Upgrade to remove ads
Ch.6 Test Questions
Terms in this set (40)
What is a stimulus? Give two examples not from text
People, objects, and events currently present in one's immediate surroundings that impinge on one's sense receptors and that can affect behavior, such as cars and rain
What is an ABC assessment?
An assessment that identifies the antecedents and consequences of a behavior (antecedent, behavior, consequence)
Define stimulus control
The degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response
What is good stimulus control? Describe an example not from chapter
A strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and a particular response; that is, when the stimulus occurs, the response is likely to follow, such as searching for a parking spot, finding one and parking
Define SD and give an example. Identify both the SD and the response in the example
A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced, such as a child playing with other kids (SD), swearing (Response), and other kids' laughing and attention which positively reinforces the response of swearing
Define S delta and give an example. Identify both the SD and the response in the example
stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced, such as a child visiting grandparents (S delta), swearing (Response), and they do not give positive attention which does not reinforce the response of swearing
What is the difference between a stimulus and a discriminative stimulus?
A stimulus is anything you can observe with senses and a discriminative stimulus is a cue that a response will pay off
State the two effects of stimulus discrimination training
Stimulus control- A high correlation between a stimulus and a response. Stimulus discrimination- a response occurs to an SD and not an S delta
Define stimulus generalization and give an example
Responding to the same way to different stimuli, such as a child identifying 2 dogs of different size and breed as "doggie"
In a sentence, state the difference between an instance of stimulus discrimination and an instance of stimulus generalization
Stimulus discrimination is responding differently to 2 or more stimuli and stimulus generalization is responding similarly to 2 or more different stimuli
When you are considering the selection of a stimulus to be set up to be as an SD, what four questions might you ask yourself about the stimulus?
1.Is the stimulus different from other stimuli along more than one dimension?
2.Is the stimulus one that can be presented mainly on occasions when the desired response should occur to avoid confusion with the occurrence of the stimulus on other occasions?
3.Is the stimulus of the type that the probability of the person attending to it when it is presented is high?
4.Are there any undesirable responses that might be controlled by the chosen stimulus?
What do we mean by an error in stimulus discrimination training?
A response to an S delta or a failure to respond to an SD during discrimination training
In general, what is a contingency? Describe example not in chapter
An if - then type of arrangement. If you turn the key in the ignition, then the car will start
What is a three term contingency reinforcement? Describe example not in chapter
An arrangement of reinforcement concerning the antecedents and the consequences of a behavior, such as a child seeking attention (antecedent), dances on a table in a classroom (behavior), and classmates laughing (consequences), which reinforces the behavior
Describe an example of how ignorance of stimulus discrimination training may lead parents or other caregivers to develop an undesirable behavior in a child or adult in their care
A child banging his head on hard surfaces unless an adult held his hand. When the adult let go of his hand and moved away, the child started to bang his head again. The head banging only occurred when standing on a hard surface because an adult would quickly provide attention, which reinforced the behavior
Define fading and give an example of it
The gradual change of successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that control a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus
Define errorless discrimination training
The use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur
Why is establishing a stimulus discrimination without errors advantageous?
1.Errors consume valuable time
2.If an error occurs once, it tends to occur many times, even though it is being extinguished
3.The nonreinforcement that occurs when errors are being extinguished often produces emotional side effects such as tantrums, aggressive behavior, and attempts to escape from the situation
What is it meant by a dimension of a stimulus? Describe an example
Any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum, such as the loudness of a question presented to somebody
Identify three stimulus dimensions along which fading occurred in the examples cited in the first two sections of this chapter
1.The loudness of the question that Veronica presented to peter
2.The pressure of a teacher's hand that guides a child's printing
3. The clarity of dots that a child might be expected to trace
Describe how you might use fading to teach your pet to perform a trick
Teach my dog to "give me paw." First, I would tell him to give me paw, actually lift up his paw and give him a treat. After successive trials, I would gradually reduce the height of paw lifting until he lifts up his paw on his own.
What do we mean by final desired stimulus? Give example
The occurrence of the response to that particular stimulus is likely to be maintained in the natural environment at the end of a fading program, such as a dog raising his paw on its own when asked to
What do we mean by starting stimulus? Give example
The stimulus that reliably evokes the desired behavior at the beginning of the fading program. Teaching someone their name- The trainer knew that the person would mimic the last word of a question when that word was spoken loudly. Therefore, the starting stimulus for the person was the question, "what's your name?" said very softly and followed quickly by shouting their name. The shouted name prompted them to give the correct answer
Define prompt. Describe an example not from chapter
A supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a desired behavior will occur, but is not the final desired stimulus to control that behavior- verbal prompt: instructing a friend on how to do a skateboard trick
Define the four major categories of teacher-behavior prompts. Give example for each
1.Physical prompts/guidance - touching the learner to help guide him appropriately
2.Gestural prompts - Pointing, making motions without touching, etc.
