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53 terms

Anatomy Chapter 7 Skeletal Textbook Q&A Outline

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The four classes of bone according to shape are
long, short, flat, and irregular.
Examples of long bones are
forearm and thigh bones.
Short bones are shaped like
cubes.
Examples of short bones are
wrist bones (carpals)
ankle bones (tarsals)
Flat bones are ______structures
platelike
Two typical characteristics of flat bones
they are thin and usually curved
Examples of flat bones are
most skull bones,
breast bone = sternum,
shoulder blades = scapulae,
ribs.
Irregular bones have a variety of
shapes.

Irregular bones are not long, short, or flat
Examples of irregular bones are
vertebrae and some facial bones
Round bones are also called
sesamoid bones
Sesamoid bones are ______(describe)____ and __________ and embedded in
Sesamoid bones are small and nodular and embedded in tendons
An example of a sesamoid bone is the
the patella.
Parts of a Long Bone

An expanded end of a long bone is an
epiphysis.
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Epiphyseal Line- Growth plate
An epiphysis articulates with
An epiphysis articulates with another bone
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Proximal Epiphysis
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Distal Epiphysis
Articular cartilage is located
on an epiphysis.
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Articular Cartilage
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Articular Cartilage
The shaft of a long bone is called a
a diaphysis
Name two characteristics of the shaft (or diaphysis) of a long bone
consists of a central medullary cavity (filled with yellow marrow)

surrounded by a thick collar of compact bone.
Periosteum is
is a tough, vascular, fibrous membrane covering the diaphysis of a bone.
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Periosteum- outer lining of bone
Periosteum functions to
form and repair bone tissue
Processes provide sites for
for attachments of tendons or ligaments
The wall of the diaphysis is composed of______bone
compact bone
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Diaphysis
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Compact bone- makes up diaphysis
Compact bone has a continuous....
matrix with no gaps
The epiphyses are largely composed of__________bone
spongy bone
Spongy bone consists of bony plates called
trabeculae.
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Spongy bone- contains red bone marrow
A bone usually has these two types......
compact bone and spongy bone.
A canal called______runs through the diaphysis
medullary cavity
Endosteum provides lining for what structures?
the medullary cavity and spaces of spongy bone
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Medullary Cavity- contains yellow bone marrow in adults
Endosteum contains what kind of cells?
bone-forming cells
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Endosteum- lines medullary cavity
The tissue that fills the spaces of bone is called
marrow
The two forms of marrow are
red and yellow.
Name the parts of a long bone....
Diaphysis = shaft
Epiphyses (pl) = expanded ends.
Epiphyseal line = remnant of epiphyseal disk/plate
Periosteum = outer, fibrous, protective covering of diaphysis
Endosteum = inner lining of medullary cavity.
Articular cartilage = pad of hyaline cartilage on the epiphyses where long bones articulate or join.
Microscopic Structure:

Bone cells are called
osteocytes.
What are Lacunae ?
Lacunae are tiny, chambers that contain osteocytes
Lacunae form___________ canals around
__________ canals.
concentric canals around central canals
Osteoctyes transport what?
Osteoctyes transport nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells.
Cellular processes of osteocytes pass through
canaliculi.
The intercellular matrix of bone is composed of
collagen and inorganic salts.
Compact Bones:

What is an osteon?
a cylinder-shaped unit of compact bone
Compact Bones:


What forms the substance of compact bone?
many osteons cemented together.
Compact Bones:


Each central canal contains what two things?
blood vessels and nerves
Compact Bones:


What do perforating canals connect?
osteons.
Compact Bones:


Perforating canals contain what 2 things?
larger blood vessels and nerves.