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Goal Accomplishment

many goals require cooperative efforts of many people

Personal Identity

helps us know more about ourselves, comments from well-known respected peers impacts our self-esteem


presence of others provides friendship, social stimulation, and personal acceptance

Emotional Support

handle pressures of daily living (comforted by physical presence of another person facing the same stress)

Stages of Group Development

Orientation, confrontation, differentiation, collaborating, adjourning


"forming", purpose of group and roles of each member; caution, confusion, courtes, and commonality


"storming"; expectations, roles, and goals are challenged


"norming"; individual differences are recognized and task assignments are based on skills and abilities


"performing"; feeling of cohesiveness and commitment to the group


"adjourning"; consciously deciding to disband

Virtual Teams

rely on technology to interact and accomplish tasks


communicate simultaneously in real time through teleconferencing and electronic meetings


respond according to own schedule through e-mail and websites

Group Structure

stable pattern of relationships that maintain the group and help it achieve goal, roles, and norms

Additive Task

pooled interdependence; sum of individual contributions; larger groups produce more, but average productivity declines due to social loafing

Conjunctive Task

interdependent subtasks assigned to various group members; maximum performance is limited by capacities of least capable member

Disjunctive Task

decision-making task; require at least one individual w/ sufficient insight to solve the problem; greater likelihood in a larger group

Social Density

physical separation of group members

Need for coordination

greater for conjunctive tasks than additive or disjunctive

Work Roles

task-oriented; clarifying purpose, developing strategy

Maintenance Roles

social-emotional; involvement and personal commitment, encouraging participation

Blocking Roles

disrupt or destroy; domination discussions, disagreeing unreasonably, or distracting members

Role Episode

interaction through which role expectations are communicated b/w role senders and person receiving the role (focal person)

Role Ambiguity

discrepancy b/w sent role and received role; often comes from confusion when delegating responsibility

Role Conflict

Inconsistency b/w received role and role behavior


1 sender communicates incompatible role expectations to focal person


2+ senders communicate incompatible expectations to focal person

Person-Role Conflict

asked to behave in ways inconsistent w/ personal values

Role Overload

"inter-role conflict"; conflicting demands of too many roles of time, interest, and loyalty

Group Norms

commonly held beliefs of group members about appropriate conduct that imply a duty or obligation and identify standards of behavior

Injunctive Norms

result from influence attempts of group members and are enforced through peer pressure

Descriptive Norms

emerge from watching how others behave and adopting the same patterns (justifying behavior)


when people make an effort to help you, you should feel an obligation to help at a later time

Social Conduct

designed to create pleasant social atmosphere


yielding to group influence by doing something you may otherwise choose not to do (succumbing to social influence)

Pressures to Conform

Reward dependence and Information dependence

Reward dependence

promotions, performance evaluations, recognition

Information dependence

rely on others to help us know how to behave (especially in new situations)

Levels of conformity

compliance, identification, internalization


obtain reward or avoid punishment


desire to be accepted by those who are important by adopting their attributes


part of person's basic character; perceived morally right

Social Facilitation

presence of others creates a higher level of arousal and motivation b/c we expect others to evaluate our performance

Social Inhibition

social facilitation can inhibit performance of new (not well-learned) tasks

Social Loafing

exert less effort due to a decline in motivation; presence of others reduces identifiability that relates performance to rewards


individuals become lost in the crowd and perform acts they wouldn't perform if alone and identifiable

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