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helps us know more about ourselves, comments from well-known respected peers impacts our self-esteem
handle pressures of daily living (comforted by physical presence of another person facing the same stress)
"forming", purpose of group and roles of each member; caution, confusion, courtes, and commonality
"norming"; individual differences are recognized and task assignments are based on skills and abilities
communicate simultaneously in real time through teleconferencing and electronic meetings
stable pattern of relationships that maintain the group and help it achieve goal, roles, and norms
pooled interdependence; sum of individual contributions; larger groups produce more, but average productivity declines due to social loafing
interdependent subtasks assigned to various group members; maximum performance is limited by capacities of least capable member
decision-making task; require at least one individual w/ sufficient insight to solve the problem; greater likelihood in a larger group
disrupt or destroy; domination discussions, disagreeing unreasonably, or distracting members
interaction through which role expectations are communicated b/w role senders and person receiving the role (focal person)
discrepancy b/w sent role and received role; often comes from confusion when delegating responsibility
"inter-role conflict"; conflicting demands of too many roles of time, interest, and loyalty
commonly held beliefs of group members about appropriate conduct that imply a duty or obligation and identify standards of behavior
result from influence attempts of group members and are enforced through peer pressure
emerge from watching how others behave and adopting the same patterns (justifying behavior)
when people make an effort to help you, you should feel an obligation to help at a later time
yielding to group influence by doing something you may otherwise choose not to do (succumbing to social influence)
presence of others creates a higher level of arousal and motivation b/c we expect others to evaluate our performance
exert less effort due to a decline in motivation; presence of others reduces identifiability that relates performance to rewards
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