Between 1880 and 1920, over 20 million people entered the United States. These newcomers comprised an estimated fifteen percent of the total population. The arrival of these newcomers evoked a complex response from the "natives" already living there. Many Americans reacted with anxiety and hostility to the staggering numbers of new arrivals. Many newcomers stayed in the port cities where they had debarked. Still others, however, went on to other cities and regions, including southern New England. Some took jobs in factories.
legislation passed by Southern states at the end of the Civil War to control the labor, migration and other activities of newly-freed slaves.
populist (people's ) party
founded in 1892 advocated variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct election of U.S. senators
supported mainly by farmers in the South and West, the People's party was the successor of the Greenback-Labor party of the 1880s.
-A secret society in the 19th century consisting mainly of Irish-American coal miners believed to be from the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania.
- (They took their name from an Irish patriot who resisted against the British with violence.)
-The group formed both because of dangerous working conditions and the brutal tactics used by the coal mine owners to prevent union activity.
-The group justified their tacticts of intimidation, beatings, and killings because of they way they were treated.
-Their terrorism reached its peak in 1874-1875.
-Trials were held in 1876 and twenty-four of the group convicted and ten were hung.
-The trials resulted in a wage reduction in the mines.
American Federation of Labor
-Leaders of crafts unions joined together to form a Labor union comprised of skilled workers. (They did not want to join labor unions of unskilled workers for fear loss of their craft's identity and skilled workers bargaining power.
-their focus was on concrete economic gains, higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.
-they avoided involvement with utopian ideas or politics.
-the leader Gomper promoted "closed shops" only union workers could be hired or "union-preference shops" where non-union employees could only be hired if union workers were not available
-vigorously opposed unrestricted immigration from Europe for moral, cultural, and racial reasons.
-was instrumental in passing immigration restriction bills from the 1890s to the 1920s, such as the 1921 Emergency Quota Act and the Immigration Act of 1924, and seeing that they were strictly enforced
-By 1920 reached peak of 4million members
-informal agreement with the United States government, in which the AFL would coordinate with the government both to support the war effort and to join "into an alliance to crush radical labor groups" such as the Industrial Workers of the World and Socialist Party of America.
- Together with its offspring, the AFL has comprised the longest lasting and most influential labor federation in the United States.
- former slaves became tenant farmers who gained access to separate plots of land owned by whites. In payment for the use of the land and cabin,and sometimes event he tools,seed, and fertilizer needed to farm the land,they were required to give between one half and two thirds of the harvested crops to the white land owner.
-gave former slaves a higher status then that of wage laborers, and freedom to set their own work hours.
-gave mothers and wives time to devote to domestic responsibility while contributing to the family's income.
Booker T. Washington
-Founder of Tuskegee Institute ( a leading college for africian americans)
-slave mother, and white father
-By 1890 the nation's formost black educator
-argued that blacks should not antagonize whites by demanding social or political eqauality, instead they should concentrate on establishing and economic base for their advancement.(he felt that eventually this would lead to social and political equality.)
-also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
-adopted by Congress in 1887
-authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
-objective of the Act was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
-1890 Law signed in by president Harrison during a time when Republicians had control of both houses and the presidentcy
-contracts, combinations, or conspiracies in restraint of trade or in the effort to establish monopolies in interstate or foreigh commerce was forbidden.
-Successive administrations rarely enforced this law mostly because of the vaugeness of " restraint of trade" part and what constituted it.
-in the beginning it was initially misused against labor unions.
-later it was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting.
settlement house movement
-by 1900 100 settlement houses existed in America.
-A way to deal with the slums in Urban areas.
-Staffed mostly by idealistic middle-class young people, mostly college trainded women who had few outlets for meaningful work.
-The goal was to broaden the horizons and improve the lives of the people who lived in the slums thorough kindergartens and clubs for neighboorhood children and nurserys for infants of working mothers. they also provided working men with an alternative to the saloon as a place of recreation it was also a source of social services, it expanded to include health clinics, lestures, music and art studios, employment bureaus, mens clubs, gymnasiums, and savings banks.
