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Terms in this set (43)
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
A philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.
Famous skeptic Huguenot critically examined religious beliefs wrote "Historical and Critical Dictionary"
The perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context.
John Locke supported this idea of people being born in a blank state.
A group of thinkers or philosphers of the Enlightenment
Familiar with and at ease in many different countries and cultures
Philosopher who wrote "Spirit of Laws" in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the U.S. Constitution.
The Spirit of Laws
This work by Montesquieu called for a separation of powers and heavily influenced the formation of American government
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776).
The Wealth of Nations
Book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith that criticized mercantilism and proposed a free market economy in which the "invisible hand" determined prices.
An ideal that suggests that people are happiest and economy thrive most when governments minimize their regulation, monitoring, and control over the work we do and the kinds of goods we buy & sell
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
The Social Contract
This 1762 work by Rousseau helped inspire the political reform efforts of the Enlightenment and of the American and French Revolutions -- It argues against the divine right of monarchs, stating that all authority derives from the people being governed, and that government must act to fulfill the "general will" of the people (that which is in the best interests of society as a whole)
An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.
Wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, book addressed that lack of educational opprotunities for women; tried to improve the status of women
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
The belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men.
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Book written by Wollstonecraft which explained that women should have equal rights with men in education, politics, and economics
These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentmental portraits.
In his paintings, gentlemen and ladies in elegant dress reveal a world of upper-class pleasure and joy. Underneath that exterior, however, is an element of sadness as the artist suggests the fragility and passing nature of pleasure, love, and life.
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century. Part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures, Neoclassicism was characterized by the utilization of themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
Bach and Handel
The two most well known composers of baroque music
Franz Joseph Haydn
(1732-1809) Classical composer who spent most of his life as musical director for wealthy Esterhazy brothers; visits to England introduced him to world of public concerts rather than princely patrons;wrote The Creation and The Seasons
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
6 year old prodigy. Wrote more than 600 pieces of music. Gained instant celebrity. Died at 35. Music helped define a new style of composition
(1689-1761). A major 18th century writer best known for his 3 epistolary novels: "Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded," "Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady," and "Sir Charles Grandison."
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Book written by Gibbon which told that the growth of Christianity was the major reason for the collapse of Rome
A culture in which certain groups, such as the royal family or the members of the ruling political party, have much greater power than the average citizen
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
This Italian philosophe argued for the rights of the accused and an end to torture and the death penalty.
The Church celebration in which peasants were briefly released from their obligations, allowed to be merry and enjoy themselves.
Violent assaults against Jewish communities, especially in Russia and Romania in the latter half of the 19th century.
This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs
Anglican minister; created religious movement, Methodism; led to become missionary to the English people; apealed especialy to lower class; his Methodism gave lower and middle classes in English society a sense of purpose and comunity
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