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Histology Exam 2
Terms in this set (91)
Which of the following occurs during endochondral bone formation?
chondrocytes hypertrophy and die
A 12-year-old girl fell off her bicycle and broke her femur. Radiological examination showed a generalized reduction in bone density, suggesting to the pediatrician that the child might have a nutritional deficiency. Which of the following should be supplemented in this child's diet?
A patient has the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. This condition is due to patient's inability to
bind acetylcholine by acetylcholine receptors
In early May a pathologist is called to the crime scene in Baltimore, Maryland, to examine a cadaver. She notes that the body is in maximal rigor mortis and determines that the person has been dead for
Rigor mortis occurs because the muscles consume all of their available ATP and cannot produce any more ATP to permit the myosin heads (S1 subfragment) from releasing their bond with the active site of the actin molecules.
The nervous system has neurons as well as associated neuroglia. Which one of the following neuroglia is derived from cells of the bone marrow?
Microglia are phagocytes that reside in the brain and are derived from monocyte precursors of the bone marrow.
Schwann cells are present in the
peripheral nervous system, where they form myelin sheaths and insulate axons
metabolic and structural support for neurons of the central nervous system.
Oligodendroglia perform functions in the
central nervous system that are similar to those of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
Ependymal cells line the
ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
Hospitalized patients can contract herpes virus infections from each other because of
(also method whereby toxins are transported from PNS --> CNS)
-Viruses can be stored in the cell bodies of neurons. They enter the axon at the synapse and travel, via retrograde transport, into the soma of the infected neuron. They stay in the ganglion until the patient is in poor health; then the herpesvirus reaches intact tissues via anterograde transport, blisters form, and the patient sheds the virus. Nissl bodies have no effect on the transmission of herpesvirus infections, nor do continuous or saltatory contraction
Which of the following is true about the appositional growth of cartilage? (involves)
Involves the differentiation of perichondrial cells into chondroblasts
Which of the following is true of elastic cartilage?
The collagen in its matrix is mainly type II
Which of the following is true of compact (dense) bone?
Is characterized by the presence of osteons
Which of the following is true of intramembranous bone formation?
Is the process by which the periosteal bone collar is formed
Which of the following is the predominant collagen type found in basal laminae?
Which of the following tissues is characterized by the fewest embedded capillaries?
Where are osteoblasts derived from?
derived from osteoprogenitor cell
A short-statured patient inquires about the genetic implication of her condition and would like to know the reason for it. The physician knows that the patient has achondroplasia. Which of the following is the correct reason for the condition
reduction in chondrocyte formation in the epiphyseal plate
A medical student and her nurse boyfriend present in the emergency room of a hospital complaining about nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, double vision, and drooping eyelids. Their symptoms began less than 24 hours after dinner at home and they both remembered that the can of corn that they consumed with dinner was damaged. The doctor should suspect
-caused by ingestion of improperly preserved canned foods.
toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, interferes with release of acetylcholine, with resultant muscle paralysis and , without treatment, death
A 43-year-old patient who had an infection with Campylobacter jejuni 2 weeks earlier presents with lower back pain that progressed to muscle weakness and lack of sensation first in the lower then in the upper extremities. What should the physician suspect?
-immune disorder that produces inflammation and rapid demyelination within the peripheral nerves and the motor nerves arising from the ventral roots. associated with recent respiratory and/or gastrointestioinal infection. symptom of this disease is muscle weakness in extremities.
What distinguishes cartilage from most other connective tissues?
It lacks blood vessels
Which of the following is true of Haversian canals but false regarding Volkmann's canals?
surrounded by concentric bony lamellae
An elderly patient is seen by her physician because of a dry mouth. It appears that her parotid glands no longer produce saliva. Which is the correct classification of the parotid glands?
Which of the following substances is manufactured by epithelial cells and is not calcium-dependent?
Which of the following substances is manufactured by epithelial cells?
Which of the following glycoproteins is manufactured by epithelial cells?
-Laminin, a glycoprotein manufactured by epithelial cells and deposited into the lamina lucida of the basal lamina, assists these cells in adhering to the basal lamina. Chondronectin and osteonectin assist cartilage and bone cells in adhering to their respective matrices. Osteonectin also participates in mineralization of bone. Fibronectin assists fibroblasts in adhering to the connective tissue matrix and also in forming a path for cell migration during embryonic development as well as during wound healing. Tenascin also marks migratory pathways during embryonic development.