-Became realistic that the slums were growing faster than the houses could keep up with.
William Jennings Bryan
-The democratic nominee for the 1896 election against McKinley
-a defender of America's rural past.
-was considered one of the most brilliant orators of his era, running three times for president as nominee of the Democratic Party.
- part of platform was "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party
-Sec. of State under Wilson (resigned in protest of WWI)
Battle of Little Bighorn
-Indians moved from their other hunting grounds because of white men moving in finally ended up in dakota wyoming and montana, the Black Hills were very important to them as well. White people start moving straight thrugh the hunting grounds of the indians on their way to the west coast and the gold mines, this disturbed the indians hunting grounds again and their way of life. Red cloud makes a treaty with the U.S. securing land for the indians that the military and the white men will not come into as long as they stay out of the plains area. crazy horse and sitting bull and their followers do not follow the treaty and continue attacking people on the trails, this causes the battle.
-A protest of U.S. Government policies by Sitting Bull and other Indian leaders that were not on the reservation.
-It was the beginning of the end of the Indian Wars.
-After this battle The U.S. forced all indians who did not reside on reservations onto reservations.
Turner (Frontier) Thesis
1893, in a paper called "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier concept was what shaped the US more than anything else because it allowed for the growth of individualism and democracy. It made Americans in to self reliant, individualistic People.
pragmatism (William James)
a philosophical principle, first expressed by William James, that expressed the evolutionary idea that truth arose from the testing of new ideas, the value of which lay in their practical consequences. Ideas gain validity from their social consequences and practical applications. It reflected the American quality- the inventive, experimental spirit that judged ideas on their results and their ability to adapt to changing social needs and environments
Tenure of Office Act
a federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. The law was enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. It purported to deny the president the power to remove any executive officer who had been appointed by a past president, without the advice and consent of the Senate, unless the Senate approved the removal during the next full session of Congress.
William Randolph Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951). A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
- a series of laws passed in Southern states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain, railroad freight rates and to address long- and short-haul discrimination. They were passed through political agitation both by merchants' associations and by so-called Granger parties, which were third parties formed most often by members of the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers commonly called the Grange. The Granger Laws were an issue in two important court cases in the late 19th century, Munn v. Illinois and Wabash v. Illinois.
Theory:"Learning through Experience" Dewey is considered the "father" of progressive education practice that promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences, such as project-based learning, cooperative learning, and arts integration activities. He theorized that school is primarily a social institution and a process of living, not an institution to prepare for future living. He believed that schools should teach children to be problem-solvers by helping them learn to think as opposed to helping them learn only the content of a lesson. He also believed that students should be active decision-makers in their education. Dewey advanced the notion that teachers have rights and must have more academic autonomy. He wanted education reforms.
- An American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist from Germany.
-He is the "Father of the American Cartoon".
-He was the scourge of Boss Tweed and the Tammany Hall political machine.
-He is most known for the creation of the modern version of Santa Claus, and the political symbol of the elephant for the Republican Party.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
-enacted on July 14, 1890
- it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month.
-the farmers and miners that were having trouble paying their debts.
-It was for the purpose of increasing inflation and boosting the economy. (making the money have a higher value. to help people pay off their debts.)
-the plan backfired as people (investors) bought money with silver and sold it for gold depleting the governments gold reserves.
-it was repealed in 1893.
Pendleton (Civil Service) Act
-Jan. 16, 1883
-made permanent federal employment based on merit rather than on political party affiliation (the spoils system).
-After widespread demand for reform because of incompetence, , corruption, and theft in federal departments and agencies. And because of the assination on Garfield by a dissapointed office seeker.
-However, there was a ratchet provision whereby outgoing presidents could lock in their own appointees by converting their jobs to civil service. After a series of party reversals at the presidential level (1884, 1888, 1892, 1896), the result was that most federal jobs were under civil service.
-One result was more expertise and less politics.