3.Modeling prompts - Having a student watch you do the dance step you ask her to perform
4.Verbal prompts - Telling a student how to do a dance step
Identify the three basic strategies in any shaping procedure as presented at the beginning of this chapter, and describe them with an example
1.Specify the final desired behavior- My goal was to study 2 hours each day
2.Identify a response that could be used as a starting point in working toward the final desired behavior- I decided to start with 30 minutes of study time each day
3.Reinforce the starting response then reinforce closer and closer approximations until eventually the desired response occurs- I decided to use an hour of facebook time as a reinforcer after 30 minutes of study time. After the first approximation had occurred after every 3 days, I increased study time every 3rd day until I reached my goal of 2 hours
Development of a new behavior by the reinforcement of successive approximations of that behavior and the extinction of earlier approximations of that behavior
What is another name for shaping?
Method of successive approximations
Explain how shaping involves successive applications of the principles of positive reinforcement and extinction
An individual performs some initial behavior and the environment then reinforces slight variations in that behavior across a number of trials. Eventually, that initial behavior may be shaped so that the final form no longer resembles it
Why bother with shaping? Why not just learn about the use of straightforward positive reinforcement to increase a behavior?
-Shaping is necessary to develop a behavior that is not yet occurring or that occurs rarely
-Positive reinforcement can be used to increase behavior that already occurs once in a while
In terms of the three stages in a shaping procedure, describe how parents might shape their child to say a particular word
A child who says "wa wa" at an early stage is given a glass of water, and if she is thirsty, this action reinforces the response. At a later stage "watah" rather than wa wa is reinforced with water. Finally, the child must say "water" before the reinforcement is given
List five dimensions of behavior that can be shaped. Give two examples of each
1. Latency- Time between saying you'll do homework and the time actually started, time between asking what time is it and the response of looking at clock
2. Intensity- Force of a punch in boxing, loudness/quietness of a voice
3. Frequency- Number of dishes washed in 5 minutes, number of birdhouses built in 1 hr
4.Topography- Extent of follow through on a tennis serve, the appropriate foot placement when landing a skateboard trick
5. Duration- Length of time studying, length of time watching TV
Describe a behavior of yours that was shaped by consequences in the natural environment, and state several of the initial approximations
I gradually perfected the method of cooking a steak at the desired tenderness/flavor. I tried cooking steak via different appliances, starting with frying pan. My initial attempts were close to desired results, but the steak was too dry. I then tried broiling it in the oven, which came out better than when using the frying pan, but could be better. Finally, I used a grill and the steak came out perfectly.
Distinguish between shaping and fading
-Shaping - gradual change of response while the stimulus stays about the same
-Fading - gradual change of stimulus while response stays about the same
What do behavior modifiers mean by the term target behavior in a shaping program? Give an example
The final desired behavior, such as shaping study time from 30 minutes to 2 hours a day. The target behavior is studying 2 hours a day.
What do behavior modifiers mean by the term starting behavior in a shaping program? Give an example
A behavior that occurs often enough to be reinforced within the session time, and it should approximate the final desired behavior, such as walking around a house once periodically, which was the closest approximation that was made with the respect to the goal of jogging a quarter of a mile
How do you know you have enough successive approximations or shaping steps of the right size?
There are no specific guidelines for identifying the ideal step size. However, it is helpful to observe others who can already perform the target behavior and ask them to perform the initial and subsequent approximations.
Why is it necessary to avoid under reinforcement at any shaping step?
Trying to go to a new step before the previous approximation has been well established can result in losing previous approximation through extinction without achieving the new approximation
Why is it necessary to avoid reinforcing too many times at any shaping step?
Too many reinforcements at one step may over-strengthen that behavior and make the behavior persist when the trainer attempts to move on to the next step
Gan example of pitfall type 1 in which shaping might be accidentally applied to develop an undesirable behavior. Describe some of the shaping steps in your example.
As a child learns to ride a bike, he is praised by his father when is able to ride without help. He then shows his friends that he is able to ride using only one hand and is cheered on by his friends. He then shows more friends that he is able to ride without using his hands and is cheered on even more. He then tries to ride his bike backwards to impress his friends more, but ends up crashing. Risky behavior increased as his friends cheered him on.
This set is often in folders with...
Behavior Modification Exam 2: Ch. 11 Questions
Test 8 Questions
Pych ch 7
PSYC 102 Exam 2
You might also like...
Psychology behavior modification
Chapter 7 Textbook Questions
Other sets by this creator
Twerski: Addictive Thinking
R&K Ch. 1-3
Other Quizlet sets
JD Principles of Learning Exam Two
PSY 351 exam 3