A 10-year-old boy presents with peroneal muscular atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome). He has weakness in his legs and atrophied calf and hand muscles. Additionally, he lost some heat, pain, and cold sensation in his feet and hands. This common hereditary neuropathy is the result of a mutation in the gene coding for
A 27-year-old, very fair skinned patient who is 7 months pregnant presents at her gynecologist with a recent development that her legs have become somewhat bowed. The physician suspects
When an action potential reaches the presynaptic membrane, it causes the opening of certain voltage-gated ion channels that permit the influx of specific ions, which causes synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane (@ active sites) and release their neurotransmitter substances via exocytosis into the synaptic cleft. These voltage-gated ion channels permit the
influx of Ca2+
large quantities of neurotransmitter acetylocholine (ligand) that are liberated from the nerve terminal
T tubules initiate
muscle contraction after action potential (from depolarization) is generated
The neuron that is not present in a two-neuron reflex arc is known as a(n) (& the 2 that are)
-the 2 that are: sensory (afferent) neurons & motor (efferent) neurons
simple reflex arc
ex) knee jerk.
Is an example of function of muscle spindles. Tapping on patellar tendon results in sudden stretching of muscle.
-relays signal to y-motor neurons of spinal cord, resulting in muscle contraction
Which of the following regions of the osteoclast has proton pumps?
The cells located within the rectangle function in
-synapses are the sites where nerve impulses are transmitted from a presynaptic cell (neuron) to a postsynaptic cell (another neuron, muscle cell or cell or a gland)
A person's ability to touch her nose with her eyes closed is due to
-and possibly to golgi tendon organs
Which of the following cell types in bone is most likely derived from blood monocytes?
Each myosin II molecule of the heavy chain can be digested into smaller constituents, one of which binds ATP. Which is that constituent?
-functions in formation of cross-bridges between the thick and thin myofilaments
Myofibrils are held in register with each other by structures known as
-they secure the periphery of the Z disks of neighboring myofibrils to each other
The intense basophilia of the capsular matrix in hyaline cartilage is caused mainly by the synthetic activity of which of the following chondrocyte organelles?
Which of the following is true of primary bone?
Is the first bone tissue to appear during both intramembranous and endochondral bone formation
Which of the following is the predominant fiber type in fibrocartilage?
Which of the following is true concerning human skeletal muscle? It has....
Motor innervation of skeletal muscle is via myelinated motor neurons that arborize and form synapses with the muscle fiber. Acetylcholine is released from the neuron and binds to receptors located on the
motor end plate
The sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle
is depolarized by T tubules
-The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a modified smooth endoplasmic reticulum. When depolarized by the T tubule in its proximity, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases its sequestered Ca2+ ions via its voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to effect contraction of the cell. The sarcoplasmic reticulum does not have voltage-gated K+ channels, nor does it sequester Na+ ions. Acetylcholine is synthesized by the motor neuron that innervates the skeletal muscle. Synthesis of actin and myosin occurs on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, not on the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
A patient presents in the emergency department with a knife wound to the arm. It is noted that some of the muscles of his arm are paralyzed. Which of the following will take place in the neurons whose axons were severed?
nucleus of their soma will be displace
Which of the following occurs first in cartilage histogenesis?
formation of mesenchymal condensations
Which of the following hormones is most responsible for increasing osteoclast number and activity?
-when calcium levels fall below normal, PTH is secreted, increasing osteoclasts
when calcium ion levels become elevated, C cells (Parafollicular cells) secrete
calcitonin (produced by thyroid gland) activates receptors on osteoclasts, inhibiting them from resorbing bone
-opposite of parathyroid hormone
Which of the following cell types is capable of uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and producing heat?
-form brown adipose tissue
In which of the following regions do processes of osteocytes contact and form gap junctions with each other?
-Osteocytes reside in lacunae ,and their processes extend into canaliculi, narrow canals that extend from the lacunae to join canaliculi extending from adjacent lacunae. These canaliculi form an extensive, interrelated network of tunnel-like spaces in solid bone that facilitates the flow of extracellular fluid to and from osteocytes, providing nourishment, signaling molecules, and removing waste products. Howship lacunae are resorption bays formed by osteoclasts. Haversian and Volkmann canals are larger tunnels throughout compact bone that house blood vessels and nerve fibers as well as osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts.
The cells that have the ability to decorate their membranes with Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are known as
-Two groups of cells possess IgE receptors and are, therefore, able to decorate their cell membranes with immunoglobulin E (IgE); these are mast cells and basophils. Pericytes are cells located on the abluminal surface of capillaries, and they function as adult mesenchymal cells as well as modified smooth muscle cells that can constrict the diameter of the vessel. Fibroblasts manufacture the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, macrophages are phagocytes and antigen presenting cells, and eosinophils phagocytose antigen-antibody complexes and destroy parasites that invade the connective tissues of the body.
The extrafusal fibers of a muscle spindle receive their nerve supply from which of the following?
