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Member of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas; People in latin america born in Spain


in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents; not as high status as peninsulares


a person of mixed african and european ancestry; lower class

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.


The art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations without arousing hostility

Simon Bolivar

The liberator; South American revolutionary leader who defeated the Spanish in 1819, was made president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia.

Jose de San Martin

born in argentina, revolutionary leader, who freed chile and joined bolivar to free peru

Battle of Ayacucho

Bolivar's unified revolutionary army defeated the Spanish in Peru on December 9, 1824; last major battle in the war for independence; the Spanish colonies in Latin America won their freedom as a result of it

Gran Colombia

Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Equador united

Miguel Hidalgo

Mexican priest and revolutionary who led a revolt with peasants that started the Mexican war of independence.

Jose Maria Morelos

Mexican priest who led the forces fighting for Mexican independence after Hidalgo until he was captured and executed in 1815


a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's fellow people


A country who's population share a common identity.

Battle of Navarino

battle that combined forces of the french, russian, and britain armies defeat the ottoman navy to gain Greece independance


nephew of napoleon bonaparte, won the french presidential election in 1848, and named himself emperor Napoleon II in 1852; improved the economy; smart dude

Crimean War

A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed

Czar Alexander II

czar of Russia; issued the emancipation edict, freeing the serfs; Wanted to advance Russia

Czar Alexander III

son of Alexander II who was czar of Russia; promoted Russification

Emperor Francis Joseph

Austrian Emperor who was pressured by Hungarians to split his empire in 1/2, declaring them independent states that he still ruled


Policy of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire

King Victor Emmanuel II

The King of Piedmont that appointed Cavour his Prime Minister and worked to unite Italy.

Count Camillo di Cavour

Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian nationalist whose "Red Shirts" freed Sicily and southern Italy and then united it with northern Italy; Gave power to Sardinian King because he loved Italy


strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class

Otton von Bismarck

prime minister of germany appointed by william 1, believed in realpolitik; collected taxes; strengthened army; always made other country declare war; GENIUS


political realism or practical politics, especially policy based on power rather than on ideals.

Kaiser Wilhelm I

The King of Prussia who chose Otto Van Bismark to be his Prime Minister. He was eventually crowned Kaiser of Prussia and Germany.

Schleiswig and Holstein

the two provinces in which Germany gained from going to war with Denmark with the help of Austria

Seven Week's War

Prussia and Austria vs. Denmark over the question of Schleswig, which then resulted in Prussia and Austria going to war against each other; the Prussians' superior training and weapons secured their victory

Franco-Prussian War

A conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia.

Second Reich

after the Germans conquered the French palace of Versailles; Bismarck became the empire's first prime minister, and King William I of Prussia was crowned Kaiser (Caesar); because of this, Germany was able to achieve a solid economic foundation. By 1870 they were the world's 3rd largest producer, behind USA and Britain.


an early 19th century movement in art and thought which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society


a 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.


a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially

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