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CGS 2060 Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Social Networking
the gathering together of groups of people using online tools to connect and exchange ideas
Crisis mapping tool
collects information from e-mails, texts, blog posts and twitter tweets and maps, making the info publicly available
Digital Divide
gap for the difference in ease of access to technology
Creative surplus
21st century has seen a dramatic shift describing the ability of the world's populace to volunteer and collaborate on large projects
autonomy
freedom to work without constant direction and control
mastery
the feeling of confidence and excitement from seeing your own skills progress
Purpose
the understanding that you are working for something larger than yourself
QR codes
lets any piece of print in the real world host a live link to online information and video content
crowdsourcing
checking in with the voice of the crowd
collaborative consumption
implies that we are joining together as a group to use a specific product more efficiently
computer literate
being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and use them efficiently
offshored
being sent to other countries
computer forensics
analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence
What was the first personal computer called?
Altair 8800
Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)
revolutionized the software industry and led to the creation of Microsoft
Disk II
created by Wozniak so programs could be saved more efficiently and operating systems developed
Disk Operating System
OS that controlled the first Apple computers
Control program for Microcomputers
first OS designed for the Intel 8080 chip
Quick and dirty operating system
developed by Seattle Computer products
VisiCalc
one of the main reasons for the rapid increase in PC sales (spreadsheet program that could be used on PCs)
Lotus 1-2-3 & microsoft excel
they put visicalc out of business
Wordstar
first word processing application
Graphical user interface
allowed users to interact with the computer more easily
Xerox
photocopier manufacturer
The Lisa
named after Steve Job's daughter
Mosaic
web browser came out in 1993 - caused internet traffic to increase by nearly 350%
Windows 95
first Microsoft OS designed to be principally a GUI OS
Pascalene
first accurate mechanical calculator
Jacquard Loom
relied on stiff cards with punched holes to automate the weaving process
Analytical engine
first automatic calculator
difference engine
huge steam-powered mechanical calculator to print astronomical tables
Z1
thought to be the first computer to include certain features that are integral to today's systems
Atanasoff-Berry Computer
used to vacuum tubes to store data
Compiler
program that translates english-language instructions into computer language
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
U.S. gov sponsored machine developed to calculate the settings used for weapons
Universal Automatic Computer
first commercially successful electronic digital computer; operated on magnetic tape; considered a first-generation computer
Transistor
another means to store data
Integrated circuit
a small chip capable of containing thousands of transistors
Microprocessor chip
small chip containing millions of transistors (fourth-generation computers)
Input
gathers data or allows users to enter data
process
it manipulates, calculates or organizes that data into information
output
displays data and info in a form suitable for the user
storage
saves data and information for later use
information
data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion
processing
manipulating, calculating or organizing data into info
Binary language
consists of just two digits: 0 and 1
byte
formed by 8 combined digits
Kilobyte
1,000 bytes
Megabyte
1 million bytes
Gigabyte
1 billion byte
Terabyte
1 trillion bytes
hardware
any part of the computer you can physically touch
application software
set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks such as writing a research paper
system software
set of programs that enables your computer's hardware devices and application software to work together
operating system
program that controls the way in which your computer system functions
notebook computer
a portable computer that has a keyboard, monitor and other devices in one; powered by a battery or AC adapter
Netbook
small, lightweight notebook with a longer battery life than a notebook
Tablet PC
similar to a notebook computer, but the monitor swivels and folds flat
Tablet computer
IPAD - mobile computer integrated into a flat multi-touch sensitive screen
Desktop computer
intended for use a single location
Peripheral device
monitor or keyboard connected to computer
All-in-one computer
Apple iMac - eliminates the need for a separate tower because these computers house the computer's processor and memory in the monitor unit
