336 terms

TeXes ELAR 4-8*


Terms in this set (...)

action verb
A verb that expresses either physical or mental activity...example: The pearl diver PRIED the oyster open.
Activities to Promote Oral Communication
Role play, Language Play, Sharing, Pair Interview and Presentations
modifies a noun or pronoun...example: The GREEN shirt in the CLOTHES hamper smells like sweat.
adjective clause
multi-word adjectives; describe the subject
modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb...example: The robber QUICKLY fled the scene of the crime.
adverb clause
where, when, or why
word parts that are fixed to either the beginning (prefix) or ending of words (suffixes).
Group of words beginning with the same initial sound
Letters or combinations of letters that make the same sound
a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize
Alphabetic Principle
The ability to connect letters with sounds and to create words based on these associations.
Alphabetic principle
The understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters that represent those sounds in written language).; that sounds in a spoken word are represented by letters in a left to right sequence in a written word
Alphabetic Principle
The principle on which reading in English (or any other alphabetic language) is founded: it is that there is a sound for every symbol and a symbol for every sound. Thus the letter "b" can never spell the sound /z/ or the sound /o/
Alphabetic Understanding:
Words are composed of letters that represent sounds.
Alphabetic Writing System
Uses the sounds of the language as a basic unit of writing. (Writing system)
Applied Questions
Creative questions that extend beyond the text.
a noun or noun phrase that renames the noun it follows...example: Mr. Richard, MY TEACHER, is an incredibly handsome gentleman.
a determiner that may indicate the specificity of reference of a noun phrase...example: a, an, the
Articulation Problems
Problems with specific sounds that can cause unintelligibility and the production of aesthetically displeasing sounds. e.g.: Lisping
Auditory Discrimination
The ability to tell the difference between one sound and another sound. Is very important in the development of phonemic awareness.
Auditory dyslexia
difficulty with sounds and sounds are perceived as jumbled or not heard correctly
the quick and accurate recognition of letters, words, and language conventions. achieved through continuous practice using texts written at the reading level of the child.
Being able to automatically and immediately read the word without having to pause and sound it out.
Base Word
The word to which affixes are attached. Is also called a root word.
The ability to take separate sounds and blend them into a single word or syllable.
Combining individual phonemes to form words, combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, and syllables to make words
bottom-up approach
proceeds from specific to general or from parts to the whole. begins with phonemes and graphemes, and continues by expanding to the syllable, words, sentences, paragraphs (called Phonics Instruction)
1st stage of the writing process- gathering ideas on a topic.
Calculating words correct per minute
is an easy way to formally assess fluency.
Choral reading
reading aloud in unison with a whole class or group of students. Choral reading helps build students' fluency, self-confidence, and motivation.
a group of related words containing a subject and a verb
Clipped letter sounds
Sounds that are not easily pronounced in isolation without a vowel such as /b/ not /buh/
Closed syllable
CVC, ends in at least 1 consonant and the vowel is short; most common; when vowel I short, syllable will be closed off by 1 or more consonants; for spelling, 2 or more consonant letters often follow short vowels in closed syllables (ex: back, stuff, doll, stretch)
Closed Word Sort
The teacher defines the process for categorizing the words. This requires students to engage in critical thinking as they examine sight vocabulary, corresponding concepts, or word structure.
Cloze Procedure
A technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria. The passage is presented to students, who insert words as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text. This procedure can be used as a diagnostic reading assessment technique.
Cloze Test
A passage with omitted words the test-taker must supply.
common noun
general name for a person, place, thing, or idea...example: town, man, movie
comparative adjective
compares 2 people or things
Comparative and Superlative
(er and est) e.g.: Better, best.
Competency 001 ELA and Reading
The teacher understands the importance of oral language, knows the developmental processes or oral language and provides a variety of instructional opportunities for students to develop listening and speaking skills.
Competency 002 Early Literacy Development
The teacher understands the foundations of early literacy development.
Competency 003 Word Identification Skills and Reading Fluency
The teacher understands the importance of word identification skills (including decoding, blending, structural analysis and sight word vocabulary) and reading fluency and provides many opportunities for students to practice and improve word identification skills and reading fluency.
Competency 004 Reading Comprehension and Assessment
The teacher understands the importance of reading for understanding, knows components and processes of reading comprehension and teaches students strategies for improving their comprehension.