-founded by William Booth around 1865
-Eliza Shirley brought with her to America, the first meeting was in Philadelphia in 1879
-They were met with hostility at first.
-Grover Cleveland invited the organization to the White House and gave them an endorsement in 1886. This was the first group to ever have a reception at the White House.
-started churches where people who were not received by gentle society would be welcome.
Munn v Illinois
-a supreme court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture.
-allowed states to regulate certain businesses such as railroads within their borders.
- the case stated that business interests (private property) used for public good could be regulated by government.
-the Supreme Court decided that the Fourteenth Amendment (because Munn asserted his due process right to property was being violated) did not prevent the State of Illinois from regulating charges for use of a business' grain elevators. Instead, the decision focused on the question of whether or not a private company could be regulated in the public interest. The court's decision was that it could, if the private company could be seen as a utility operating in the public interest.
Inerstate Commerce Act
-a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
-the first federal law to regulate private industry in the United States.
-It was later amended to regulate other modes of transportation and commerce.
-The herding of cattle north from Texas to railhead towns in Kansas and Nebraska for shipment east or to ranches on the northern plains between 1866 and 1888.
- These were eliminated by the building of fences and expansion of railroads.
- Some would have thousands of cattle, making it a spectacular site, which made it one of the most romanticized events of the 19th century.
-most of the cowboys were exconfederate veterans, the next largest group was blacks.
-Famous ones of this are along the Chisholm Trail and the Good-Night loving trail
- destinations included: dodge city and Abilene.
John Peter Altgeld
-He was the 20th governor of Illinois from 1893 until 1897
-the first democratic governor since 1850.
-A leading figure of the Progressive movement
-He improved workplace safety and child labor laws
-pardoned three of the men convicted in the Haymarket Affair
- rejected calls in 1894 to break up the Pullman strike with force.
- In 1896 he was a leader of the progressive wing of the Democratic Party, against President Grover Cleveland and the conservative Bourbon Democrats.
-He was defeated in 1896 in an intensely fought, bitter campaign
-was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
-At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and were accused by critics of controlling the nation's high finance.
-He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907.
-He was the leading financier of the Progressive Era, and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business.
-Morgan redefined conservatism in terms of financial prowess coupled with strong commitments to religion and high culture.
-tribal chief of the Nez Pearce tribe. he fought to preserve his homeland and did much to awaken the conscience of America to the plight of Native Americans.
- persuaded followers to flee from expected retribution after several young Indians killed four white settlers. Joseph moved with 200 warriors and 340 women, children, and elderly people in an attempt to reach the Canadian border. They were pursued by 4 columns of American soldiers, and covered 1,321 miles in 75 days before being caught.
Henry George (Progress and Poverty)
- he joined Bellamy in criticizing the emerging industrial order.
- He objected to the materialism and growing disparity between rich and poor, which he believed resulted from inflated land prices. So he proposed the "single tax" of 100% on the profits of selling land.
-His book Progress and Poverty, published in 1879, became one of the best selling nonfiction works in American publishing history.led to the emergence of Land and Labor Clubs to promote the single tax idea. He however, did not condemn capitalism but rather embraced it saying the irrational competition, not capitalism itself, was to blame for social problems.
These were immigrants that came during the first phase of immigration (1840s) who were usually Irish and German. These people were second generation, which meant that they have assimilated into America, gotten into politics, and opened their own shops. Their position in government and hypocritical nature made them hostile to new immigrants, passing laws against them.
13th, 14th, 15th amendments
-13th-Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.(December 6, 1865)
-14th-Defines citizenship and deals with post-Civil-War issues.(July 9, 1868)
-15th-Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude(February 3, 1870)
bread and butter unionism
1880s wanted basic rights; solely focused on wages, hours, and working conditions
Spanish- American War
-War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
National Labor Union
-composed of delegates from labor and reform groups
-interested in political and social change rather than negotiations with employers
-8 hour work day
-equal rights for women and africian americans
-lost momentium after death of its president
-collapsed in 1872
Helen Hunt Jackson
-was a United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
-She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor (1881).The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans.
