FILM: Chapter 6: Cinematography
Terms in this set (92)
The process of capturing moving images on film or some other medium.
One uninterrupted run of the camera. A shot can be as short or as long as the director wants, but it cannot exceed the length of the film stock in the camera.
An indication of the number of times a particular shot is taken (e.g., shot 14, take 7).
One camera position and everything associated with it. Whereas the shot is the basic building block of the film, the setup is the basic component of the film's production.
Technicians that make up two separate groups: one concerned with the camera, and the other concerned with electricity and lighting.
The member of the camera crew who does the actual shooting.
Assistant camera-persons (ACs)
Member of the camera crew who assists the camera operator.
Oversees everything having to do with the camera, lenses, supporting equipment, and the material on which the movie is being shot.
Prepares the slate that is used to identify each scene as it is used to identify each scene as it is shot, files camera reports, and when film stock is being used, feeds that stock into magazines that are then loaded onto the camera.
Used to identify a scene as it is shot
Apart of the group concerned with electricity and lighting (chief electrician)
Apart of the group concerned with electricity and lighting (first assistant electrician)
Apart of the group concerned with electricity and lighting (all-around handypersons who work with both the camera crew and the electrical crew to get the camera and lighting ready for shooting).
Even through more movies are being shot on digital media with each passing year, most feature films are still shot on traditional ____.
Film stock is available in several standard ____ (also called gauges; widths measured in millimeters): 8mm, Super 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, 65mm, and 70mm film, which is used for projection; the additional space holds the sound track).
Another variable aspect of film stock is its ____ (or exposure index) - how sensitive it is to light.
Additive color systems
In early filmmaking, techniques used to add color to black-and-white images, including hand-coloring, stenciling, tinting, and toning.
Subtractive color system
By the early 1930s, the additive process was replaced by a three-color ____ that laid the foundation for the development of modern color cinematography.
Widescreen aspect ratio
During the 1950s, Hollywood used color film strategically, along with the ____, to lure people away from their television sets and back into theaters.
(Also called color correction), the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture (or video or still image) with electronic, photochemical, or digital techniques.
Digital imaging technician (DIT)
Position on the professional camera crew, who is responsible for managing media capture with postproduction image manipulation in mind.
Can produce either a hard, direct spotlight beam or a more indirect beam.
Most effective floodlight for filmmaking, which creates a soft, diffuse, almost shadowless light.
Produce diffuse, indirect light with very few to no shadows.
Not really a lighting instrument because it does not rely on bulbs to produce illumination.
Perhaps the best-known lighting convention in feature filmmaking.
(Also known as the main, or source, light) is the primary source of illumination and therefore is customarily set first.
Positioned at the opposite side of the camera from the key light, adjusts the depth of the shadows created by the brighter key light.
The balance between illumination and shadow, the balance between the key and fill lights.
When little or no fill light is used, the ratio between bright illumination and deep shadow is very high; the effect produced
Produces an image with very little contrast between the darks and lights, is used extensively in drams, musicals, comedies, and adventure films; its even, flat illumination does not call particular attention to the subject being photographed.
The third source in three-point lighting, usually positioned behind and above the subject and the camera and used to create highlights along the edges of the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensionality (such highlights are also known as edge lights or rim lights).
The overall style of a film is determined by its ____, or thw amount and quality of human and physical resources devoted to the image.
A piece of curved, polished glass or other transparent material.
Also known as gate. The camera opening that defines the area of each frame of film exposed.
Adjustable ____ (or diaphragm) that limits the amount of light passing through a lens.
Of the lens is the distance (measured in millimeters) from the optical center of the lens to the focal point on the film stock or other sensor when the image is sharp and clear (in focus).
(also known as the wide-angle lens) produces wide-angle views.
(also known as the telephoto lens) brings distant objects close, makes subjects look closer together than they do in real life, and flattens space and depth in the process.
Often called the normal lens. Lenses in this range create images that correspond to our day-to-day experience of depth and perspective.
Also called the variable-focal-length lens, permits the cinematographer to shrink or increase the focal length in a continuous motion and thus simulates the effect of movement of the camera toward or away from the subject. However, the camera does the actually move through space but simply magnifies the image.
A lens that has a fixed focal length. The short-focal-length, middle-focal-length, and long-focal-length lenses are all prime lenses; the zoom lens is in its own category.
Depth of field
A property of the lens that permits the cinematographer to decide what planes, or areas of the image, will be in focus.