Competency 005 Reading Applications
The teacher understands reading skills and strategies appropriate for various types of texts and contexts and teaches students to apply these skills and strategies to enhance their reading proficiency.
Competency 006 - Written Language - Writing Conventions
The teacher understands the conventions of writing in English and provides instruction that helps students proficiency in applying writing conventions.
Competency 007 - Written Language - Composition
The teacher understands that writing to communicate is a developmental process and provides instruction that promotes students competence in written communication.
Competency 008 - Viewing and Representing
The teacher understands skills for interpreting, analyzing, evaluation and producing visual images and messages in various media and provides students with opportunities to develop skills in this area.
Competency 009 - Study and Inquiry Skills
The teacher understands the importance of study and inquiry skills as tools for learning in the content areas and promotes students' development in applying study and inquiry skills.
complex sentence
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when...example: After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clause
Components of balanced literacy
Oral langauge, phonological awarness, alphabetic principle, word study, reading fluency, comprehension
compound predicate
includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject
Compound Sentence
A sentence that contains 2 independent clauses. Uses a coordinating conjunction and a semi colon.
Compound Words
Created when two independent words are joined to create a new word. e.g.: elsewhere, football
Comprehension Strategies
The techniques that students can use to better understand reading texts. These techniques may include note taking, outlining, self-monitoring, rereading, summarizing , story mapping, and the use of learning logs.
Conceptual-thinking skills
Relate to how students deal with their environment in terms of meaning, problem-solving, and ability to function in daily life.
A word that connects parts of a sentence.
something that joins or connects...example: I am coming to the play, BUT I have to finish cleaning my room first.
Connecting Discourse
Children often produce choppy sentences without transition words or phrases to connect ideas or paragraphs. Teachers can provide a list of sentence connecters. e.g.: On the other hand,", "moreover,".
The implied meaning of words and ideas.
Consolidated Alphabetic Phase
Begin conceptualizing that they can use components of words that they know to decode new words. (Phase)
Consonant Blend
Consonant blend (also called consonant cluster) is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits.
Consonant Cluster
Groups of consonants before and after a vowel.
Consonant digraph
Combination of consonants that represent one unique sound such as th, ch, sh
Context Clue
The use of information surrounding an unknown word or group of words to identify the unknown word. Important information may include syntax, the meanings of the surrounding words, available pictures or photographs, or even typography.
Context Clues
Semantic, Syntactic, Structural
Continuous letter sounds
Sounds that can be stretched out and pronounced without a vowel such as /s/, /n/, /m/
Conventional Spelling
The fifth and final stage of developmental spelling in which spellers develop over years of word study and writing. Correct spelling can be categorized by instruction levels. For example, correct spelling for a corpus. . . words that can be spelled by the average fourth grader would be fourth grade level correct spelling. Place the word in this category if it is listed correctly.
The use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
Convergent Question
Question with only one correct answer.
coordinating conjunction
a conjunction (like 'and' or 'or') that connects two identically constructed grammatical constituents...example: Billy is going to school AND he will learn a lot today.
coordinating junctions
and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so
criterion-referenced tests (CRTs)
To determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts
Curriculum Based Measurement
Uses a quick and efficient method of measuring an aspect of the learning process.
CVC Words
Consonant-vowel-consonant words.
declarative sentence
makes a statement
Figuring out how to pronounce words by breaking the word down and identifying individual sounds within the word.
The literal meaning of words and ideas.
Dependent Clause
A clause that cannot stand by itself.
Derivational Morphemes
Prefixes and suffices and inflectional endings.
a writer's or speaker's choice of words
2 or more letters that represent a single sound; vowels ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, ey, ie, oa, oo, ow, ue; Consonants: ch, ng, sh, th, wh
Digraphs (di 'two', graph 'written').
Two letters that write just one sound. The long O in "toes" is spelled <oe> and the long O in "known" is spelled <ow>: those are also digraphs.
two vowel sounds in one, and quite regardless of how they're spelled. Long I as in "nice" or "by" or "fright" or, um, "digraph" is a diphthong: it starts out sounding like "ah" and ends up sounding like long E. The diphthong in "boy" and "noise" starts out sort of like long O and ends up like long E; the diphthong in "round" and how (and vowel, for that matter) starts out like "ah" and ends up like "oo".
Vowel of two sounds (oi, oy, ou, ow, ; makes you move your mouth when you say it.
direct object
the object that receives the direct action of the verb...example: The player dribbled the BALL down the court.