- Her novel Ramona dramatized the federal government's mistreatment of Native Americans in Southern California and attracted considerable attention to her cause, although its popularity was based on its romantic and picturesque qualities rather than its political content. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians. It was estimated to have been reprinted 300 times, and contributed to the growth of tourism in Southern California
-a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada.
-applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as excessive wealth, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
-Important leaders include Richard T. Ely, Josiah Strong, Washington Gladden, and Walter Rauschenbusch.
-Many of the Social Gospel's ideas reappeared in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. principles continue to inspire newer movements such as Christians Against Poverty.
-belligerent nationalism: extreme patriotism expressing itself especially in hostility toward other countries
Alfred Thayer Mahan
- American Naval officer and historian. Educated at the US Naval Academy. Mahan served over 40 years in the Navy.
-He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy.
- Mahan stressed the importance of sea power in the world. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations.
A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
-a U.S. government-sponsored agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom.that provided food, established schools, and tried to redistribute land to former slaves as part of Radical Reconstruction; it was most effective in education, where it created over 4,000 schools in the South.
lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians were led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer's forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.
- A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
-Caused by a Clash between strikers and policemen on anthracite coal fields May 3, 1886 at Chicago's International Harvester Plant in which one striker was killed
-The next night an open meeting arranged by leaders of a small anarchist movement in Chicago in Haymarket Square to protest the killing.
-Police showed up at the end of the meeting to break up the group and someone threw a bomb at the police killing one.
a fight started in which more people and police were killed.
-This resulted in a trial of seven in which four ended up hanging . Despite not having evidence linking them to the bomb thrower that was never identified.
-participants all german except one who was a member of the knights of labor.
name given to Southerners, often Unionists, accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence
Compromise of 1877
-Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
-The first speech given by a colored man to a mixed audience in the south, Booker T. Washington said that with hard work and hard earned respect, colored men could be successful along with white men. Washington's successful speech was his gateway to many more inspirational speeches across the country.
"waving the bloody shirt"
- This was a campaign tactic used by post-Civil War Republicans to remind northern voters that the Confederates were Democrats. The device was used to divert attention away from the competence of candidates and from serious issues. It was also used to appeal to black voters in the South.
-Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for about $7 million -- about 2 cents per acre . At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase. They later realized Alaska was really useful for resources like fish, furs, and lumber.
Edward Bellamy (Looking Backward)
- a book published in 1888 that envisioned a utopian socialist society. In his utopia the government owned the means of production and distributed wealth equally among all citizens. Since government provided for all citizens, competition was irrelevant. His book inspired the creation of "Bellamy Clubs" who met to discuss the social implications of utopian socialism, it never translated its condemnation of capitalist society into a successful reform movement, however.
-political machine boss who basically controlled New York with his Tammany Hall organization (Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party headquarters); provided many services for the poor and immigrants, but stole a lot of money from taxpayers and the city;Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million. discovered in Spain b/c of a Thomas Nast political cartoon and was convicted and died in prison (in 1870s)
sought to bring learning, culture and, later, entertainment to the small towns and villages of America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
"forty acres and a mule"
this slogan was created in 1864 and 1865 when the federal government settled nearly 10000 black families on abandoned plantation land often times receiving a single mule for their property. It was an attempt to give the black families a new start
This term was given to supporters of Jacob Coxey. Coxey vividly dramatized the plight of the unemployed in the United States by leading a march on Washington to demand relief during the depression of the mid-1890s. His march may well have contributed to the groundswell of support for the Populist Party that enabled it to elect six senators and seven congressmen in 1894.
chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese laborers to immigrate to US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.d(only let chinese students and merchants immigrate.)
He rose from poverty to become one of the richest men in the world by gaining virtual control of the U.S. steel industry. He had begun the process of vertical integration, by which he came to control raw materials, transportation, and distribution within the steel industry, managing every stage of the production process from beginning to end. U.S. steel production increased until the nation surpassed Great Britain as the foremost steel producer in the world. He was also notable as a philanthropist, who gave millions of dollars to advance education, establish public libraries, and promote world peace.