-Extrafusal muscle fibers are the unremarkable skeletal muscle fibers that surround the muscle spindle; they receive their nerve supply from motor neurons. Primary sensory nerve endings receive information from all three types of intrafusal fibers. Secondary sensory nerve endings receive information from nuclear chain and static nuclear bag fibers. Dynamic motor neurons and static motor neurons innervate dynamic and static nuclear bag fibers, respectively.
Which of the following is true concerning human skeletal muscle? It has
-Skeletal muscle has two triads per sarcomere, each located at the A-I junction. Each triad is composed of a T tubule flanked on either side by the dilated terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dyads and intercalated disks are present in cardiac muscle, not skeletal muscle. Nuclei of skeletal muscle are positioned peripherally, and nuclei of smooth and cardiac muscle are centrally located.
Major dense lines of a myelinated axon
represent the fused cytoplasmic surfaces of the Schwann cell membrane
-Major dense lines of myelinated axons represent the fused cytoplasmic surfaces of the Schwann cell membrane. They cannot be located at the nodes of Ranvier because there is no myelin present at the node. Major dense lines parallel the intraperiod line, and they are present in myelin sheaths formed by oligodendroglia of the central nervous system.
The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is located on the endothelial lining of blood vessels. This enzyme
is manufactured by adipocytes
A patient with Hirschsprung disease has a developmental condition that involves
Lack of parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
-Hirschsprung disease patients suffer from megacolon. The colon is highly dilated because it is missing parasympathetic postganglionic neurons in the wall of the large intestines. An open vertebral column is known as spina bifida.
A patient presents with muscular rigidity, constant tremor, slow movement (bradykinesia), difficult voluntary movements, and rigid, mask-like features. Which neurotransmitter is lacking in this patient's brain?
-This patient has Parkinson disease and is missing neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. -aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and the cells that produce it are lost in patients who have Huntington chorea. Acetylcholine is released at the neuromuscular junction as well as at the preganglionic sympathetic and pre- and postganglionic parasympathetic synapses. Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter at the postganglionic sympathetic synapses (except at the eccrine sweat glands). Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system.
Which of the following areas in cartilage is collagen-poor and sulfated glycosaminoly-can-rich?
Which of the following is the initial tissue forming process shared by cartilage, endochondral bone, and membrane bone?
A patient is seen by his physician, who determines that he has a defective gene that codes for an inactive form of the hormone leptin. This patient:
Has a voracious appetite
-Leptin is the hormone that controls the appetite center of the hypothalamus. Persons who do not produce leptin or produce an inactive form of the hormone have a voracious appetite and gain weight in an uncontrollable fashion. Leptin does not control the thirst center of the brain and does not induce vomiting.
Calcium binds to which of the following molecules?
-TnI: inhibitory subunit
-TnT: tropomyosin binding subunit
Which of the following is the predominant protein in the fibers of bone matrix?
Type 1 collagen
A patient who has a chronic inflammatory response has an abundance of which of the following cells?
Cardiac muscle cells differ from skeletal muscle cells in that cardiac muscle cells?
require calcium in the extracellular compartment, or they cannot contract
-Lack of calcium in the extracellular compartment for more than 1 minute results in the cessation of cardiac muscle contraction, whereas skeletal muscle cells can continue to contract for several hours. The T tubules of cardiac muscle cells have a much greater diameter than those of skeletal muscle cells. Cardiac muscle fibers are short cells with a single centrally placed nucleus that cannot contract under hypoxic conditions.
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is present in which of the following cells?
-The enzyme carbonic anhydrase converts CO2 and H2O into H+ and HCO3, thus providing H+ ions for the formation of extracellular hydrochloric acid. This reaction occurs within osteoclasts, cells responsible for the resorption of bone. The other cells on this list do not resorb bone and therefore do not possess carbonic anhydrase.
A patient is diagnosed with lockjaw. The tetanus toxin was transported from the periphery to the central nervous system by
-Retrograde transport is the means whereby axonal transport takes the toxin from the distal end of the axon into the soma, in contrast to anterograde transport whereby material from the soma is delivered distally toward the axonal endfoot. If the soma is in the central nervous system, then dendritic transport begins in the central nervous system and progresses peripherally. Schwann cells and oligodendroglia do not participate in retrograde or anterograde transport.
Which of the following impedes the distribution of nutrients and oxygen to osteocytes?
Which of the following statements is correct concerning elastic cartilage? It
increases its size by appositional growth
A 49-year-old man presents to the emergency department with chest pain. The examining physician knows that conditions such as a fractured rib, pneumonia, and pericarditis can cause similar symptoms. What is the best initial diagnostic test that the doctor can perform to determine very rapidly whether or not the patient is experiencing a myocardial infarction?
