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Strong Military Carthaginian General in Second Punic War - who crossed the Alps and dominate Italy for some time

The Battle at Cannae

crucial battle of the Second Punic War where Consuls decide against Fabius skirmish tactics
field of flowers
hannibal came in from behind- Pincer Movement ; double envelop
80,000 dead + consul +1/3 senator


Hannibal brother - reinforcements who were cut off at the end of the war

Scipio Africanus

Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)

Terms of surrender for Carthage second Punic War

surrender fleet
large payment
no war without permission
could no longer be a mediterranean power


Where Hannibal commits suicide (poison) when he was about to be handed over to the Romans (c. 182 BC)

Spain after the 2nd Punic War

governed by 2 praetors
exploited for natural resources


collected taxes
private contractors


extended term in office
proconsul, propraetor
gives time to finish up business

Philip V

king of ancient Macedonia whose confrontations with the Romans led to his defeat and his loss of control over Greece

1st Macedonian War

215-205 Philip V attempting to ally with Hannibal
Rome has its handful with Hannibal, rome declared war of Macedonia, Macedonia vs. Rome + Greece ended in a draw

2nd Macedonian war

(200-196): Rome intervened on behalf of the Greeks, forced Philip to surrender his fleet and pay a large fine
Rome sucked into this war

3rd Macedonian War

Philip's son Perseus deposed by Romans; end of monarchy in Macedon


"Carthage delenda est"
Came into the senate holding an apple - this apple was in Carthage three days ago - it was a very short ship journey from Rome to Carthage- "Carthage must be destroyed"

3rd Punic War

3 years
Rome cut off supplies to Carthage
invaded in 146- street fighting with heavy casualties
Rome laid salt on the fields and destroyed the city
led by Scipio Amilianus

Dido (historical)

Founder/Queen of Carthage
royal Pheonician who went into Exile to escape her brother who murdered her husband
threw bags into sea
cut the ox hide into strips to put around land
Byrsa Hill
commits suicide to save her city


Didos corrupt brother
murdered her brother


Didos first husband who was murdered by her brother for a fake treasure

Dido at Cyprus

kidnapps 80 temple prostitutes


Berber King who gave dido an ox hide to claim her land
to control Carthage, tried to force Dido into marriage

ox and horse head meaning

ox- wealthy but subjugated
Horse- powerful in war

Dido (myth)

met Aeneas on his way to Italy
anachronistic - they couldn't have met
falls in love with Aeneas, but he must start Rome - heartbroken she declares that Aeneas descendants/ Romans will always be an enemy - commits suicide
sets a basis for Rome and Carthage Wars


leader of Numidians in aid of Rome during Punic Wars


(classical mythology) god of wine
shouting, frenzied dancing, the use of cymbals and drums, drinking and some sexual license

The Cursus Honorum

"Ladder of Offices"

Scipio Amilianus

jumped the cursus honorum. Was elected consul without being praetor first and not being old enough
Destroyed Carthage in 3rd Punic War

Elder Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus

had held office twice

Tiberius Gracchus

enforce a land law that was overlooked
one person could only exploit 500 iugera, or 300 acres of land. The rest could be confiscated by officials. He was to redistribute this land to the landless in Rome.
vetoed by fellow tribune ______. ran for reelection - said to by a tyrant
was beaten to death by a fellow tribune with the leg of a stool

Agrarian Commission

run by Tiberius and Gaius and tiberius father in Law (Appius Claudius Pulcher) to oversee the Land reform of Tiberius, Senate refuses to fund the commission, so it is funded by the money left to Rome by Pergamon; is not shut down when Tiberius is assassinated.

Gaius Gracchus

Was an electric speaker
created a flat price for grain - help the populace
Senate must allot provinces before Consular election
Put the Equestrian as the jury to water down the power of the senate
so the senate cannot judge themselve in trial
renewed land reform, one in Carthage
retreated with Flaccus to Aventine Hill; commits and honorable suicide

Gaius Opimius

Consul the year 121 when G Gracchus lost his third election as tribune. Tried to revoke some of his legislation.

Herald killed at a public uproar - so he attack Gracchus and Flaccus at Aventine Hill
under a SCU

Senatus consultum ultimum

final decree of the senate; made by L. Opimius who vowed to annul Gracchus' legistaltion-consuls given the power to do whatever they want to protect the state- results in the death of thousands of Gracchian supporters; enabled Pompey to direct Caesar to disband his army; Emergency decree that allowed senate to do anything needed to restore peace


of the nobility or aristocracy
supporters of the senate
followed the traditional cursus honorum


support the citizens to advance their own ambitions


ancestor served as consul

Novus homo

"New man"
the first in the family to become consul or gain high popularity or office


A lifelike mask of a family's most important ancestor that was placed on the lararium and worshiped.

why kiss your dying family member?

catch the soul and final breath

the name was also shouted three times
be placed on the earth
coin in mouth
placed on the atrium


festival of rememberance of an ancestor


original means o purifying army and thanking Gods
became the rare and great honor that a general, who dressed and acted like Jupiter, received for victory
Senate decided


freedom of speech
could curse the general

Triumphal Arch in Orange

• Stand around the Roman EMPIRE - territories ruled by Rome
• Audiences everywhere
• Enhance their prestige
• Passageway for future generals
• Document semi-permanently the triumph
• Picture of the column- Trajan's Column
• Carved Scenes wind up the column and then topped with a statue of general himself


son of Micipsa; banished by Jugurtha
runs to Rome
got east part of Numidia
invaded by Jugurtha and executed


son of Micipsa; murdered by Jugurtha


adopted son of Micipsa;
eliminates both his brothers for Numidia
bribes some Roman nobles


general who captures Jugurtha; marries into patrician family (Julia)
tribune of the plebs
becomes consul and ends war with Jugurtha (triumph)

Bocchus I (King of Maurentania)

betrays and hands over Jugurtha

Quintus Metellus

opposition of Marius' consulship

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