CMS 334K Exam #1, Nonverbal exam 1 review

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Terms in this set (...)

3 primary units of nonverbal behaviors with channels
1) Communication Environment
-physical environment, proxemics, territory

2) Physical Characteristics of Communicators
-appearance/artifacts - can't change height, eye color, etc.

3) Various Behaviors of Communicators
-kinesics (eye behavior, facial expressions, gestures), vocalics, contact (touch)
6 Functions of Nonverbal Behaviors
*Creating Impressions/Making Judgements
*Managing Interactions
*Expressing Emotion
*Sending Relational Messages
*Sending Deceptive Messages
*Influence Others
Creating Impressions (Function of Nonverbal Behavior)
People make judgements based off of brief exposure to nonverbal cues
(Ex: how would you try to dress on a first date)
Sending Relational Messages(Function of Nonverbal Behavior)
Two levels: content vs relational
We are conveying to the other person how we feel about this "I feel like this is a formal relationship" "I feel like you have more power" "I do want to be associated with you"
Sending Deceptive messages (Function of Nonverbal Behavior)
Sarcasm
*Influence Others (Function of Nonverbal Behavior)
Ex: show others that we have dominance. Ex 2: more persuasion if you smile or touch.
Pre 20th Century - Darwin's perspective of nonverbal communication importance
-basic emotions are expressed universally
-we don't have to learn them, we innately know how to express these emotions
Early 20th Century - Kretschmer/Sheldon
personality linked to body size/shape;

-physique and body size/shape dictated character
ectomorph
tall/serious (nervous system)
mesomorph
muscular/courageous (muscular system)
endomorph
- fat/sociable (digestive system)
Efron's conclusion Early 20th century
Nonverbals is not all nature, but can also be learned

-Looked at several generations of immigrants, and they found the longer that they were in the US the more that their nonverbals changed to adapt to the US.

-He saw nonverbals change the longer they are in that context, they can be learned and socialized
1950s 1 of 2
Birdwhistell

-disagreed with Darwin
nonverbal is learned not innate
-introduced nonverbal as a language system (kinesics)
1950's Hall
how we use space and time across cultures

-we all want different amounts of space between us and use time differently
-there are norms in other cultures that we need to recognize
Hall (1959) "Silent Language"
-how we use space and time across cultures

-Saying we need to understand that other places have different norms according to nonverbal communication
1960s -
-Rosenthal/Jacobson pygmalion in the classroom
Ekman/Friesen Facial Affect Coding System

more research bc of film
-specialization began
-importance of nonverbal is shown
-some expressions are innate and genuine
-cultural display rules modify the expressions of basic emotions
expectancy effect
-if someone is portraying an emotion, their behaviors will compliment that emotion
1970s - Fast the norms of nonverbals; Knapp channels and nonverbals with interaction
-body language - the norms
1980s - ___ goal driven research
-use nonverbals to achieve goals
Patterson
1990s and 2000s -
-focused on specific topics
-care about the participants perception
-biology - what is nature and nurture
-technology - computer mediated technology
Future Trends
mutual influence - how A affects B and vise versa
-integrated - see how they connect/conflict
-they change over time
Nature vs Nurture (look at slides)
...
High Contact Culture
-closer proxemics
-more direct body orientation
-more touch
-more mutual eye gaze
-Seen in Latin American, Arab, N. African, Mediterranean, Russian, and Indonesian Countries
Low Contact Culture
-More Distance
-Less direct body orientation
-Less touch
-Less mutual eye gaze
-Seen in the U.S., N. European Countries, Asian Countries
High Context Culture - Ambiguous
-Much of message info is in context or internalized by communicators
-Indirectness, implicit messages are common
-Rely more on nonverbal behavior
-Higher tolerance for ambiguity
-Role of listener emphasized
-Seen in Arab, E. European, Asian, and Latin Countries
Low Context Culture - Direct
-Direct, explicit messages are common
-Rely more on verbal channel
-Lower tolerance for ambiguity
-Role of speaker emphasized
-Seen in U.S., Canada and N. European Countries
Individualism - Independent
-Tend to be low context
-Focus on individual self
-Independence of thought and action
-Success through individual abilities
-Seen in U.S., Australia, Canada, N. European Countries
Collectivism - Interdependent
-Tend to be high context
-Focus on group
-Thought and action dependent on group goals
-Individual success is through group success
-Seen in Latin American, Arab, Asian, Some African Countries
Sensory Deprivation (kids that are blind/deaf vs kids that are not)
-no differences in displaying basic emotions
-difference in speed of displayed emotion
-intensity of emotions displayed
-ability to mask and mimic emotions
-blends of emotions
Infants (newborns)
-pain is something we can naturally express
-taste (sour, bitter, sweet, savory) expression due to taste tends to be universal
-naturally like to imitate
Twin Study
-twins are similar even if they grew up in different environments
-attitudes/beliefs - nurture
-mannerisms - nature
Non Human Primates
-similar behaviors (play, intimidating, child rearing)
-similar emotional expressions (anger)
-similar brain regions mediating emotional responses
Multicultural Studies
-cultures can be similar even if they have never came into contact with one another
-universal in expression of emotion and recognition
-display rules also play a role
Eyebrow Flash
-wherein a person, wishing to approach another whom they recognize and are preparing for social contact, raises their eyebrows for approximately one-fifth of a second
Encoding
To what degree are we thinking about the nonverbals we are sending

(EXAMPLES)
Good _____ tend to:..

