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Starr Biology 14th Edition Ch. 4
Terms in this set (47)
Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which are the basic units of life; all cells come from division of preexisting cells; and all cells pass hereditary material to offspring.
Jellylike mixture of water and solutes enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
Of a eukaryotic cell, organelle with a double membrane that holds the cell's DNA.
Structure that carries out a specialized metabolic function inside a cell.
A cell's outermost membrane.
A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, and the surface area increases with the square.
Community of microorganisms living within a shared mass of secreted slime.
Rigid but permeable structure that surrounds the plasma membrane of some cells.
Long, slender cellular structure used for motility.
Of bacterium or archaeon, region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated.
A protein filament that projects from the surface of some prokaryotic cells.
Small circle of DNA in some bacteria and archaea.
Organelle of protein synthesis.
Collective term for all of the DNA and associated proteins in a cell nucleus.
A double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary of the nucleus. Nuclear pores in the membrane control the entry and exit of large molecules.
In a cell nucleus, a sense, irregularly shaped region where ribosomal subunits are being produced.
Viscous fluid enclosed by the nuclear envelope.
Large fluid-filled organelle in many plant cells.
Series of interacting organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles) between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids, proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Membrane-enclosed organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes extending from the nuclear envelope. Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates and fatty acids; r Ibo domes on the surface of rough ER make proteins.
Membrane-enclosed organelle that modifies proteins and lipids, then packages the finished products into vesicles.
Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down cellular wastes and debris.
Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances.
A membrane-enclosed organelle filled with fluid; isolates or disposes of waste, debris, or toxic materials.
Small, membrane-enclosed organelle; different kinds store, transport, or break down their contents.
Organelle of photosynthesis in the cells of plants and photosynthetic protists.
Double-membraned organelle that functions in photosynthesis, pigmentation, or storage in plants and algal cells; for example, a chloroplast, chromoplast, or amyloplast.
Organelle that develops from a centriole.
Reinforcing mesh of cytoskeletal elements under a plasma membrane.
Barrel-shaped organelle from which microtubules grow.
Short, movable structure that projects from the plasma membrane of some eukaryotic cells.
Dynamic framework of protein filaments that support, organize, and move eukaryotic cells and their internal structures.
Stable cytoskeletal element that structurally supports cells and tissues.
Reinforcing cytoskeletal element that functions in cell movement; a fiber of acting subunits.
Cytoskeletal element involved in cellular movement; hollow filament of tubulin subunits.
Type of energy-using protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cell's parts or the whole cell.
A temporary protrusion that helps some eukaryotic cells move and engulf prey.
Cell junction that fastens an animal cell to another cell, or to basement membrane. Connects to cytoskeletal elements inside the cell.
Structure that connects a cell to another cell or to extra cellular matrix.
Secreted covering at a body surface.
Complex mixture of cell secretions; it's composition and function vary by cell type.
Cell junction that forms a closable channel across the plasma membranes of adjoining animal cells.
Material that strengthens plant cell walls.
Cell junction that forms an open channel between the cytoplasm of adjacent plants cells.
The first cell wall of young plant cells.
Lignin-reinforced wall that forms inside the primary wall of a plant cell.
Cell junction that fastens together the plasma membrane of adjacent animal cells; collectively prevent fluids from leaking between the cells.
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