Direct vocabulary learning
Students are explicitly taught both individual words and word-learning strategies.
Directed listening thinking activity (DLTA)
Assesses and instructs students. Listening, predicting,and confirming one's predictions are emphasized. The DLTA is used to engage students in text which is above their independent and/or instructional reading level. It is used to 1). determine the purpose for reading, 2). extract, comprehend, and assimilate information, 3). examine reading material based on the purpose for reading, 4). suspend judgments, and 5). make decisions based on information gleaned from the reading material.
Divergent Question
Question with more than one correct answer.
Dolch Words
220 of the most frequently used words in English. The introduction of these sight words can expedite the decoding process and develop fluency among early readers.
2nd stage of the writing process- getting ideas down on paper in some order.
Directed Reading/Thinking Activity
inability to solve math problems; may include difficulty with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning
inability to hold or control a pencil resulting in poor handwriting
Literally means difficulty with words; it is a developmental reading disorder that results from the inability to process graphic symbols.; thought to be genetic. It can be characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling decoding abilities.
characterized by poorly coordinated movement
Early Readers
Have mastered reading readiness skills and are beginning to read simple texts with some degree of success. Developing an internal list of high frequency words in print. Rely on visual aids less.
Early Writers
Understand that a written message remains the same each time it is read. Utilize their knowledge of sounds and letters as they progress through the stages of spelling development. Begin to use conventional grammar, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.
Echo reading
Teacher models reading the text first, and then students read the same text
4th stage of the writing process- perfecting the grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
Emergent Literacy
The awakening or beginning of a student's reading ability. These readers have well developed oral language skills, understand print concepts, and are phonemically aware.
Emergent Readers
Understand that print contains meaningful info. They imitate the reading process and display basic reading skills.
Emerging Writers
Dictate an idea or a complete story. Use pictures to communicate a message. Understand that writing symbolizes speech.
The study of the origins and histories of words.
exclamatory sentence
expresses great emotion/excitement
Explicit Instruction
An instructional strategy that emphasizes group instruction . The instruction offered should include a great deal of teacher-student interactivity.
a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic
Expository text
informative, presents information in different ways, includes informational books, content-area textbooks, newspapers, magazines, brochures, catalogues.
Expository Writing
Explain and clarify ideas.
Expository writing
a type of writing where the purpose is to inform, describe, explain, or define the author's subject to the reader.
Figurative Language
A tool employed by authors to communicate with a simile or metaphor rather than strictly literally. A word or phrase stands for the actual word or phrase.
Final Stable Syllable (aka consonant-le)
Has a final consonant -le combo or a non-phonetic but reliable unit such as -tion. Accent usually on the preceding syllable
First 11 letter-sounds
l, t, p. n, s. a d., I, f, h. g
Ability to read a text accurately and quickly; when reading aloud, read it effortlessly and with expression.
Fluency Disorder
Any kind of condition that affects the child's ability to produce coherent and fluent communication. e.g.: Stuttering or Cluttering.
Fluency rate
Number of words read per minute
Fluent Writers
Have an improved sense of audience. Can write from different points of view. have more skills in revising and editing their own work. Show a wide range of skill in writing. Like to experiment with voice.
Formal assessment
Standardized written or performance test of knowledge, aptitude, values, etc.
formative assessment
assessment during instruction and gives teachers information on whether they need to adjust their teaching and the students learning. Helps ensure students achieve targeted standards. Students are involved in assessing their own learning and helping others.
formative evaluation
occurs during the process of learning when the teacher or students monitor progress while it is still possible to modify instruction
Four most common prefixes in English
un-, re-, in-, dis-; learning their meanings will help students decode about 2/3rds of English words that have prefixes.
Four types of vocabulary
Listening, speaking, reading, and writing
Frustration reading level
Difficult text for the reader with more than 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (less than 90%0 success)
Full Alphabetic Phase
Begin making connections between the letters, the sounds they make and the meanings of the words. (Phase)
Functional Writing
Describes activities in which writing is used to achieve a specific purpose.
A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun (They don't enjoy my singing.)
Smallest part of written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word. May be one letter (such as b, d, f, p, s) or several letters (such as ch, sh, th, -ck, ea, -igh)
Graphic Organizer
Help students improve organizational skills and provide a visual representation of facts and concepts and their relationships within an organized framework.
