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112 terms

proper terms-all

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paleolithic age
prehistoic times/age
neolithic age
created gods and goddesses to represent forces of nature during this time
cro-magnon
skilled tool-makers who became great artists
neanderthals
prehistoric people who were good hunters and first to bury their dead
Nile
Egyptians built their civilization along this river
Upper Egypt
located in southern Egypt
Lower Egypt
included the Nile delta
Narmer
Egyptian who united lower and upper egypt
Old Kingdom
also known as "Age of Pyramids"
Memphis
capital of Egypt during Old Kingdom
Re
Sun God
Osiris
god of harvest and everlasting life
Isis
goddess of fertility
Book of the Dead
Egyptian book with correct magic spells
Middle Kingdom
period when pharoahs shared power with priests and government officials
Hyksos
conquered Egypt by using iron weapons
Ahmose
Egyptian hero who defeated Hyksos
New Kingdom
period when Egypt became an empire
Thutmose
pharoah who conquered Syria and Palenstine
Hatsheput
pharoah who increased trade
Thebes
capital of Egypt during New Kingdom
Amon-Re
worshipped in New Kingdom; very powerful; built temples in his honor
Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaton
pharoah who tried to change religion
Indus
place where civilization developed in South Asia
Huang Ho
place where civilization developed in China
Harrappa/Mohenjo-daro
twin capitals of Harrapan civilization in a grid
Great Bath
in Mohenjo-Daro -house where they practiced their village and had meetings
Aryans
took over Indus River Valley in 1200 B.C.
Yu the Great
man-God who drove out serpents and dragons along Huang-Ho
Xia
kingdom created by Yu
Shang
ruling family with first record of civilization
Zhou
conquerers of the Shang
Canaan
land where Phoenicians and Hebrews lived
Canaanites
herders and wanderers
Philistines
traders and shipbuilders
Phoenicia
seafaring civlization located on eastern shore of Mediterrannean
Tyre, Byblos, Beirut, Sidon
largest Phoenician city-states
Baal
chief god of the Canaanites
carthage
most important phoenician ncolony
judaism
Hebrew religion that still exists today
Abraham
founding patriarch of Hebrews
Yahweh
name of Hebrew God
Moses
exodus leader of Hebrews
10 commandments
told Hebrewsthey had to worship Yahweh/ presented by Moses
joshua
general who brought Hebrews to Promised Land
saul
first hebrew king
david
hebrew king, poet, musician and warrior
israel
kingdom set up in North when solomon died
jerusalem
capital city of Hebrews
solomon
hebrew king who built the temple/led at height of hebrew power
judah
southern king of hebrews
sparta/athens
two greatest Greek city-states
council of elders
citizens over 20 who suggested laws and were judges
cleisthenes
leader who made athens a democracy and wrote democratic constitution
council of 500
chosen from a big pot to handle daily business of athens
persian wars
ended with athens as leading polis
ionia
area of asia minor settled by greeks
darius
leader who led attack on Greece
marathon
1st battle between Greeks and Persians
xerxes
persian king who won at Thermopylae
thermopylae
battle won by persians in mountain pass
salamis
1st naval battle in history
delos
headquarters of delian league
pericles
athenian leader who built parthenon and took delian league money
parthenon
massive temple built to honor athena
peloponnesian war
conflict between sparta and athens
olympic games
ancient competitions to honor zeus
herodotus
"father of history"
aeschylus
created/wrote first play
sophocles
famous tragedy writer who said sufferring makes you stronger
euripides
tragedy writer who said sufferring is punishment
aristophanes
greek writer of comedies
socrates
believed in the search for truth through questioning
plato
socrates student who found first school and wrote of "ideal" state in The Republic
aristotle
philosopher who created classifications
euclid
father of geometry
hippocrates
"Father of scientific method"/ made list of rules for doctors behavior
minoans
created the earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.
mycenaeans
civilization on the greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.
crete
the largest Greek island in the Mediterranean
knossos
the minoan capital city
Mother earth
most important goddess of minoans
theseus and minotaur
legendary hero who killed monster in crete
homer
poet who told of greek and trojan heroes
illiad
tells story of war between myceneans and trojans
odyssey
homers poem about journey after trojan war
troy
where trojan war took place
dorians
people who conquered myceneans
dark ages
when progress of civilization stopped
assyria
well organized army in large area of middle east
hittites
created smelting to make weapons and taught assyrians
ashurbanipal
assyrian king who started forst library
ashur
an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris and traditional capital of Assyria
nineveh
capital city of assyria
chaldeans
captured assyrian capital in 612 b.c.
2nd babylonian empire
the chaldean culture
nebuchadnezzar
most famous leader of chaldeans
hanging gardens
famous in babylon along with huge ziggaraut
marduk
chief god of babylon
ishtar
goddess of love and fertility and war
aramaic
language spoken by traveling merchants
persia
an ancient empire in southwest Asia and was one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world
medes
people who conquered persia in 600 b.c.
king cyrus
king of persia who overthrew medes
immortals
best fighters in persian army
persepolis
capital city of persia
eys and ears of the king
inspectors who traveled throughout persian empire
zoroaster
formed new religion with forces of good and evil at war
ahura mazda
zoroasterian god of good and light
ahriman
zoroastrian god of darkness and evil
royal road
1600 mile road built by persians for trade
lydia
first area to use coins