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My notes and the reading.

A mole is a word which is used for an

exact quantity.

It is an SI unit that measures the

"amount of substance".

Latin- moles=

heap or pile.

Representative Particle-

refers to whether a substance commonly exists as atoms, ions, or molecules, or formula unit.

Molecules and Formula units are


example of an atom


example of an ion


example of a molecule


example of a formula unit


A mole of a substance represents 6.02 x 10²³ representative particles of that substance.


Ionic compound

1 element to the left and 1 element to the right

Molecular compound

both elements to the right of the zigzag line


is just a compound..not a formula unit.

Avogadro's #

1 mole = 6.02x10²³ RP

The masses of atoms are expressed in?

AMU atomic mass unit.

Formula unit is an

ionic-ly bonded compound

Molecules are

covalently bonded.

Molecular mass or formula mass

the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a compound.

Ionic bonds

when electronegativity difference is more than 1.67.

Covalent bonds

pure covalent (non-polar), when electronegativity difference is zero. polar covalent is when the electronegativity difference is more than zero but less that 1.67.

A mole of a substance is its mass in grams.

1 mole = AMU in g.

A mole of atoms of any element has a mass in grams equal to

the atomic mass of a single atom.

The volume of a mole of gas is usually measured at STP

stand temperature and pressure.

Standard temperature =

0 degrees Celsius

Standard pressure is

1 atmosphere (atm)

At STP, 1 mole of gas occupies a volume of

22.4 L

Molar volume of a gas?

22.4 L

Molar mass

mass of a mole of a substance-AMU

1 mole of gas = 22.4 L at STP


The percentage of the total mass of a compound by an element is the

percentage of that element in the compound.

Empirical Formula Definition

Empirical Formula gives the lowest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound.

Empirical and Molecular formulas can be the same for some compounds.


When empirical and molecular formulas are not the same, the molecular formula is

a simple multiple of the empirical formula. the empirical formula is the simplest form, because it's the LOWEST whole number ratio.

First Quantitative information about atomic masses came from the work of

Dalton, Gay-Lussac, Lavoisier, Avogadro, Berzelius.

By observing the proportion sin which elements combine to form various comounds, nineteenth- century chemists calculated

relative atomic masses.

Empirical Formula

Smallest whole number ratio

Molecular formula

exact formula of molecule. To find, must have molar mass.

Formula of a compound indicates

the number of atoms in the compound.

The modern system of atomic masses, instituted in __, is based on ____ as the standard.

1961; Carbon twelve, ¹²C

¹²C is assigned an atomic mass of exactly ___

12 atomic mass units (amu), and the masses of all other atoms are given at this standard.

Mass Spectrometer

most accurate method currently available for comparing the masses of atoms.

Process of Mass Spectrometer: Atoms or molecules are passed into a beam of ___, which knock electrons off the atoms or molecules being analyzed and change them into ____. An applied electric field then ___ these ions into a magnetic field.

high speed electrons; positive ions; accelerates.

Because an accelerating ion produces it own magnetic field, an interaction with the applied magnetic field occurs, which _____

tends to change the path of the ion.

The amount of path deflection for each ion depends on

its mass.

Molar mass

the mass in grams of one mole of the compound. Same thing as molar weight.

The molar mass of a known substance is obtained by summing the masses of the

component atoms.

Mass Spectrometry

accurate and fast way for finding molar mass.

Process for Mass Spectrometry:

Put a substance in, in the gas phase, and it is ionized. The deflection that the resulting ion exhibits as it is accelerated through a magnetic field can be used for its mass.

It is difficult to use Mass Spectrometry with large molecules because:

they are difficult to vaporize because they have high boiling points.They decompose! Example: Proteins!!!!

Typical methods to find the mass of protein molecules are slow and tedious.


Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption

Allows mass spectrometric determination of protein molar masses.

Process for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption or "The Flying Elephant"

Large "target" molecule is embedded in matrix of smaller molecules. The matrix is then placed in the mass spectrometer and blasted with a laser beam, which causes its disintegration. This frees the large molecule, and it is then swept into the mass spectrometer.

Technique of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption allows scientists to ____

determine the mass of huge molecules. The most they have done is 350,000 daltons.

1 dalton =

mass of 1 atom of Hydrogen

Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption could be

a revolutionary development in the characterization of biomolecules. DNA one day.

Deflection in Mass Spectrometry

The most massive ions are deflected the smallest amount-which causes the ions to separate. So the smallest ions are deflected the most!

Average Atomic Mass of an element (Look at the math in the book)

the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element

Mass spectrometer is also used to determine the ___. Besides for finding accurate mass values for individual atoms.

isotopic composition of a natural element.

Mole (book 83)

the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure ¹²C...12.01gC = 6.02x10²³ (same number of atoms)

Elephant Tusks-Mass spectrometer

Scientists analyze the ivory for relative amounts of ¹²C, ¹³C, ¹⁴N, ¹⁵N, ⁸⁶Sr, ⁸⁷Sr to determine the diet of the elephant and its place of origin. Grasses and trees have slightly different ¹³C/¹²C ratios because they use different photosynthetic pathways. Trees use more steps, so they have a smaller ratio.

Results of elephant tusk experiments!

Scientists have reported being able to distinguish between elephants living only about 100m apart! Must have isotopes for ivory trade restrictions because isotopes prove origin! Save the elephants!

2 common ways for describing composition of a compound:

1. In terms of the numbers of its constituent atoms.
2. in therms of the percentages (by mass) of its elements.

Mass percent

Compound by comparing mass of element in one mole of compound to the total mass of 1 mole of compound and multiplying by 100. (DUH, sounds so complicated. )

Device For the formula of a compound? (Read this part in the book for further understanding and look at the diagram, page 93)

Take a weighted sample of the compound and decompose it into its component elements (or react it with oxygen to produce CO₂, H₂O, or N₂--analyzing for Carbon and Hydrogen) which are then collected and weighed.

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