Guided reading lesson
Teacher provides feedback to students as they read aloud and practice reading strategies. It is the way most of us learned to read.
helping verb
Helps the main verb express action or a state of being...example: He IS watching television.
High-Frequency Words
The words that appear most often in printed materials. Because they appear so frequently, students must be able to identify them immediately so that their reading is slowed while they try to figure the words out. It is something used synonomously with sight words.
words that are spelled the same way but have more than one pronunciation and different meanings (ex: bow, bow)
Words that have the same sound and the same spelling but differ in meaning. Stalk (bean stalk) and stalk (follow).
words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings (ex: blew, blue)
Expression that does not make sense in its literal form, but holds a different meaning.
a learning strategy that young children frequently use to replicate someone's behaviors, actions, phrases, etc.
imperative sentence
Implicit Instruction
Teaching that uses nondirective suggestions and tacit implications in place of explicit direction or modeling. Implicit instruction occurs in instructional tasks that do not provide specific guidance on what is to be learned from the task. It may provide examples, uses, instances, illustrations, or visualizations of a knowledge components without a direct statement (or rule) that specifically directs the learner on what is to be learned (knowledge component).
Independent Clause
A clause that can stand by itself.
Independent reading level
Student can read text with 95% accuracy (or miss only about 1 of every 20 words); repeated oral reading should take place at this level.
indirect object
the object that is the recipient or beneficiary of the action of the verb...example: We can give MARTHA the tickets to tonight's game.
Indirect vocabulary learning
learning new words through everyday conversation, listening to adults read to them, or reading on their own
to deduce an interpretation from someone else's discourse
Inferential comprehension
involves such things as drawing conclusions and predicting outcomes. It involves understanding and comprehending things in a reading selection that are only inferred and not stated specifically or directly. It is contrasted with literal comprehension which describes comprehending things that are literally or explicitly stated in the text or reading.
Inferential Questions
Students must draw conclusions.
A verb form that functions as a noun or auxiliary verb, created by the word to followed by the verb ("to leave")
Inflectional Endings
Sounds, which are added to words to indicate tense, possession, number of comparison
Inflectional Morphemes
Do not change the syntactic classification and typically follow derivational morphemes in word. (short plural, long plural, third person singular, possessive, progressive, past tense, past participle, and comparative and superlative)
informal assessment
occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation, and discussion
Informal Reading Inventory
Specifically measures accuracy in decoding and comprehension of text at both literal and inferential levels.
Informal Reading Inventory
Series of increasingly difficult reading passages followed by comprehension checks/ questions. Formative assessments used to determine reading levels (independent, instructional, frustration).
Instructional level
The reading level at which a student recognizes and comprehends words well enough to avoid frustration but still requires some guidance or assistance from the teacher.
Instructional Reading Level
Read 90 - 94% without miscues.
an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion...example: OUCH!
asks a question
Intonation Pattern
Describes the pitch contour of a phrase or a sentence that is used to change the meaning of the sentence.
intransitive verb
a verb (or verb construction) that does not take an object...example: The talented musician PERFORMED beautifully in the National Symphony.
Kernel Sentence
A simple declarative construction with only one verb. e.g.: Katrina was a hurricane.
KWL (reading strategy)
Know, Want to Know, Learned.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Innate abilities and mechanisms to develop language. (Noam Chomsky)
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
Method for connecting oral language to written language.
Letter combinations
Groups of consecutive letters that represent a particular sound or sounds in words (such as consonant blends, digraphs, etc).
Letter-sound correspondence
Refers to the commons sounds of letters and the letter combinations in written words; predicts later reading success
refers to the vocabulary of a language; ex: some words such as "hot" can have many different meanings
linking verb
A verb that does not show action but connects the subject with a word in the predicate...example: During the afternoon, my cats ARE content to nap on the couch.
Literal Comprehension Skills
The first and most basic level of reading comprehension. Students at this level of comprehension can understand what the literal text, but cannot draw conclusions or effectively critique the text.
Literal Questions
Questions that are easily answered and can be easily located within the text.
Literary elements
Setting, character, plot, style, point of view, mood/tone, theme of a story or other piece of literature.
Literary tone
writers' attitude toward his or her audience
Literature Circle
much like a book club, where members/participants read and discuss a book that everyone has read. Another approach that might help you with this question is to ask yourself if the other answers sound like they mean what the question is describing.