Credit Moblier Scandal
major scandal of the gilded age. A dummy construction company formed in the 1860s by corrupt Union Pacific Railroad officials who hired themselves as contractors at inflated rates to gain huge profits. The railroad executives also bribed dozens of congressmen and members of Ulysses S. Grant's cabinet, including Vice President Schuyler Colfax. Eventually exposed in 1872, the affair forced many politicians to resign and became the worst scandal that occurred during Grant's presidency.
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba
Last notable armed conflict btw. US troops and Native Americans 1890 -Occurred after a Sioux holy man named Wewoka developed a religious ritual caused the Ghost Dance -believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return Native Americans to their land - alarmed white settlers and caused great concern so govt sent in US army -army believed that the Sioux leader Sitting Bull was using the Ghost Dance to start an uprising -when soldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull, a gunfight resulted in the deaths of 14 people, including Sitting Bull -soldiers then pursued the Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek -when a shot rang out, the soldiers started firing -before it was over more than 150 Native American men, women, and children, most of whom were unarmed, were dead
efforts made in the United States between 1865 and 1877 to restructure the political, legal, and economic systems in the states that had seceded from the Union. The U.S. Civil War (1861-65) ended Slavery, but it left unanswered how the 11 Southern states would conduct their internal affairs after readmission to the Union. Though some legal protections for newly freed slaves were incorporated into the Constitution by the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, by 1877, conservative Southern whites had reclaimed power and had begun to disenfranchise blacks.
Plessy v Ferguson
- landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States
- upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal."
-vote of 8 to 1 with the majority
- "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its repudiation in the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education
-a Hungarian-American newspaper publisher
-Did work for the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World.
- introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s.
- He became a leading national figure in the Democratic Party and was elected Congressman from New York.
-He crusaded against big business and corruption.
-In the 1890s the fierce competition between his World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal caused both to use yellow journalism for wider appeal; it opened the way to mass circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue and appealed to readers with multiple forms of news, entertainment and advertising.
Knights of Labor
-started in 1869
-grew rapidly after the depression as other unions collapased
-they emphesised reform measures and preferred boycotts to strikes as a way to pressure employers.
-was opened to all workers except for high paid professionals ex. dr. lawyers and bankers, and people who sold liquor.
-reached its peak in 1886 with 700,000 members
-went into rapid decline after a failed railroad strike
-several other problems accounted for their decline, such as emphasis onpolitics within its membership rather than negotiations
-lasting achievements were: the creation of the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Foran Act of 1885
-Responsible for spreading the idea of Unionism
-Initiated a new type of union organization, the industrial union and the industrywide union of skilled and unskilled workers.
crop lien system
Post civil war farmers did not have money to invest in their farms and newly freed slaves did not have money either, so they borrowed seeds food and supplies all year from merchants. after harvesting they would give some of their crops to the merchants to pay back what they owed. These merchants insisted that the farmers plant cash crops like cotton which caused the farming in the south to not be diversified and when the cash crops like cotton did not do well or when the prices were low for cotton the farmers were not able to pay their whole loans back to the merchants and eventually many lost their land because of the lien on them.
A Century of Dishonor
written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 as an attempt to expose and change the United States policies in regard to Native Americans. She gave a copy to every member of congress for free, It was written as an attempt to change the governments policies toward native americans. Most people critized it and dismissed it as sentimental, but congress did take some action to help the situation but not to the extent and without the impact that Helen wanted which caused her to write another book called "Ramona"
Gospel of Wealth
an article written in 1889 by Andrew Carnegie and published in the North American Review.
Purpose was to make the new self made rich aware of their responsibility to society and warning of dropping their money here and there with different organizations and people who were not properly educated to put the money to good use. (In other words use your money to help others to become more educated in order to help themselves not just give them money to be dependent on others.) Attemts at socialist economies have proved to be failures.
