44 terms

Rocks

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material that makes up solid parts of earth
rock
what do geologist do?
study forces and processes that form and change rocks crust
three major classes of rocks
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
what does metaphophic mean
changed form
what does igneous mean
from fire
what type of rock forms when small pieces are cemented together?
sedimentary
what happens to igneous rock when it is melted and cooled?
it becomes magma
rocks have natural zones of ?
weakness
what is in rocks that have the most resistance to weathering
silicon and oxygen
what factors affect the chemical and physical stability of rock?
strength of chemical bonds and number of chemical bonds
what determines a rock to be igneous?
chemical composition of minerals and texture
three factors that determine whether rock will melt into magma
temperature, pressure and pressure of fluids
two classifications of igneous rocks
intrusive and extrusive
what are intrusive rocks?
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath earths surface
what are extrusive rocks?
rocks that forms from the solidification of lava at earths surface or above
name the five textures of igneous rocks
course, fine, porphyritic, glassy and vesicular
what is coarse grained?
composed of large mineral grains. example-granite
what is fine grained?
composed of small crystals. example -basalt
what is porphyritic?
mixture of large and small crystals. example -granite
what is glassy?
high viscous magma cools quickly, few crystals grow. example - obsidian
what is vesicular?
magma that cools quickly and has a large percent of dissolved glass. example - pumice
when does coarse grain igneous rock form?
when magma cools slowly
when does fine grain magma form?
when magma cools quickly
what a batholiths?
deep rock
what are laccoliths?
forms domes and means lack of rock
what is a dike?
igneous rock that cuts across rock layers, common in volcanic activity
what is sills?
igneous rock that is parallel to layers
what are some examples of extrusive igneous rocks?
volcanic neck, lava plateau, tufts, volcano, lava flow
how are sedimentary rock. characteristics determined?
source of sediment, way sediment moves and how sediment is deposited
what is compaction?
process in which sediment is squeezed and in which size of pore space between sediment grains is reduced by weight and pressure of overlying layers
what is cementation?
process in which sediments are glued together by minerals that are deposited by water, forming a chemical bond.
what are the three classifications of sedimentary rocks?
chemical, organic and clastic
what are the four types of clastic sedimentary rocks?
conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, shale
name the four main agents for transporting sediments
water, ice, wind and gravity
what are the five classes of sorting
very well sorted, well sorted, moderately sorted, poorly sorted and very poorly sorted
what is deposition all environment?
setting in which sediment is deposited. for example, rivers, beaches and oceans
what is compound in the shells of marine animals that make up limestone?
calcium carbonate
what is the process by which heat, pressure or chemical processes changes one form of rock to another?
metamorphic
how are metamorphic rocks formed?
under heat, pressure and hot fluids
what is contact metamorphism?
change in textures, structures or chemical composition of rock due to change in temperature and pressure with magma.
what is regional metamorphism?
change in textures, structures or chemical composition of rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area
what is foliated rock?
minerals are arranged in planes or bonds. examples - slate, schist
what are nonfoliated rock?
minerals are not arranged in plans or bonds. example - quartz or marble
what kind of rock is most likely to have a fossil inside it?
sedimentary