Literature Circle
much like a book club, where members/participants read and discuss a book that everyone has read. Another approach that might help you with this question is to ask yourself if the other answers sound like they mean what the question is describing.
Literature-based instruction
Type of instruction in which authors' original narrative and expository workds are used as the core for experiences to support sutdents in developing literacy; involves "natural" activities such as discussions (not answer 10 questions), shared writing, discussion circles
Long Plural
After ch, sh, s, z and x. e.g.: Churches, washes, and boxes
Main Functions of Writing
Narrate, describe, explain, and persuade.
Mechanical automatic skills are
Sensory, perception, memory, motor, and spatial-temporal; they do not involve meaning
Mentor Texts
Teachers model good writing by a certain author or genre by sharing exemplar texts that are representative of that author or genre.
Literally, it means "thinking about thinking." It is the process we use to plan, monitor and evaluate our approach to a task or activity. It is closely connected to graphic organizers.
comparison not using like or as
substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself (as in 'they counted heads')
miscue analysis
an assessment procedure to assess oral reading.
Any deviation from text made during oral reading.
Mnemonic Devices
Memory-related devices used to help students remember something.
Giving students texts to read which have correct uses of conventions as well as incorrect uses. Also used to show examples of different types of writing.
The feeling the author wants you to get from the story.
The smallest unit of language that has meaning. It can be free standing, such as a word like "house," which can't be reduced any smaller and still have meaning. Or, a bound morpheme such as "ing" which changes the meaning of a wrod, but must be attached to another word itself in order to have meaning.
The study of word structure. It encompasses the derivation of words, the use of inflections, and the creation of compound words.
Multisensory learning (VAK)
Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic -- present info visually, auditorily, and kinesthetically (hands on, manipulatives, field trips_
Newly Fluent Readers
Can read with relative fluency and comprehension. They are able to use several cuing systems to obtain meaning from print. Self-monitor their reading and can identify and correct simple errors with minimum external support. They ask clarification questions and develop an understanding of the content.
Newly Fluent Writers
Use prewriting strategies to achieve their purpose. Address as topic or write to a prompt creatively and independently. Organize writing to include a beginning, middle and end. Consistently use conventional grammar, spelling, capitalization and punctuation. Revise and edit written work independently and or collectively.
non-restrictive clause
not essential to the meaning of a sentence
Nonsense words
Often used to determine if students have mastered the alphabetic principle. These are made-up words that student could not have memorized, but must apply the alphabetic principle to pronounce.
norm-referenced tests (NRT)
"To rank each student with respect to the
achievement of others in broad areas of knowledge"
noun clause
subject, object, object of preposition, predicate nominative
Number of Graphemes in English
26 (Letters of the alphabet)
Number of Phonemes in English
44 (Units of sound)
Number of Sounds Made by Vowels
12 sounds made with 5 vowels
Is the part of the word or syllable that is followed by a vowel. For example, in the word "man," the onset is "m."
Open syllable
CV, ends in one long vowel and is spelled with 1 vowel letter (such as to-tal, ri-val, bi-ble). When syllables are combined, there will be no doubled consant.
Open Word Sort
Students determine how to categorize the words, thereby becoming involved in an active manipulation of words.
Open Word Sort
Students determine how to categorize the words, thereby becoming involved in an active manipulation of words.
Oral vocabulary
the words we use in speaking or recognize in listening
The study of spelling and standard spelling patterns.
Paired Reading
The student reads aloud along with an accomplished reader. At a student signal, the helping reader stops reading, while the other student continues on. When the student commits a reading error, the helping reader resumes reading in tandem.
Partial Alphabetic Phase
Begin connecting the shape of the letters with the sound that they represent. (Phase)
A verb form that usually ends in -ing or -ed and serves as an adjective (The burning log fell off the fire. Children interested in music develop strong intellectual skills.)
Partner reading
Paired students take turns reading aloud to each other; can pair same or different fluency levels.
Past Participle
(en or ed) e.g.: She has beaten the system.
Past Tense
(ed) e.g.: He worked very hard.
Phonation Disorder
Any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold.
A phoneme is (something like) a sound. Phonemic awareness is literally awareness of phonemes: that is, awareness that a word can be broken down into individual sounds. The word "nose" may be spelled with four letters, but it has just three distinct sounds: /n/, /o/ (that is, "long O"), /z/. Phonemes are written between slashes. We know that each of those sounds is a phoneme, because if we substitute a different sound for any of them, we get a different word:
Phoneme addition
Activity in which students make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word. Ex: Teacher: what word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park?