Mainframe
large, expensive computer that supports hundreds of users spontaneously
supercomputer
can perform complex calculations extremely fast
embedded computer
specially designed computer chip that resides in another device, such as your car or the electronic thermostat in your home
Input device
enables you to enter data and instructions into the computer
Stylus
an input device that looks like a skinny pen but has no ink
Bluetooth
a wireless transmission standard that facilitates the connection of electronic computing devices such as cell phones, smartphones and computers to peripheral devices
Magnifier
pulls up a magnification box that you can drag around the screen to enhance viewing of hard-to-read images
Web search
allows you to quickly highlight a word or phrase and then press the search button on the mouse to start a Web search
File storage
includes a wireless USB receiver that contains flash memory to store or back up your files
Output device
enables you to send processed data out of your computer in the form of text ,pics, sound or video
Monitor
displays text, graphics and video as soft copies
aspect-ratio
width-to-height proportion of a monitor
resolution
the clearness or sharpness of the image
contrast ratio
measure of the difference in light intensity between brightest white and darkest black that monitor can produce
viewing angle
measured in degrees - tells how far you can move to the side of the monitor before the image quality degrades to unacceptable levels
brightness
measured as candelas per square meter
response time
measurement of time it takes for a pixel to change color
nonimpact printers
sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper
impact printer
has tiny hammerlike keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper
inkjet printer
standard printer in most homes
laser printer
uses laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner onto the correct areas of the page
plotter
produce oversize pictures that require the drawing of precise and continuous lines, such as maps, detailed images and architectural plans
thermal printer
work by melting wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or by burning dots onto specially coated paper (print receipts)
motherboard
main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including the computer's processor, memory, etc
system unit
metal or plastic case that also houses the power source and all the storage devices
expansion cards
circuit boards that provide additional functionality
sound card
provides a connection for the speakers and mic
video card
provides a connection for the monitor
modem card
provides the computer with a connection to the internet via a traditional phone line
network interface card
enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high-speed internet connection
random access memory
place in a computer where programs and data are stored
volatile storage
temporary location
Read-only memory
holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up when it's powered on
Central processing unit
brain; controls all functions performed by computer
hard disk drive
your computer's primary device for permanent storage and documents
nonvolatile storage
holds data and the instructions your computer needs permanently
solid-date drive
has become a more feasible option for desktop and laptop storage
drive bay
permanent storage device in computer
external hard drive
small enough to fit in your pocket and have storage capacities of 1 or 2 TB; attach to computer through USB
optical drive
can read from and even write to CDs, DVDs, or Bluray discs
port
place through which a peripheral device attaches to the computer so that data can be exchanged between it and the operating system
universal serial bus port
most common type used to connect input and output devices to the computer
Firewire 800 & 400
400 moves data at 400 Mbps; 800 doubles the rate to 800 Mbps
Connectivity port
can give you access to networks and the internet or make your computer work as a fax machine
Ethernet port
transfers data at speeds up to 10,000 Mbps
Modem port
accepts a standard phone line connector to connect to internet
Video graphics array
port to which CRT monitors connect
Digital video interface and S-video
newer LCD monitors & DVDS connect to these
High-definition multimedia interface
compact audio-video interface that carries both high-definition video and uncompressed digital audio on one cable
power supply
housed inside system unit, transforms the wall voltage to the voltages required by computer chips
Warm boot
restarting the computer while it's powered on
Ergonomics
an applied science concerned with designing and arranging things people use so that the people and things interact most efficiently and safely
Why was the internet created?
