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Blazer's American History Progressive Era Study Cards
Terms in this set (35)
What changes did the U.S. experience as it went from an agrarian to an industrialized nation?
* the job market changed from agriculture to industrial , so people moved from the rural areas to urban areas for jobs
What is an agrarian nation ?
agricultural nation - most Americans lived on farms or in small rural villages
What was the Industrial Revolution ?
changed from making goods from hand to making them by machine
Why were corporations important to the emergence of industrialization?
businesses were able to issue stocks from their companies to obtain large sums of money to invest and grow their industries. Making it easier to buy equipment, supplies, etc
What is Capitalism
Economic system of the United States; runs on free market and supply and demand, and private ownership of companies
what is capital ?
Which heavy industries helped to bring about the nation's transformation as an industrial power?
The Steel Industry- and Railroads
What impact did urbanization have on the nation?
-Cities became very large. By 1900 New York City's population was 3 million people. a greater number of people are living in cities
What is Mass Production ?
the manufacture of goods in large quantities using standardized designs drove the cost of goods down, making it easier for anyone to buy the product
What was the Bessemer Process and its effect on Industry?
it made the production of steel quicker and more economical
Who was Cyrus McCormick ?
- invented the reaper , that allowed farmers to harvest more crops with fewer workers.
How did immigrants before 1880 differ from immigrants after 1880?
-Most immigrants came from Northern Europe and Great Britain, most were protestant, and most spoke English
How did the flood of immigrants from 1880-1920 change the nation?
- a flood of immigrants came to the United States transforming American Life in numerous ways, new traits into the American Culture and causing the growth of cities
What achievements were made by African Americans living in the South?
- During reconstruction, African Americans enjoyed new political power, access to education, and economic freedom
How did the economy of the South change as a result of Reconstruction?
- It became more modern. As northerners helped build railroad, rebuild towns, and developed new industries.
Describe some of the demands of workers that led to labor organizing.
_wanted shorter hours and higher wages
- better working conditions
- End child Labor
- more Job Security
Describe the attitude of the federal government and business to the labor movement during this time period.
-The government had a laissez-faire policy, They thought that the government should have no interference in business, After the Haymarket Riot - the government passed legislation to stop strikes and restore order. They viewed the business owners as helping the American economy and the workers as greedy
Name examples of labor unions
- Knights of Labor
-American Railway Union
-American Federation of Labor (AFL)
-Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
What were the goals of the AFL
- The American Federation of Labor
- uniting workers with similar economic interests
- limited its membership to skilled labors
examples: carpentenrs , cigar makers
What was the Great Migration?
movement of African American's from the South to the North and midwest for jobs and they are tired of segregation in the South
What role did the Great Migration play in the changing American life?
-African Americans moved to cities to escape discrimination and in search of job opportunities.
- created their own culture in music, art, and literature called The Harlem Renaissance
What impact did Western migration have on the Native American Indian population?
- pushed Native Americans to move to Indian reservations and reliance on the government to survive
Describe some of the problems African Americans faced during the post-Reconstruction Era?
- restrictions on African Americans political rights
(ie not being able to vote through literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause)
- Sharecropping/tenant farming
-Jim Crow Laws
- racial discrimination of KKK
What were the "Jim Crow" laws?
-laws to separate races the south
What was the importance of the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson?
it declared racial segregation constitutional as long as it was equal.
Created the Separate but Equal doctrine
What are Black Codes
-regulated the lives of newly freedmen
-made it illegal for a freedman to hold office, travel freely, or to serve on a jury
-A freeman without a job could be fined and jailed
What was the Civil Rights Act ?
-Passed by a Republican Congress
- granted Freedmen full equality
-became the 14th amendment
What was the 14th Amendment
- granted full US citizenship to all former slaves
- stated citizens will have due process of law and provide equal protection of the law.
What was the Reconstruction Act
-established military rule over all of the confederate states until new governments could be formed
Who were the muckrakers?
-investigative reporters, writers, and social scientists that exposed the abuses of the industrial society and government corruption
What was their importance to the Progressive movement?
wanted to reform the governments and correct the injustices done during industrialization
Identify four reforms accomplished by the Progressives at the state and local level.
Identify three reforms accomplished by President Theodore Roosevelt.
- Newlands Act (1902)
-Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
-Hepburn Act (1906)
-Meat Inspection Act (1906)
Identify three reforms accomplished by President Wilson.
- National Parks Service
- Graduated Income Tax (1913) 16th Amendment
-The Federal Reserve Act (1913)
Identify three amendments that were ratified during the Progressive Era.
16th Amendment- Income Tax
18th- Prohibition of Alcohol
19th - Women's right to vote (suffrage)
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