"This is not wealth but only competence, which it should be the aim of all to acquire."
- a term first coined during the famous newspaper wars between William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer II.
-Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
-Hersts' paper was the first newspaper to station a team of reporters in Cuba to monitor the events happening there. Hearst published articles of brutality, cruelty and inadequate care to sway public opinion regarding America's involvement in the war
-using the theory of survival of the fittest to justify social politics that treats every citizen the same wether some are able to support themselves and some are not.
-when all the companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner.
-Nineteenth-century steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie
cult of domesticity
-The 4 specific charateristics which women were expected to follow in societyof the upper and middle classes. ( domesticity, submission, purity, piety)
-This idea was promoted through ladies magazines and sermons and religious texts at the time.
-This lead to the woman being the leader in the home but had the negative effect of women who were married being unable to support themselves or their children when their husbands either abandoned them or died.
-The Boxer Rebellion began in November 1899, in the Shandong Province and ended on September 7, 1901
-the Boxer Rebellion was an uprising in China against foreign influence in religion, politics, and trade. In the fighting, the Boxers killed thousands of Chinese Christians and attempted to storm the foreign embassies in Beijing. Following a 55-day siege, the embassies were relieved by 20,000 Japanese, American, and European troops. In the wake of the rebellion, several punitive expeditions were launched and the Chinese government was forced to sign the "Boxer Protocol" which called for the rebellion's leaders to be executed and the payment of financial reparations to the injured nations.
-The cause of the Boxer Rebellion were pretty much two things: primarily the intrusion of westerners and their Christian missionaries and the weakness of the Qing dynasty. Chinese people were fed up and sick of the way westerners were acting in their village. in their outrage they killed the westerners and rallied up a numerous amount of other followers who had anti-foreign sentiment. They called themselves The Righteous Fists of Harmony or Boxers as westerners called them. The Boxers decided to march to the Forbidden City and do something about the weak government. Along the way, they continued to gather more and more Chinese people with anti-foreign attitude. When they got to Peking (Beijing) the Boxers held it hostage for 55 days. They were no match for the modern armies of the other countries, and were quickly defeated.
- American labour leader and first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
-emigrated in 1863 from England to New York City
-he promoted strikes and boycotts as a way for unions to protest.
-noted for having shifted the primary goal of American unionism away from social issues and toward the "bread and butter" issues of wages, benefits, hours, and working conditions, all of which could be negotiated through collective bargaining.
-his union became the model of unionism in the United States
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on April 9, 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
-was established on March 21, 1877 by a group of members of the Grange movement from New York state.-an organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished in the 1870s and 1880s.
-one goal of the organization was to end the adverse effects of the crop-lien system on farmers in the period following the American Civil War.
-The Farmers' Alliance moved into politics in the early 1890s under the banner of the People's Party, commonly known as the "Populists."
- These organizations were formed as a result of farmer's need to overcome their social isolation and gain economic services. Farmers' Alliance of the Northwest, which was confined mainly to the mid-western states, and the more dynamic National (or Southern) Farmers' Alliance which spread from Texas onto the Great Plains and eastern into the South.
Jim Crow- Laws
state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans. The separation in practice led to conditions for African Americans that tended to be inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.
-These Laws followed the 1800-1866 Black Codes, which had previously restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans with no pretense of equality.
-the laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
terms used by white Southerners to describe a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era which followed the American Civil War. Redeemers were the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, the conservative, pro-business faction in the Democratic Party, who sought to oust the Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers, and scalawags.
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system. it led to greater disruption in the economy. The price of gold was more stable than that of silver, largely due to silver discoveries in Nevada and other places in the West, and the price of silver to gold declined from 16-to-1 in 1873 to nearly 30-to-1 by 1893.referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
-served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory.
- remained as the Secretary of War under the new President Andrew Johnson during the first years of Reconstruction. He opposed the lenient policies of Johnson towards the former Confederate States. Johnson's attempt to dismiss Stanton ultimately led to President Johnson being impeached by the House of Representatives.