Developed while U.S. was in cold war with soviet union
Web browser
software that enables a user to display and interact with text and other media on the web
client
computer that asks for data
server
computer that receives the request and returns data to the client
Internet backbones
largest and fastest pathways are the main arteries of the Internet
Internet protocol address
set of four numbers separated by periods and referred to as a dotted quad or dotted decimal
Web 2.0
The social web
Email client
to read, send and organize your email (microsoft outlook)
podcast
clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio and video files such as MP3s and MP4s
Rss (really simple syndication)
XML based format that facilitates the deliver of frequent content updates on web pages
Aggregators
software programs that go out and grab the latest updates of web material according to your specifications
Webcast
broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet
multimedia
anything involving one or more forms of media in addition to text (Graphics)
streaming audio
continuously feeds an audio file to your browser so you avoid having to wait for the entire file to download completely before listening to it
streaming video
continuously feeds a video file to your browser so that you can watch large files as they download instead of first having to download the files completely
electronic commerce
process of conducting business online
business-to-consumer
exchanges that take place between businesses and consumers such as purchases on online stores
business-to-business
portion of e-commerce; consists of businesses buying and selling goods and services to other businesses
consumer-to-consumer
portion of e-commerce consists of consumers selling to each other through online auction sites
secure socket layer
http:// to https://
URL (uniform resource layer)
unique address
Hypertext Transfer protocol
allows files to be transferred from a Web Server
Web server
computer that hosts the Website you are requesting
file transfer protocol
used to upload and download files from your computer to a Web server
host
location that maintains the computers that store the Web site files
toplevel domain
suffix after the dot (.com)
path
information after the slash indicates a particular file
hyperlink
specially coded element used to jump from one web page to another
breadcrumb trail
list of pages within a website you've visited
Live bookmark
feature of firefox; adds technology of RSS feeds to bookmarking
Social bookmarking
(tagging) lets you store, organize and manage bookmarks of Web pages
keyword
term that is assigned to a piece of information such as a Web page, digital image or video
Search engine
set of programs that searches the web for keywords
subject director
a structured outline of web sites organized by topics and subtopics
spider
collects data on web, following links in Web sites and reading Web pages
boolean operators
words such as AND, NOT and OR that describe the relationships between keywords in a search
Ethics
study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices made by individuals
relativism
a theory that holds that there is no universal moral truth and that instead there are only beliefs, perspectives and values
situational ethics
states that decision making should be based on the circumstances of a particular situation and not on fixed laws
rule utilitarianism
ethical theory that espouses establishing moral guidelines through specific rules
unethical behavior
can be defined as not conforming to a set of approved standards of social or professional behavior
positive psychology
new focus; by identifying your personal strengths and values and then aligning your life so that you can apply them every day, you can experience an increase in happiness equivalent to the effects of antidepressant medication and therapy
whistle-blowers
people that report businesses to regulatory agencies for committing illegal acts
stakeholders
those people or entities who are affected by the operations of a business
software
refers to a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do
program
instruction set provides a means for us to interact with and use the computer
system software
includes software such as Windows and Mac OSx
Application software
software you use to do tasks at home, school and work
Software as a service (Saas)
on-demand software deployment
web-based applications
run from software stored completely on a web server instead of the traditional model that requires software to be purchased and installed on individual machines or network servers
What kind of web-based apps are available
Word, Excel, ppt
Productivity software
includes programs that enable you to perform various tasks required at home, school and business
word processing software
students use to create and edit documents
open source software
program code that is publicly available and has few restrictions
proprietary software
neither free nor open source. code can be copied, distributed or changed without the copyright protections of software products you purchase
spreadsheet software
microsoft excel and open office enables you to do calculations and numerical analyses easily
text
any combo of letters, numbers, symbols and spaces
values
numerical data that represents a quantity or an amount and are often the basis for calculations
formulas
equations that you build yourself using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
functions
formulas that are preprogrammed into the spreadsheet software
presentation software
powerpoint, impress or zoho show
database software
oracle, MySQL, and microsoft access are powerful apps that allow you to store and organize data
wizard
systematic guide that walks you through the steps necessary to complete a complicated task
template
predesigned form in many productivity apps. they provide structure for a particular kind of document, spreadsheet or presentation
macro
small program that groups a series of commands so they will run as a single command
software suite
group of software programs that have been bundled as a package
tax preparation software
intuit turbot and H&R Block - enable you to prepare your state and federal taxes on your own at home
financial planning software
helps you manage your daily finances
accounting software
helps small-business owners manage their finances more efficiently by providing tools for tracking accounts receivable and accounts payable
desktop publishing software
allows you to incorporate and arrange graphics and text in your documents in creative ways
web page authoring software
allows even the novice to design interesting and interactive web pages, without knowing any HyperText Markup Language code
project management software
helps project managers create and modify scheduling charts
customer relationship management software
stores sales and client contact information in one central database
