms where the remains of plants and animals are depostired in thick layers
>Coal froms from the remains of swamp plants buried in water. As layer upon layer of plant remains build up the weight of the layers squeezes the decaying plants. Over millions of years they slowly change into coal.
>Limestone forms in the ocean, where many living things, such as coral, clams, and oysters, have hard shells or skeletons made of calcite. When these animals die, their shells pile up on the ocean floor. Over millions of years, these layers of sediment can grow to a depth of hundreds of meters. Slowly, compaction and cementation change the sediment to limestone.
What process causes deposits of rock salt to form?
What type of sedimentary rock is rock salt?
>Rock salt is a chemical rock. Rock salt is made of the mineral halite, which forms by evaporation
>mineral depostits left when seas or lakes evaporate
Limestone can form form when calcite that is dissolved in lakes, seas, or underground water comes out of solution and froms crystals.
This kind of limestone is considered a chemical rock.
uses of sedimentary rocks
Building Materials and tools. Arrowheads were made from flint. Sandstone and limestone used as building materials. Limestone also used in cement and steel.
The particles of sediment that makep shale are not usually well cemented. Would shale be a good choice of building material in a wet climate?
Sandstone forms from the sand on beaches, the ocean floor, riverbeds, and sand dunes. Most sand particles consist of quartz.
Clastic rocks are grouped by the size of the rock fragments, or particles, of which they are made.