Areas of the image
(Also known as select focus, shift focus, or pull focus) - a change of the point of focus from one subject to another.
The process by which the cinematographer determines what will appear within the borders of the image during a shot.
The relationship between the frame's two dimensions: the width of the image related to its height.
Extreme long shot (XLS or ELS)
Typically photographed at a great distance, the subject is often a wide view of a location, which usually includes general background information.
When used to provide such an informative context, the XLS is also an ____.
Long shot (LS)
Generally contains the full body of one or more characters (almost filling the frame, but also showing some of the surrounding area above, below, and to the sides of the frame).
Medium long shot (MLS)
Neither a medium shot not a long shot, but one in between. It is used to photograph one or more characters, usually from the knees up, as well as some of the background.
Medium shot (MS)
Somewhere between long shot and the close-up, usually shows a character from the waist up.
The camera pays very close attention to the subject, whether it is an object or a person, but is most often used in close-ups of actors' faces.
Medium close-up (MCU)
Shows a character from approximately the middle of the chest to the top of the head.
Extreme close-up (XCU or ECU)
A powerful variation on the CU, is produced when the camera records a very small detail of the subject.
Contains two characters
Contains three characters
A soundproofed enclosure somewhat larger than a camera., in which the camera may be mounted to prevent it sounds from reaching the microphone.
A total visual composition that places significant information or subjects on all three planes of the frame and thus creates and illusion of depth
Using the short-focal-length lens, keeps all three planes in sharp focus. Permits the filmmaker to exploit the relative size of people and objects in the frame to convey meaning and conflict.
Rule of thirds
It takes the form of a grid pattern that, when superimposed on the image, divides it into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into further elements.
The level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed.
Made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral.
(Also called a high shot or down shot) is made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
(Or low shot) is made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force.
(Also called a Dutch-tilt shot or oblique-angle shot), the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
Also known as bird's-eye-view shot. An omniscient point-of-view shot that is taken from an aircraft or extremely high crane and implies that the observer can see all.
The size and placement of a particular object or a part of a scene in relation to the rest-a relationship determined by the type of shot used and the position of the camera.
The horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod.
The vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod.
(also known as a tracking shot or traveling shot) is one taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support
Permits the cinematographer to make noiseless moving shots.
(move toward) a subject, the subject grows in the frame, gaining significance not only from being bigger in the frame but also from those moments when we actually see it growing bigger.
movement (moving away from the subject) is often used for slow disclosure, which occurs when an edited succession of images leads from A to B to C as they gradually reveal the elements of a scene.
A type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action (alongside, above, beneath, behind, or ahead of it) when the camera is mounted on a wheeled vehicle that runs on a set of tracks.
A shot in which the image is magnified by movement of the camera's lens only, without the camera itself moving. This magnification is the essential difference from the dolly in.
Made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that is, in turn, mounted on a vehicle capable of moving under its own power.
A device attached to the operator's body that steadies the camera, avoids the jumpiness associated with the handheld camera, and is now widely used for smooth
Shows what the omniscient camera sees, typically from a high angle.
Single character's POV
In which the shot is made with the camera close to the line of sight of a character (or animal or surveillance camera), shows what that person would be seeing of the action.
Shows us what a group of characters would see at their level.
Decelerates action by photographing it at a rate greater than the normal 24 frames per second (fps), so it takes place in cinematic time less rapidly than the real action that took place in cinematic time less rapidly than the real action that took place before the camera.
accelerates action by photographing it at less than the normal filming rate and then projecting it at normal speed so that it takes place more rapidly on-screen.
Can run as long as there is sufficient media in the camera to record it.
Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or FX)
A term reserved for technology that creates images that would be too dangerous, too expensive, or in some cases simply impossible to achieve with the traditional cinematographic materials.
Created in the production camera (the regular camera used for shooting the rest of the film) on the original negative.
That create objects or events mechanically on the set and in front of the camera.
Created on a fresh piece of film stock
Computer-generated imagery (CGI)
The application of computer graphics to create special effects.
Made by filming action in front of a rear-projection screen that has on it still or moving images for the background.
(also known as motion tracking or mocap) is a specific CGI effect in which a live-action subject wears a bodysuit fitted with reflective markers that enables a computer to record each movement as digital images; they are then translated, with as much manipulation as desired, into models on which the screen figures are based.
A visual concept for telling the story.