Phoneme blending
Activity in which students listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word. Then they write and read the word. Ex: teacher: what word is /b/ /i/ /g/?
Phoneme categorization
Activity in which students recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the "odd" sound. Ex: teacher: Which word doesn't belong: bus, bun, rug. Student: Rug does not belong; it doesn't begin with /b/.
Phoneme deletion
Activity in which students recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word. Ex: Teacher: What is smile with the /s/?
Phoneme identity
Activity in which students recognize the same sounds in different words. Ex: teacher: what sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun? student: the first sound, /f/, is the same.
Phoneme isolation
Activity in which students recognize individual sounds in a word. Ex: teacher: what is the first sound in van? student: /v/
Phoneme manipulation
Working with phonemes in words; includes working with onsets and rimes, deleting phonemes from words, adding phonemes to words, substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word, blending phonemes to make words, and segmenting words into phonemes.
Phoneme segmentation
Activity in which students break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it. Then they write and read the word. Ex: Teacher: How many sounds are in grab?
Phoneme substitution
Activity in which students substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word. Ex: Teacher: The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. What's the new word?
Phonemic awareness
The ability to hear, identify,and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in oral language. It is a subcategory of phonological awareness. It improves children's word reading and reading comprehension and helps children learn to spell.
Phonemic Stress
The use of rhythmic patterns introduces children to the sounds and music of language.Can be taught with nursery rhymes.
Phonetic analysis
Knowing isolated sounds, knowing that speech sounds are tied to letters, the ability to blend/manipulate these sounds.
Phonetic Spelling
The third stage of developmental spelling children spell words like they sound. The speller perceives and represents all of the phonemes in a word, though spellings may be unconventional. Examples: EGL = eagle; ATE = eighty.
A method of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words by teaching them the phonetic value of letters, letter groups and syllables.
Phonics instruction
teaches the relationships between the letters and the sounds and to use those relationships to read and write words.
Spelling patterns consisting of letter sequences that frequently occur in a certain position in words
Phonological awareness
Ability to manipulate the sounds of spoken words; it is a broad tern that includes identifying and making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words, identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
Phonological Recoding:
Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell words
The study of the sound system of a language.
Pictographic Writing System
Words, ideas and concepts are represented with a visual or image. (Writing system).
possessive noun
noun that shows ownership or relationship...example: SARA's homework.
Describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication. The hidden rules of communications understood by native speakers.
describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication; describes the hidden rules of communications understood by native speakers of the same language
Pre-Alphabetic Phase
Not connecting letters and sounds. (Phase)
Precommunicative Spelling
The first stage of developmental spelling this is known as the"babbling"stageofspelling.Childrenuse letters for writing words but the letters are strung together randomly. The letters in precommunicative spelling do not correspond to sounds. Examples: OPSPS = eagle; RTAT = eighty.
Tells something about the subject.
Predicting and Questioning
A reading comprehension strategy where the teacher models for students how to make predictions and ask questions about a story prior to reading it. This can increase student engagement with the text and result in better comprehension.
Links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words. Precedes a noun. e.g.: above, across, into, etc.
prepositional phrase
a phrase consisting of a preposition, a noun or pronoun that serves as the object of the preposition, and any modifier...example: inside the box
Pre-Reading Activities
purpose: prior knowledge is activated, new prior knowledge is formed, and interest is stirred up
Present Participle
Verb form ending in 'ing'.
Print Conventions
include most of the same concepts as writing conventions, but are usually defined as being somewhat broader to also include such things as directionality, page numbers, table of contents, and titles.
Process Writing
Writing how real writers write. Read about the subject, take notes and play with the topic before they compose. Share drafts with peers. Revise. Keep all work compiled in a portfolio for review.
(ing) e.g.: She is walking.
Replaces a noun. e.g.: I, you, he, she
proper noun
a SPECIFIC person, place, thing, or idea...example: Tokyo, Mr. Richard, Les Miserables
Melody of speech.
5th stage of the writing process- making the text ready to share with an audience.
Reading Fluency
The ability to read accurately, quickly, with good prosody, and effective comprehension.