-He returned to law after retiring as Secretary of War, and in 1869 was nominated as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Johnson's successor, Ulysses S. Grant; however, he died four days after his nomination was confirmed by the Senate.
Originally a social organization between farmers established in 1867 also known as the Patrons of Husbandry, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads, this organization helped farmers form cooperatives and pressured state legislators to regulate businesses on which farmers depended
Young Men's Christian Association
its most influential period since its conception could be between the 1870s and 1930s. It is during this time that they most successfully promoted "evangelical Christianity in weekday and Sunday services, while promoting good sportsmanship in athletic contests in gyms (where basketball and volleyball were invented) and swimming pools." Later in this period, and continuing on through the 20th century, the organization has "become interdenominational and more concerned with promoting morality and good citizenship than a distinctive interpretation of Christianity. Today it is more focused on inspiring youths and their families to exercise and be healthy
- rangeland where cattle roam freely regardless of land ownership.
-overgrazing stressed the open range, leading to insufficient winter forage for the cattle and starvation, particularly during the harsh winter of 1886-1887, when hundreds of thousands of cattle died across the Northwest, leading to collapse of the cattle industry
-The invention of barbed wire in the 1880s had positive and negative attects on the open range it allowed cattle to be confined to designated areas to prevent overgrazing of the range. In Texas and surrounding areas, increased population required ranchers to fence off their individual lands.it was cheaper than hiring cowboys for handling cattle, and indiscriminate fencing of federal lands often occurred in 1880s, often without any regards to land ownership or other public needs, such as mail delivery and movement of other kinds of livestock. Various state statutes, as well as vigilantes (see "Fence Cutting War"), tried to enforce or combat fence-building with varying success. In 1885, federal legislation outlawed the enclosure of public land. By 1890, illegal fencing had been mostly removed
because of the panic of 1893 and the depression there was a decrease in business for the Pullman Palacde car company. This resulted in a nationwide conflict in the summer of 1894 between the new American Railway Union (ARU) and railroads. It shut down much of the nation's freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan. The conflict began in the town of Pullman, Illinois, on May 11 when nearly 4,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages because they also lived in the planned community that their boss owned and he did not reduce the rent he charged when he reduced the wages.
-famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his senior partner Calvert Vaux, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City he was also involved in the planning of many other parks across the united states and canada.
-he took leave as director of Central Park to work as Executive Secretary of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, a precursor to the Red Cross in Washington, D.C.
-He tended to the wounded during the American Civil War. In 1862 during Union General George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign,
-he headed the medical effort for the sick and wounded at White House in New Kent County, where there was a ship landing on the Pamunkey River.
-he not only created numerous city parks around the country, he also conceived of entire systems of parks and interconnecting parkways to connect certain cities to green spaces. Two of the best examples of the scale on which Olmsted worked are the park system designed for Buffalo, New York, one of the largest projects; and the system he designed for Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
"Crime of '73"
When Congress stopped the coinage of the silver dollar against the will of the farmers and westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver. With no silver coming into the federal government, no silver money could be produced. The whole event happened in 1873. Westerners from silver-mining states joined with debtors in demanding a return to the " Dollar of Our Daddies." This demand was essentially a call for inflation, which was solved by contraction(reduction of the greenbacks) and the Treasury's accumulation of gold. A compromise over the coinage of silver came with the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. The law instructed the Treasury to coin between 2 million and 4 million dollars in silver each month
-(1832-1899) American writer of inspirational adventure books featuring impoverished boys who through hard work and virtue achieve great wealth and respect. Supported the belief that in American one could rise from rags to riches.
-replacing the earlier Teller Amendment
- It stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations.
-Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
The long-term lease of Guantánamo Bay continues. The Cuban government under Castro has strongly denounced the treaty as a violation of article 52 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which declares a treaty void if procured by the threat or use of force. However, Article 4 of the Vienna Convention states that its provisions shall not be applied retroactively.