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46 terms

Chapter 10

STUDY
PLAY
Goal Accomplishment
many goals require cooperative efforts of many people
Personal Identity
helps us know more about ourselves, comments from well-known respected peers impacts our self-esteem
Affiliation
presence of others provides friendship, social stimulation, and personal acceptance
Emotional Support
handle pressures of daily living (comforted by physical presence of another person facing the same stress)
Stages of Group Development
Orientation, confrontation, differentiation, collaborating, adjourning
Orientation
"forming", purpose of group and roles of each member; caution, confusion, courtes, and commonality
Confrontation
"storming"; expectations, roles, and goals are challenged
Differentiation
"norming"; individual differences are recognized and task assignments are based on skills and abilities
Collaboration
"performing"; feeling of cohesiveness and commitment to the group
Separation
"adjourning"; consciously deciding to disband
Virtual Teams
rely on technology to interact and accomplish tasks
Synchronous
communicate simultaneously in real time through teleconferencing and electronic meetings
Asynchronous
respond according to own schedule through e-mail and websites
Group Structure
stable pattern of relationships that maintain the group and help it achieve goal, roles, and norms
Additive Task
pooled interdependence; sum of individual contributions; larger groups produce more, but average productivity declines due to social loafing
Conjunctive Task
interdependent subtasks assigned to various group members; maximum performance is limited by capacities of least capable member
Disjunctive Task
decision-making task; require at least one individual w/ sufficient insight to solve the problem; greater likelihood in a larger group
Social Density
physical separation of group members
Need for coordination
greater for conjunctive tasks than additive or disjunctive
Work Roles
task-oriented; clarifying purpose, developing strategy
Maintenance Roles
social-emotional; involvement and personal commitment, encouraging participation
Blocking Roles
disrupt or destroy; domination discussions, disagreeing unreasonably, or distracting members
Role Episode
interaction through which role expectations are communicated b/w role senders and person receiving the role (focal person)
Role Ambiguity
discrepancy b/w sent role and received role; often comes from confusion when delegating responsibility
Role Conflict
Inconsistency b/w received role and role behavior
Intrasender
1 sender communicates incompatible role expectations to focal person
Intersender
2+ senders communicate incompatible expectations to focal person
Person-Role Conflict
asked to behave in ways inconsistent w/ personal values
Role Overload
"inter-role conflict"; conflicting demands of too many roles of time, interest, and loyalty
Group Norms
commonly held beliefs of group members about appropriate conduct that imply a duty or obligation and identify standards of behavior
Injunctive Norms
result from influence attempts of group members and are enforced through peer pressure
Descriptive Norms
emerge from watching how others behave and adopting the same patterns (justifying behavior)
Reciprocity
when people make an effort to help you, you should feel an obligation to help at a later time
Social Conduct
designed to create pleasant social atmosphere
Conformity
yielding to group influence by doing something you may otherwise choose not to do (succumbing to social influence)
Pressures to Conform
Reward dependence and Information dependence
Reward dependence
promotions, performance evaluations, recognition
Information dependence
rely on others to help us know how to behave (especially in new situations)
Levels of conformity
compliance, identification, internalization
Compliance
obtain reward or avoid punishment
Identification
desire to be accepted by those who are important by adopting their attributes
Internalization
part of person's basic character; perceived morally right
Social Facilitation
presence of others creates a higher level of arousal and motivation b/c we expect others to evaluate our performance
Social Inhibition
social facilitation can inhibit performance of new (not well-learned) tasks
Social Loafing
exert less effort due to a decline in motivation; presence of others reduces identifiability that relates performance to rewards
Deindividualization
individuals become lost in the crowd and perform acts they wouldn't perform if alone and identifiable