CROSS SECTIONAL STUDIES
1. This is a type of which study?
2. Exposure and disease measures are obtained how?
2a. How many periods of observation are there?
3. Exposure and disese measures are obtained when?
4. Also known as what?
5. What kind of sampling does it use?
6. Define this kind of sampling
7. Design of a cross sectional study
8. How do we measure exposure and disease in this kind of study
9. What do we use cross sectional studies for?
10. Advantages of cross sectional studies
1. Considered BOTH analytical, AND descriptive
2. at the indivdual level
3. at the same time
4. Prevalence study
5. Probability and non-probability sampling
6. Probability sampling has the characteristic that every individual in a population has a nonzero chance of being included in the sample. Examples include simple random samples, systematic samples, stratified samples.
Nonprobability Sample: One based on a sampling plan that doesn't have the above feature. Like quota sampling and judgemental samples.
7. Start with a population-->Gather data on exposure and disease outcome. Then you get 4 groups possible: exposed hve disease, nonexp have diseased. exp don't have disease, non exposed, do not have disease
8. measure with questionaries, records, physical exam measurements, lab tests, defined diagnositc criteria, (clear, objective, standardized criteria) (may divide cases into definite, probable, and possible disease categories)
9. To determine the health status of a population. Hypothesis generating ( descriptive study design) & Hypothesis testing (because it also falls into the category of analytical study design) , to design intervetion planning, and to estimate the magnitude and distribution of a health problem
10. a) it is a fast study (short time needed)
b) If the results come from a general population, the results are generalizable
c) it's cheap
a. its not useful for rare diseases (because not a lot of people in population will have it, so itll be really insignificant) (low prevalence diseases)
b. does not gives us any incidence data (case control studies do not directly provide incidence data)
c. It can't determine the temporality of exposure and disease (remember, its just a snapshot of the population at a certain time!)