- be more aware of facial expression
-aware of emblems
-we can control some channels more than others
-we play up or play down our demeanor
-extroverted people are better self-monitors/encoders
-females are better encoders
Tests of Encoding Skill
-Affective Communication Test (ACT) - strongly agree and disagree with statements
-Movement-Mirroring Test (MMT or MMI) - mirror the facial expression and are graded on accuracy - must be good at decoding in order to encode correctly
Decoding
- Receiving the non-verbal messages

interpersonally sensitive - able to pick up on emotions
-extroverted better at this..
-high self monitors have a need for social inclusion
-easier to decode someone you are similar to
-females are better this
-both sexes are equally bad at deception detection
Tests of Decoding Ability
-Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (PONS)
-Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA)
-Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART)
-Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT) -
-Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK)
Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (PONS)
multichannel test of accuracy of decoding effective nonverbals
Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA)
focuses on decoding and emotional expression - happy, sad, anger, fear - isolate and detect emotion
Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART)
focus on micro-momentary stuff (by the second bc it is more genuine)
-Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT) -
uses real context, how we detect nonverbal behavior
-Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK)
knowledge of true/false behaviors
Observation Skills (Actual)
-understand human perceptual limitations - remember info but not where we got it
-be flexible between details and larger picture
-have broad life experiences
-focus on remembering
Research Questions
-(More open ended)
researcher does not want to limit what is looked at and or if there is not enough info. to make a specific prediction
-start with description and conclusions emerge
-emerge out of the study itself
-rely on own interpretations and interpretations of people they observe to interpret data and generate new theories or ideas
Hypothesis
"This is what I am thinking I might find"
-educated guess. it can either predict relationships or look for differences
-examines only hypothesis
-explain findings using theory that started research
4 Major Methods used in Nonverbal Research
1) Laboratory Experiments - used for cause and effect, control the factors realism doesn't matter.

2) Field Experiments - realism matters, not in a controlled environment but can still manipulate the independent variable (People know they are participating in the study)

3) Controlled Observations - have people come to the lab, looking to describe behavior, control the factors like time, participants etc

4) Naturalistic Observations - realism matters, not in a controlled environment, hard to document
Recording Nonverbal Data
-field notes - notes/videos taken by researcher
-diaries - ask participants to record perception
-surveys
-physiological responses
-observation measurement systems - recording behavior and coding it -
Coding Schemes
-very specific, second by second, every 3 seconds
-not getting interpretation but a detailed record of what happened
Rating Scales
-minute by minute
-coding a group of behaviors for a relational feel of what was going on in the conversation
Relationships between variables
-can correlate
-can be associated
-positive - as one increases so does the other
-negative/inverse - as one increases the other decreases
-curvlinear - more moderate has + and -
-can be weak, strong, or have a flatline (no relationship)
-correlation is not causation - have a third variable effect
Mehrabian's 2 dimensions to describe environment
Novel-familiar
• Picture of Japanese woman with traditional clothing
• Do you know what is going on
Complex -simple
• Picture of empty sixth street
• Friday night on sixth street
• Senses overload
6 dimensions Knapp used to describe environment(Perceptions of the Environment)
-formality (formal vs. informal)
-warmth (warm vs. cold)
-privacy (vs. public)
-familiarity (vs. unfamiliar)
-constraint - how easy we can leave environment
-distance - physical/mental
Mehrabian's 3 dimensions to describe our reaction to the environment
* arousing - non arousing
* pleasant-unpleasant
* dominant-submissive
Features of Environment
-natural environment
-structure and design
-objects
-people
-colors
Social Facilitation
performance on simple and well learned tasks is enhanced by the mere presence of others
Social Loafing
individuals do not pull their weight and let others do
4 perceptions of time (KNAPP)
Time as Location
Time as Duration
Time as Intervals
Time as Patterns of Intervals
Conversational Constraints (Look UP)
...
Anxiety/uncertainty Management (look UP)
...
Chrometics
-our use of time /psychological time orientations.
-Past - really focused on tradition
regret favors, or the good old days
-Present - seize the day, focused on the now, living in the moment
hedonistic, or fated
-Future - everything I do now is to do well in the future
learned to resist temptation
Monochromic
driven by time (americans, asians)
Polychromic
more interested in the time framework - (latin america)
Students stick around in the room, even if the professor hasn't finished
Foreign cultures-might have more meetings scheduled, but they will work on it until it is finished
Festinger proximity
architects can have a tremendous influence on the social lives of residents. Greater number of friendships if people lived close together
Why is it difficult to provide an exact definition of nonverbal communication?
multiple competing goals to manage
What are the 6 ways nonverbal behaviors are related to verbal language?
Repeating
Substituting
Complementing
Accenting/moderating
Regulating
Incongurence
Repeating
A way that verbals and non-verbals are related by saying the same message but coming through different channels.

EX) When giving directions pointing and also telling the person where to go
Substituting
Using nonverbal to replace the verbal

EX) holding up the "Thumbs up" referencing good job.
Complementing
Enhancing the message of your verbals by using your non-verbals to help get more information

EX) saying "I caught a really big fish" and then holding your hands up to give a more accurate description of how much.
Accenting
not giving more information but adding emphasis

EX) Pounding your fist on the table speaking slower on a particular word.
Moderating
Toning down the message depending on the content.

EX) Talking about death you might sit the person down.
Regulating
____ interaction, we take turns in conversation
ex: take deepbreath before talking
Conflicting/Incongruent
verbal and nonverbal do not match
-ex: sarcasm "nice job dude"
trust nonverbal over verbal bc it is harder to fake nonverbals