Reading vocabulary
Words we recognize or use in print
Reciprocal Teaching
A research-based method of teaching fluency that develops comprehension. 4 students take on 4 parts after reading a text: summarizing, questioning, clarifying and predicting.
relative clause
a dependent clause introduced by a relative pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whoever, whose, of which)
Repeated Reading
The best approach to developing fluency in reading. Independent level reading builds on success.
Reading a text multiple times. This is a strategy that can increase reading fluency.
Resonance Disorder
Abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract.
Resonance Disorder
a voice disorder in which abnormalities are created when sound passes through the vocal tract (hyper nasal sounds)
3rd stage of the writing process- refining/changing ideas or concepts in the text.
study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially in public speaking)
Part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it; rime of 'bag' is -ag; of swim, is -im
Running records
Formative reading assessments and miscue analysis to determine what areas of reading are causing difficulties in comprehension.
A teaching strategy to improve reading comprehension. The steps include Surveying, Questioning, Reading, Reciting, and Reviewing.
Children are guided to look for specific information in the text.
refers to background or providing a context for understanding something. This is sometimes presented in terms of a person's cultural experience or background.
The ability to break a word into separate phonemes.
Breaking words into individual phonemes, words into syllables, or syllables into onsets and rimes
Semantic Clues
Require a child to think about the meanings of words and what is already known about the topic being read.
Semantic Map
A type of graphic organizer that assists in understanding connections and relationships among various words that have similar concepts and meaning. Semantics is another word for vocabulary or word meaning.
Semantic Mapping
Can be used as a strategy to make direct connections between the vocabulary or words they are learning in the classroom and those they may have seen, heard or learned elsewhere.
Refers to the way that meaning is conveyed in a language through the use of its vocabulary.
Semiphonetic or Prephonemic Spelling
The second stage of developmental spelling children know that letters represent sounds.They perceive and represent reliable sounds with letters in a type of telegraphic writing. Spellings are often abbreviated representing initial and / or final sound. Examples: E = eagle; a = eighty.
Sentence Builders
Teacher provides a list of words by syntactic categories and guide students to make sentences. Then identify subject and predicate.
the order in which your main ideas or events are placed
Shared reading
Teacher reads aloud and students follow along and are asked to read certain words/phrases/sections of the story.
Short Plural
(s) e.g.: Cars, Pens, etc.
Sight Words
Words that are not spelled in phonetically regular ways. They build automaticity and must be memorized.
Silent Sustained Reading (SSR)
primary goal is boost reading comprehension
simple predicate
verb(s) that link with the subject
simple sentence
one independent clause and no dependent clauses
simple sentence
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought...example: Some students like to study in the mornings.
Simultaneous, Multisensory (VAKT)
Multisensory language instructionr equries that the organization of material follows the logical order of language. Must begin with easiest and most basic elements and process methodically to more difficult materials.
Six basic syllables in English are
closed, open, vowel-consonant-e, r-controlled, final stable syllable, and vowel pair (aka vowel team).
Story Map/Frame
A graphic presentation of major plot points and themes from a story. This learning tool improves reading comprehension and teaches students to be aware of story structure.
Story Retelling
a strategy used with young children to assess listening and reading comprehension. Can also assess sentence structure knowledge, vocab, speaking ability, and knowledge about the structure of stories.
Structural analysis
involves splitting words into their individual parts; prefix, suffix, and root word to determine meaning.
Structural Clues
Pay attention to letter groups because there are many groups of letters that frequently occur within words (morphemes). (Context clue)
Structural/Morphological awareness
Knowing parts of words and types of affixes (suffixes and prefixes) and being able to break words into parts.
one of the two main constituents of a sentence (noun)...example: THE LONG AND WINDING ROAD leads to your door.
subordinate clause
subordinate conjunction
joins a dependent and independent clause; begins a dependent clause...example: UNTIL Mr. Sanchez has his first cup of coffee, he is unapproachable.
summative assessment
the process of assessing after instruction and using the results for making grading decisions
superlative adjective
compares 1 person or think w/ every other member of group
Sustained Silent Reading
Reading involves a time during the school day when every child and adult in a classroom, stops what they are doing and reads books of their own choosing silently for a specified period of time. The perceived benefit of this is that the more a student reads the more fluent he or she will become at reading. When students read silently they will need to read books on their independent reading level.
Syllabic Writing System
Syllables are depicted through the use of unique symbols.
