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Terms in this set (35)
unednding circulation of Earth's water supply
water is the single most important agent in sculpting earth's land surface
process of absorption by the ground of rainwater
the surplus of water that cannot be observed running into lakes, streams etc
the combined effect of water that evaporates or is pulled in by the roots of plants
the land area that contributes water to a river system
Ex. the Mississippi River has the largest in North America
Land area that contributes water to a river system
Land areas that drain into a specific trunk stream.
Also known as catchments or watersheds.
Divides are uplands that separate drainage basins.
the slope of a stream channel expressed as the vertical drop if a stream over a specified distance
volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit time
1. Dissolved load-the solution
2. suspended load-largest portion of the load, suspended sediment, affected by the flow velocity and settling velocity of the sediment
3.Bed Load-sliding or rolling along the bottom
a. Saltation-skipping of rocks along the stream bed
the max load of particles that can be transported
related to dischard
ability to transport particles on size rather then quantity
general term for any stream deposited sediment
bed and banks are composed mainly of uncolidated sediment
streams that transport much of their load in suspension (the winding of these streams typically forms cut banks and point bars on the turns) (incised meandering are meandering channels that cut into and have steep narrow valleys)
complex network of converging and diverging channels, wide and shallow, form because load consists of coarse materials
lower limit to how deep a stream can erode
sea level is the ultimate base level/local base level=lakes and streams
fast moving water
valley widening- flood plain over flwos with water
a main channel dividing into several small ones
1. Delta- when sediments charged streams enter relatively still waters
2.Natural Leeves-when rivers occupy valleys with broad floodplains parallel channels form (results in backswamps and yazoo tributaries)
3.Alluvial Fans- develop where high gradient stream leaves a narrow valley and comes out onto a flat plain
1. dendritic-irregular branching, most common
2.radial- diverge from a single area. ex-watering flowing away from a mountain in all direction
3.Rectangular-right angle bends can be seen
4.trellis- rectangular pattern but tributary systems form nearly parallel to one another
amount of pore spaces, think sponge
Permeability- ability to transmit
where the water table intersects the ground surface and a natural flow of ground water
intermittent hot springs in which columns of water are ejected with great force
any situation in which ground water rises well above the level where it was initially encountered (aquitards must be present above and below the aquifer to prevent water from escaping)
caves developed through groundwater erosion of limestone
a. stalacites- form from dripstone ceiling of cavern
stalagmite s-develop on the floor of a cavern to form a column
Karst Topography-formed by dissolving power of groundwater, sinkhole (sinks) are irregular
Bed Rock Channels
steams are actively cutting into solid rock
sediment production-where most of the water and sediment is derived
fast, chaotic flow
1. channel slope of gradient
2. channel size and cross sectional shape
3. channel roughness
4.amount of water flowing in the channel
bed and banks are composed of mainly unconsolidated sediment, the channel is called an alluvial channel.
zone of saturation-upper limit
ground water-water within it
water table- upper limit of ground water
unsaturated zone-area above the water table where the soil, sediment, and rocks are not saturated
Water flows all year.
At or below the water table.
Humid or temperate.
Discharge varies seasonally
Do not flow all year.
Above the water table.
Flow mostly during flash floods or spring runoff
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