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The four classes of bone according to shape are

long, short, flat, and irregular.

Examples of long bones are

forearm and thigh bones.

Short bones are shaped like


Examples of short bones are

wrist bones (carpals)
ankle bones (tarsals)

Flat bones are ______structures


Two typical characteristics of flat bones

they are thin and usually curved

Examples of flat bones are

most skull bones,
breast bone = sternum,
shoulder blades = scapulae,

Irregular bones have a variety of


Irregular bones are not long, short, or flat

Examples of irregular bones are

vertebrae and some facial bones

Round bones are also called

sesamoid bones

Sesamoid bones are ______(describe)____ and __________ and embedded in

Sesamoid bones are small and nodular and embedded in tendons

An example of a sesamoid bone is the

the patella.

Parts of a Long Bone

An expanded end of a long bone is an



Epiphyseal Line- Growth plate

An epiphysis articulates with

An epiphysis articulates with another bone


Proximal Epiphysis


Distal Epiphysis

Articular cartilage is located

on an epiphysis.


Articular Cartilage


Articular Cartilage

The shaft of a long bone is called a

a diaphysis

Name two characteristics of the shaft (or diaphysis) of a long bone

consists of a central medullary cavity (filled with yellow marrow)

surrounded by a thick collar of compact bone.

Periosteum is

is a tough, vascular, fibrous membrane covering the diaphysis of a bone.


Periosteum- outer lining of bone

Periosteum functions to

form and repair bone tissue

Processes provide sites for

for attachments of tendons or ligaments

The wall of the diaphysis is composed of______bone

compact bone




Compact bone- makes up diaphysis

Compact bone has a continuous....

matrix with no gaps

The epiphyses are largely composed of__________bone

spongy bone

Spongy bone consists of bony plates called



Spongy bone- contains red bone marrow

A bone usually has these two types......

compact bone and spongy bone.

A canal called______runs through the diaphysis

medullary cavity

Endosteum provides lining for what structures?

the medullary cavity and spaces of spongy bone


Medullary Cavity- contains yellow bone marrow in adults

Endosteum contains what kind of cells?

bone-forming cells


Endosteum- lines medullary cavity

The tissue that fills the spaces of bone is called


The two forms of marrow are

red and yellow.

Name the parts of a long bone....

Diaphysis = shaft
Epiphyses (pl) = expanded ends.
Epiphyseal line = remnant of epiphyseal disk/plate
Periosteum = outer, fibrous, protective covering of diaphysis
Endosteum = inner lining of medullary cavity.
Articular cartilage = pad of hyaline cartilage on the epiphyses where long bones articulate or join.

Microscopic Structure:

Bone cells are called


What are Lacunae ?

Lacunae are tiny, chambers that contain osteocytes

Lacunae form___________ canals around
__________ canals.

concentric canals around central canals

Osteoctyes transport what?

Osteoctyes transport nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells.

Cellular processes of osteocytes pass through


The intercellular matrix of bone is composed of

collagen and inorganic salts.

Compact Bones:

What is an osteon?

a cylinder-shaped unit of compact bone

Compact Bones:

What forms the substance of compact bone?

many osteons cemented together.

Compact Bones:

Each central canal contains what two things?

blood vessels and nerves

Compact Bones:

What do perforating canals connect?


Compact Bones:

Perforating canals contain what 2 things?

larger blood vessels and nerves.

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