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History Sage

Habsburg-Valois Wars

France vs. Habsburgs. France tried keeping Germany apart. Led to slow unification of German states.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559

Agreement that ended six decades of war (fought mainly in Italy) between the French (Valois) kings and the Spanish (Habsburg) rulers. France was denied power in Italy. The bankruptcy of both countries; Turkish pressure on the Habsburgs; and religious strife in France forced the countries to make peace.

Philip II

(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.


A Spanish monastery and palace built by Philip II.

Battle of Lepanto

(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope.

Dutch Revolt

This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state.

William of Orange

Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.

United Provinces of the Netherlands

Province who practiced religious toleration, and was a republic who had an elected governor whose power depended on the support of merchants and landholders.

Spanish Netherlands

Seventeen provinces, (Belgium, Modern Netherlands, Luxemborg) which are basically the Low Countries. They are called low be cause they are below sea level, the are surrounded by dikes and wind mills.

Mary Tudor ("Bloody Mary")

Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.

Elizabeth I

Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. Basically was one of the main individuals who played a part of the politics during this European time period (as mentioned in earlier def, just refer to them, also I love Ritchie).

Spanish Armada

The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.

French Civil Wars

9 wars in last half of 16th century-power struggle between 3 noble families for Crown after death of Henry II

Catherine de Medicis

Ruled as Queen of France for after Francis II and fought to reconcile French and Protestant relations. Because of her fear of the Guises, she fought to maintain the monarchy. However she was forced to cooperate with the Guises. Balanced the two religious sides.

St. Bartholomew Day Massacre

This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties.

War of the Three Henry's

Led to by the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. The three weak sons of Henry II (Henry III of France, Henry of Navarre, and Henry of Guise) had fought because Guise created the Holy League to replace Henry III and destroy Calvanism. This led to religious rioting and civil conflicts. Eventually Henry of Guise and King Henry III were assassinated and Henry of Navarre became Henry VI of France.

Henry IV

first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris


A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).

Edict of Nantes

1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants

Thirty Years' War

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

Bohemian phase

The first phase of the Thirty Years' War which culminated in the Catholic victory at the Battle of White Mountain.

Defenestration of Prague

The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.

Danish Phase

Happened from 1625-1629, it began when Christian IV of Denmark helped Lutheran rulers of Lower Saxony lead an army against imperial forces.

Edict of Restitution

Imperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.

Albrecht von Wallenstein

mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE, he won many important battles against the Protestants.

Swedish Phase

The third phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by Sweden's entrance into the war under King Gustavus Adolphus; during this phase, the Protestants began to defeat the Catholics on many fronts.

Gustavus Adolphus

joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen

French Phase

International Phase, The fourth and final phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by France's entrance into the war on the side of the Protestants; (wanted to make sure that HRE could not consolidate the German lands into one country) this gave the Protestants the support needed to defeat the Catholics.

Cardinal Richelieu

minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic

English Civil War

This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished

James I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625

Charles I

son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland

"divine right" of kings

The belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule


Opposing sides of the English Civil War (Cavaliers: forces of the king, Roundheads: forces of Parliament)

Oliver Cromwell

English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)

New Model Army

The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war

Pride's Purge

Cromwell felt kingshould be executed to prevent counterrevolution. Parlt. hesitated so Cromwaell used army to break up Parlt. which had started at 500 in 1640 and already sunk to 150. Used Colonel Pride to remove dissenters(100 of them) and left only about 50 - The Rump.

"Rump Parliament"

After much of Parliament was killed for voting against the trial of Charles I, the remainder did their best to hold it together, until Cromwell took control and started a new Parliament.


During period of Commonwealth Cromwell faced extremists in all diretions - each with own remedies for country. Levellers(in later times would have been called advanced politicals democrats) were numerous in Puritan army. Spokesman John Lilburne, appealed to natural rights of Englishmen. Asked for a nearly universal manhood suffrace, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of voters. (Anticipated many ideas of Am. Fr. Revs.)


denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land


a Christian sect founded by George Fox about 1660


time between rulers

The Protectorate

This was the name of the military dictatorship that England took on during the reign of Oliver Cromwell

Charles II

King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)

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