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35 terms

Meiosis

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totipotent
type of cell found in the fertalized egg
pluripotent
embryonic stem cells are
multipotent
adult stem cells are
metastasize
the process of cancer spreading
to make sex cells
ultimate purpose of meiosis
2
amount of divisions in meiosis
oncogenes
mutations in these cause problems controlling the cell cycle
ploidy
the number of chromosomes in an organism
diploid
an organism that has 2 copies of each chromosome
2n
diploid symbol
haploid
an organism that has 1 copy of each chromosome
prophase 1
phase of meiosis that leads to genetic diversity
synapses
the process of tetrads crossing over
chiasmata
the physical point of crossing over
anaphase 2
phase of meiosis where sister chromosomes seperate
spermatogenesis
process of creating sperm
4 sperm
created in spermatogenesis
oogenesis
process of creating eggs
1 egg and 3 polar bodies
created in oogenesis
cell grows
G1
cell copies DNA/organelles
Synthesis
cell continues to grow
G2
nuclear membrane breaks down, spindle apparatus forms, chromatin coils into chromosomes, homologous chromosomes find each other and form tetrads, synapses occurs
prophase 1
homologous pairs of chromosomes line up at the equator
metaphase 1
homologous pairs of chromosomes seperate and move to opposite poles (2n-n)
anaphase 1
nuclear envelope reforms, spindle apparatus breaks down, chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin
telophase 1/cytokinesis
cell grows
interkinesis
nuclear membrane breaks down, spindle apparatus reforms, chromatin coils back into chromosomes
prophase 2
chromosomes line up at the equator
metaphase 2
sister chromosomes seperate into chromosomes
anaphase 2
four genetically different haploid pairs are formed
telophase 2/cytokinesis
nuclear membrane breaks down, spindle apparatus forms, chromatin coils into chromosomes
prophase
chromosomes line up at the equator
metaphase
chromosomes head to opposite poles, sister chromatids seperate
anaphase
two nuclei are formed, nuclear envelope reforms, spindle apparatus breaks down, chromosomes uncoil into chromatin
telophase