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Chapter 7: Mendelian Inheritance
Family resemblance: how traits are inherited What is Life: Jay Phelan
Terms in this set (23)
Alternative versions of a gene. [Gk., allos, another]
An individual who carries one allele for a recessive trait and who does not exhibit the trait; if two carriers mate they may produce offspring who do exhibit the trait.
The case in which the heterozygote displays characteristics of both alleles.
The breeding of organisms that differ in one or more traits.
Describes an allele that masks the phenotypic effect of the other, recessive, allele for a trait; the phenotype shows the effect of the dominant allele in both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes. [Lat., dominari, to rule]
The genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; also, collectively, an organism's genetic composition. [Gk., genos, race, descent + typos, impression, engraving]
The greater resemblance of offspring to parents than to other individuals in the population, a consequence of the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring through their genes. [Lat., heres, heir]
Describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles an individual carries differ from each other. [Gk., heteros, other + zeugos, pair]
Describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles are the same. [Gk., homos, same + zeugos, pair]
The case in which the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between those of the two homozygotes; an example is pink snapdragons, whose appearance is intermediate between homozygous for white ﬂ owers and homozygous for red ﬂ owers.
Genes that are close to each other on a chromosome, and so are more likely than others to be inherited together.
mendel's law of independent assortment
Allele pairs for different genes separate independently in meiosis, so the inheritance of one trait generally does not inﬂuence the inheritance of another trait the exception, unknown to Mendel, occurs with linked genes
mendel's law of segregation
During the formation of gametes, the two alleles for a gene separate, so that half the gametes carry one allele, and half of the gametes carry the other. [from the name of its discoverer, Gregor Mendel, 1822-1884]
The case in which a single gene has more than two possible alleles.
In genetics, a type of family tree that maps the occurrence of a trait in a family, often over many generations.
The manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism. [Gk., phainein, to cause to appear + typos impression, engraving]
A phenomenon in which an individual gene inﬂ uences multiple traits. [Gk., pleion, more + tropos, turn]
Describes a trait that is inﬂ uenced by multiple different genes. [Gk., polus, many + genos, race, descent]
A diagram showing the possible outcomes of a cross between two individuals; the possible crosses are shown in the manner of a multiplication table. [from the name of its designer, Reginald C. Punnett, 1875-1967]
Describes an allele whose phenotypic effect is masked by a dominant allele for a trait. [Lat., recessus, retreating]
A trait controlled by a gene on a sex chromosome.
A trait that is determined by instructions on only one gene; examples are a cleft chin, a widow's peak, and unattached earlobes.
A mating in which a homozygous recessive individual is bred to individuals of unknown genotype, showing the dominant phenotype; this type of cross can reveal the unknown genotype by the observed characteristics, or phenotype, of the offspring.
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