The breaking up of a word into one or more syllables.
Word or part of a word that is made with one opening of the mouth and contains 1 vowel sound; contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel event (e-vent; news-pa-per; very-y)
using one part of an object to represent the entire object (for example, referring to a car simply as "wheels")
Syntactic Clues
The word order in a sentence might also provide clues to the reader.
Set of principles that dictate the sequence and function of words in a sentence in order to convey meaning; includes grammar, sentence variation, and mechanics
Synthesizing Information
Combining new info with existing knowledge to form an original idea or interpretation.
Systematic phonics instruction
Direct teaching of a set of letter-sound relationships in a clearly defined sequence. The set includes the major sound/spelling relationships of both consonants and vowels.
Tape-assisted reading
students follow along with a tape or cd recording, first following with their finger as they listen and read silently, then reading along, and then reading the text independently without the tape
Texas Observation Protocol
Instrument administered in bilingual or ESL classrooms to assess language proficiency of ELLs. Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced and Advanced High.
Allows the teacher and students to problem solve together. The teacher poses a question and students respond. Can be used to increase reading comprehension.
to, too, two
to is a preposition; too is an adverb; two is a number. Too many of your shots slice to the left, but the last two were just right.
The author's mood and manner of expression.
top-down approach
begins with the whole and then proceeds to its individual parts. begins with whole stories, paragraphs, sentences, words, then proceeds to the smallest units of syllables, graphemes, and phonemes. (called Whole Language Approach)
Transitional Spelling
The fourth stage of developmental spelling children think about how words appear visually;avisualmemoryof spelling patterns is apparent. Spellings exhibit conventions of English orthography like vowels in every syllable, e-marker and vowel digraph patterns, correctly spelled inflectional endings, and frequent English letter sequences. Examples: EGIL = eagle; EIGHTEE = eighty.
transitive verb
a verb (or verb construction) that requires an object in order to be grammatical...example: Jennifer PAINTED a beautiful PICTURE (direct object) of the sunset.
Venn Diagram
A type of graphic organizer that consists of two overlapping circles. It's used to assist in comparing and contrasting things that have some elements in common.
verb tenses
simple present: they walk
verb tenses
present perfect: they have walked
verb tenses
simple past: they walked
verb tenses
past perfect: they had walked
verb tenses
future: they will walk
verb tenses
future perfect: they will have walked
verb tenses
present progressive: they are walking
Visual Coherence
The ways in which the design of the piece creates a sense of unity and wholeness.
Visual dyslexia
eyes that did not develop completely will send incomplete info from the eyes to the brain
Visual Impact
The ways in which the overall visual design appeals to the reader.
Visual Salience
Using design features to generate a certain effect.
the words we must know to communicate effectively
The uniqueness of the author and how ideas are projected.
Voice Disorder
Any type of distortion of the pitch, timbre or volume of spoken communication.
Vowel + r syllable (r-controlled)
A syllable with er, ir, or, ar, ur. Vowel pronuniation often changes before /r/. Examples: in-jur-ious, con-sort, chart-ter
Vowel digraph
two vowels, and occasionally three, that make one sound (rain, great, leaves)
Vowel diphthong
two vowels that produce two sounds that glide into one another (blouse, towel)
Vowel pair syllable (or vowel team)
Syllables with long or short vowel spellings tht use 2 to 4 letters to spell the vowel (dipthongs ou/ow and oi/oy are included); Examples: aw-ful, train-er, con-geal, spoil-age
word analysis
refers to the way that children approach a written word in order to decode and obtain meaning from it.
Word Family Patterns
groups of words that have a common feature or pattern, such as some combination of letters in them with similar sounds. For example bat, cat, hat and sat are a family of words with the "at" sound-letter combination.
Word parts
affixes, base words, and word roots
Word roots
Words from other languages that are the origin of many English words; about 60% of all English words have Latin or Greek origins
Word Sort
A Word Sort is a simple small group activity. Students list key words from a reading selection. (Alternatively, the teacher may provide a list of terms prior to the reading activity.) Students identify the meaning and properties of each word and then "sort" the list into collections of words with similar features.
Writer's Workshop
a teaching technique that makes the writing process a meaningful part of the classroom curriculum. Students are introduced to the process of writing in the early elementary grades and write daily through varied activities.
Writing Conventions
include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing. They improve the readability of a paper or book. Without these things a piece of writing would be difficult to read.