Chapter 8 Exam

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Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as:

automatic processing.

While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Megan effortlessly understands almost every word. This ability highlights the importance of:

1. automatic processing.

2. iconic memory.

3. flashbulb memory.

4. the spacing effect.

Long-term potentiation refers to:

an increased neural readiness for impulse transmission

The temporary release of serotonin has been found to ________ memory formation, and the temporary release of stress hormones has been found to ________ memory formation.


Research participants who were exposed to very convincing arguments about the desirability of frequent toothbrushing misrecalled how frequently they had brushed their teeth in the preceding two weeks. This best illustrates:

exaggerate how frequently they had brushed their teeth in the past.

Repression most clearly involves a failure in:


The often unconscious activation of particular associations in memory is called:


The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Hutz vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful:


An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?


Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ________; matching concepts with their definitions measures ________.


By presenting research participants with three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of a second, Sperling demonstrated that people have ________ memory.


Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________ is to ________.

1. visual stimulation; auditory stimulation

2. automatic processing; effortful processing

3. short-term memory; long-term memory

4. explicit memory; implicit memory

In one study, children were periodically asked whether they remembered going to the hospital with a mousetrap on their finger. This experiment best illustrated the dynamics of:


After having seen many pictures of the Lincoln Monument during his lifetime, Mr. Adams mistakenly recalled that he had actually visited the site. This best illustrates:


We remember words that lend themselves to clear and distinct mental images better than we remember abstract low-imagery words. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the processes of understanding and memory.

visual encoding

Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way of facilitating:


One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires:


In describing what he calls the seven sins of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that encoding failure results from the sin of:


Memory is best defined as:


The process of getting information into memory is called:


Tim, a third-grader, learns the sentence "George Eats Old Gray Rats And Paints Houses Yellow" to help him remember the spelling of "geography." Tim is using:


By creating an outline in which specific facts and theories are located within the larger framework of major topics and subtopics, Jasmine can remember much more of what she reads in her college textbooks. This best illustrates the benefits of:


Psychologists on both sides of the controversy regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse agree that:


Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories emphasize that:


Repeating someone's name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for:


The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who experienced the tsunami that struck Southeast Asia in 2004 best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by:


Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly ________ bits of information.


The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contributes to:


The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as:


The tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as:


On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items:


The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of:


Although Arturo has looked at his watch thousands of times, he is unable to recall whether the watch features Arabic or Roman numerals. This is most likely due to a failure in:


Harry Bahrick observed that three years after people completed a Spanish course, they had forgotten much of the vocabulary they had learned. This finding indicates that information is lost while it is:


Although Arturo has looked at his watch thousands of times, he is unable to recall whether the watch features Arabic or Roman numerals. This is most likely due to a failure in:


An inability to recall the location of the number 0 on your calculator is most likely due to:


Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. Jenkins and Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the individuals spent their time:


When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake's memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________ failure.


After studying biology all afternoon, Alonzo is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material that he memorized that morning. Alonzo's difficulty best illustrates:

retroactive interference

Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information requires:


Although Yusef was having difficulty recalling the capital of the Netherlands, he quickly and correctly identified it after being given a list of cities in the Netherlands. Yusef's initial inability to recall the answer was due to a failure in:


Infantile amnesia is largely associated with a lack of ________ memory.


Implicit memory is to explicit memory as ________ is to ________.


Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates ________ memory.


Although Mr. Yanagita has recently learned to play poker quite well, he cannot consciously remember ever having played poker. It is likely that he has suffered damage to his:


Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn:


Conscious memory of factual information is called ________ memory.


Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the:


Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memeory?


The next in line effect best illustrates

encoding failure

The cerebellum plays a critical role in _________ memory.


The discovery that words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land best illustrates the value of:

retrieval cues

When Loftus and Plamer asked observers of a filmed car accident how fast the vehicles were going when they "smashed" into each other, The observers developed memories of the accident that:

portrayed the event as more serious than it had actually been.

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