enterprise resource planning system
lets a business consolidate multiple systems into one and improve coordination of these business areas across multiple departments
online mapping service
online services are easily accessible with any Internet connection and are updated more frequently than offline ones
vertical market software
software designed for a specific industry
computer-aided design
create automated designs, technical drawings and 3D model visualizations
multimedia software
includes image, video and audio editing software
image editing software
enables you to edit photos and other images
simulation programs
allows users to experience or control the software as if it were the actual software or an actual event
course management software
Blackboard - provide traditional classroom tools
software license
an agreement between you, the user and the software company
bloatware
pre-installed software (clogs up system)
freeware
any copyrighted software that you can use for free
Beta version
app still under development
Shareware
not freeware - distributed free but with certain conditions
system requirements
set that specifies the minimum of recommended standards for the operating system, processor, primary memory and hard drive capacity
full installation
will copy all the files and programs from distribution disc to computer's hard drive
custom installation
you can decide which features you want installed on hard drive
integrated help
means the documentation for the product is built directly into the software so you don't need to keep track of bulky manuals
operating system (OS)
group of programs that controls how your computer system functions
user interface
the features of the program such as the desktop, icons and menus that allow the user to communicate with the computer system
utility program
small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the comp, such as system maintenance and file compression
Microsoft Disk Operating SYstem
first widely installed operating system in personal computers
icons
pictures that represent an object such as a software application or a file or folder
menu
list of commands
multitask
to perform more than one process at a time
real-time operating system
machinery that is required to perform a repetitive series of specific tasks in an exact amount of time
firmware
instructions permanently installed onto computer chips
multiuser operating system (network operating system)
enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users
server
the computer on a network that manages network resource such as printers
UNIX
multiuser, multitask operating system used as a network operating system
mainframe
reponsible for storing, managing and simultaneously processing data from all users
smartphone
does more than let the user make and answer phone calls
Windows
began as an operating environment that worked with MS-DOS and incorporated a user-friendly interface like the one that was first introduced with Apple's operating system
Windows 7
follows Windows vista and builds on the security and user interface upgrades that the Windows Vista release provided
Mac OS
became the first commercially available operating system to incorporate a graphical user interface with user-friendly point and click technology
platform
combination of operating system and processor
Linux
an open source operating system designed for use on personal computers and as a network operating system
command-driven interface
one in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system
menu-driven interface
one in which you choose commands from menus displayed on the screen
graphical user interface
current personal computer operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS use this
event
an action in the respective device to which the operating system responds
interrupt
tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention
interrupt handler
a special numerical code that prioritizes the requests
preemptive multitasking
operating system processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned a lower priority
spooler
a program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer, indicates the printer is available
virtual memory
this process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space
swap file
temporary storage area on the hard drive
thrashing
condition of excessive paging
device driver
facilitates communication between the hardware device and operating system
Plug and Play
software and hardware designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drives these devices need in order to run
application programming interface
that app software needs in order to interact with the OS
Basic input/output systems (BIOS)
program that manages the exchange of data between the operating system and all the input and output devices attached to the system
system files
the main files of the operating system
kernel
supervisor program
registry
contains all of the different configurations used by the OS and other apps
authentication
verification of your login name and password
safe mode
a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors
device manager
feature in the operating system that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to your computers
last known good configuration
if windows detects a problem in the boot process - this will be added to the options menu
windows
rectangular panes on your computer screen that display apps running on your system
ribbon
organized into task-specific tabs with relevant commands
widget
mini-application that enables quick access to frequently used tools and activities
file management
provides an organizational structure to the computer's contents
directory
includes folders, libraries and drives
folder
a collection of files
library
gathers files from different locations and displays them as if they were all saved in a single folder
root directory
C drive is the top of the filing structure of the computer system
Windows explorer
main tool for finding, viewing and managing the contents of your computer
extension (file type)
follows the file n ame and a period or dot
file path
you can determine the location of a file drive with this
path separator
backslash
file compression utility
takes out redundancies in a file to reduce the file size
disk clean up
windows utility that cleans or removes unnecessary files from your hard drive
Disk Defragmenter
regroups related pieces of files on the hard drive, thereby allowing the OS to work more efficiently
file allocation table or FAT
in index of all sector numbers in a table
task manager
checks on program if it stops working
system restore
lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date when everything was working properly
system restore point
a snapshot of your entire system's settings
Backup and Restore
you can create a duplicate copy of all the data on your hard drive and copy it to another storage device with this utility