child development ch. 3 & 5
Terms in this set (60)
ch 3 prenatal development
The period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception.
-creation of the zygote
-continued cell division through mitosis
-attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
-group of cells becomes the blastocyte.
inner layer of cells that develops in germinal period and eventually becomes the embryo
outer layer of cells that develops during germinal period and provide nutrition and support for embryo
The period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception.
-rate of cell differentiation intensifies
-support systems for the cells form
-organs appear; begins as blastocyte attaches to uterine wall and becomes the embryo
inner layer of cells in embryo; develops into digestive and respiratory systems
middle layer of cells in embryo; develops into circulatory system, bones, muscles, and reproductive system
outer layer of cells in embryo; develops into nervous system, brain, sensory receptors, skin
envelope containing clear liquid in which embryo floats; shock proof and controls temp
connects baby to placenta
blood vessels from offspring and mother intertwine, but don't join
process of organ formation during 1st 2 months of prenatal development; organs especially vulnerable to environmental changes.
the fetal period
between 2 months after conception and birth
-growth and development continue dramatically
-identifiable as male or female
-around 6 months baby can survive outside of womb
-during this period fetus is extremely vulnerable to environmental factors that can cause birth defects
-(germinal and embryonic periods occur)
-embryo becomes fetus
4th-6th month of pregnancy
-last 3 months of preg.
-gaining weight and height
by the time they are born, babies have ________ neurons
3rd trimester and 1st 2 yrs of life characterized by
connectivity and functioning of neurons
as embryo develops, nervous system begins forming as a tube on embryos' back
two birth defects related to a failure of the neural tube to close are...
spina bifida and anencephaly
neurons move to their correct position in the brain, beginning three to four weeks after contraception
The branch of biology concerned with the development of malformations or serious deviations from the normal type of organism.
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm; only 1/2 of potential effects appear at birth; most susceptible before 10 weeks; after organogenesis is complete, they are less likely to cause anatomical deficits ; exposure during fetal period more likely to stunt growth or create problems in ways organs function
what impacts the effects of teratogens?
dose, genetic susceptibility and time of exposure
prescription and non prescription drugs
antibiotics, asthma meds, antidepressants, hormones, acutane
diet pills and aspirin
does not increase the risk of miscarriage, congenital malformations or growth retardation
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
facial deformities, defective limbs, heart, and face, learning problems and intellectual disabilities, deficiencies in brain pathways involved in working memory
preterm births, low birth weight, fetal and neonatal deaths, respiratory problems, and sudden infant death syndrome, ADHD
reduced birth weight, impaired motor development, slower growth rate, elevated blood pressure, impaired language and info processing, attention deficits, learning disabilities and behavioral problems
high infant mortality, low birth weight, developmental and behavioral problems
lower intelligence in children, future use of same drug when child is 14
withdrawal symptoms such as tremors, crying, disturbed sleep, impaired motor control. behavioral problems, attention deficits
methadone for withdrawal
incompatible blood types
fetus Rh positive, mother Rh negative: mothers immune system produce antibodies and attack fetus (miscarriage, stillbirth, anemia, heart defects, etc.)
radiation, toxic waste, pollutants, x-ray radiation, contaminated water, carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and some pesticides
rubella, syphilis, genital herpes, HIV/AIDS
mother can infect offspring w/ HIV/AIDS in 3 ways:
1. during gestation across placenta
2. during delivery through contact w/maternal blood or fluids
3. after birth through breast feeding
babies born to HIV infected mothers can be ....
1. infected and showing symptoms
2. infected but asymptomatic
3. not infected at all
maternal diet and nutrition
being overweight is a risk, need folic acid, no fish (mercury)
maternal age 2 areas of interest
adolescence and 35+
older = more risk for down syndrome
emotional states and stress
high anxiety and stress can have long-term consequences; ADHD and language delay
depression can lead to preterm birth
exposure to environmental toxins, smoking, over 40,
-defined schedule for visits for medical care including health screenings
-exercise: improved perception of health, more comfortable ; don't over do it
-group prenatal care gives support
-prenatal care important to those in poverty, rough circumstances; connects to social services and support
-home care visits
the birth process has _____ stages
first stage of birth
second stage of birth
head begins to move through cervix and birth canal
third stage of birth
afterbirth; placenta and umbilical cord detached
A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth.
3 basic kinds of drugs used for labor....
1. analgesia: relieves pain
2. anesthesia; used in late 1st stage of labor and during delivery; blocks sensation
attempts to reduce mothers pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth and relaxation; breathing exercises
lamaze method, similar to natural, but includes special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and more detailed anatomy/physiology course
buttocks or feet first delivery
surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus
A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns.
-Includes heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color and reflex irritability
-0-2 on each
-7-10 = good
-5- may be difficulties
-3 or below signals emergency; baby may not survive
-especially good at assessing newborn's ability to cope w/stress of delivery and new environment
brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS)
a measure that is used in the first month of life to assess the newborns neurological development, reflexes and reactions to people and objects
-16 reflexes assessed along w/reactions to animate and inanimate stimuli
low birth weight infant
infant that ways less than 5 and a half pounds at birth
born 3+ weeks before pregnancy has reached full term;
kangaroo care treatment involves skin to skin contact;
progestin may be able to prevent
~12.2% of US infants
small for date infants
have birth weights that are below normal when length of pregnancy is considered. may be preterm or full term. weigh less than 90% of all babies of same age
The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about six weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state.
-physical adjustments: energy or fatigue, loss of sleep which can contribute to stress, estrogen levels drop after birth
-emotional and psychological adjustments: mood swings, 70% have postpartum blues that goes away within 1-2 weeks
a mood disorder characterized by feelings of sadness and the loss of pleasure in normal activities that can occur shortly after giving birth; at least 2 weeks long
can be treated with meds, therapy and exercise
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