-The best initial diagnostic test to confirm or to rule out a myocardial infarction is an electrocardiogram (ECG). Myocardial infarctions show up as abnormalities on the ECG. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to monitor brain function. Listening to the heart with a stethoscope does not confirm or rule out myocardial infarction. The blood test for CK-MB (creatine kinase MB, a three-dimeric isoenzyme) is specific for evidence of a myocardial infarction; however, it takes much longer to perform the blood test than to read an ECG. Electron myography is a neurologic test for skeletal muscle function.
The apical and basolateral surfaces of a polarized cell maintain their integrity due to the presence of
An entire skeletal muscle is invested by a connective tissue element known as
smooth muscles lack
An elderly patient is seen by his gerontologist and asks what the blood-brain barrier is and why certain drugs cannot enter the neural tissue. The physician explains that the principal anatomic structure that creates that barrier is the
Which type of joint contains a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid?
-a type of joint in which the bones are free to articulate over a fairly wide range of motion
Which of the following is true of fibrocartilage?
It's structurally intermediate between dense connective tissue and cartilage
which of the following is true about endosteum?
Lines the marrow cavity
Cardiac muscle cells house granules that?
Lower blood pressure
thick filaments are held in register with one another by
-a large, linear, elastic protein. Each thick filament is held in register with other thick filaments by two pairs of large elastic proteins known as titin. Each pair of titin molecules extends from the Z disk to the center of the thick filament at the M line, coming close to but not contacting the titin molecules from the other Z disk of the same sarcomere. Nebulin wraps around the thin filament and secures it in place. Tropomyosin and troponin are proteins associated with the thin filament and assist in masking and unmasking the myosin binding sites of each actin molecule. Tropomodulin is a protein that caps the minus end of the actin filament, preventing the addition or deletion of G actin molecules from that end of the thin filament.
A physician's new patient has acromegaly. This condition is due to the
excess production of somatotropin
-Acromegaly is usually due to benign tumors of the pituitary gland, resulting in excess production of somatotropin, one of the hormones produced by the acidophils of the pituitary gland. These hormones facilitate an abnormal increase in bone deposition without normal bone resorption. This condition creates thickening of the bones, especially those of the face. Because this condition begins during the third through fifth decades of life, the patient can no longer grow in height. Instead, the bony features become distorted. Somatostatin is a paracrine hormone that inhibits the release of hormones, such as somatotropin, formed in its vicinity. Vitamin D and calcium are not affected by somatotropin.
The tensile strength of the healing wound about a week after the cut surfaces of the skin are sutured to each other is about 10% of the normal tensile strength of skin. The initial weakness of the dermis during wound healing is due to the material elaborated by fibroblasts to close the wound in a very rapid fashion. This material is
TYPE 3 COLLAGEN
-The first collagen to be formed by fibroblasts to effect initial closure of a wound is type III collagen (reticular fibers). This slender collagen type has a very weak tensile strength and is replaced by type I collagen within 4 weeks of the injury, and at that point, the tensile strength of the healed tissue is about 80% of the tensile strength of intact skin.
-type 3: also reticular fibers
A patient presents with a swelling on the external aspect of his cheek just anterior to the pinna of his ear. The region is tender, and upon examination it is evident that there is a blockage of salivary flow into the vestibule near the second maxillary molar, indicating a possible blockage of the duct (Stensen duct) of the parotid gland. Which of the following is a correct statement about the parotid? It is a
COMPOUND SEROUS GLAND
-The parotid gland, the largest of the three pairs of major salivary glands, is a multicellular, compound serous acinar gland because its duct branches. It produces a thin, watery fluid. The ducts of simple glands do not branch
A patient who was a long-time heavy smoker was seen by a physician for a persistent cough. A biopsy of the bronchial lining displayed a change in the epithelium from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to stratified squamous. The patient decided to quit smoking, and a second biopsy 6 months later showed that a reversal had occurred in the epithelium; it was back to the normal pseudostratified ciliated columnar. This patient had
-Because the patient's epithelial alteration was temporary and reversed after he quit smoking, the diagnosis was squamous metaplasia. Carcinoma is a cancer arising from epithelium, and adenocarcinoma is a cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial lining and is not accompanied by metaplasia. Pneumonia is an infection involving the alveoli and interalveolar septa of the lung and is not accompanied by metaplasia of the bronchial lining.
The urinary bladder needs to stretch (distend) and then return to its original shape. Which of the following epithelia are associated with that organ?
The principal product manufactured by goblet cells is known as
The statement that subunit A has 13 protofilaments and subunit B has 10 protofilaments refers to the core of a
-core is composed of an axoneme.
Which of the following occurs during skeletal muscle contraction?
H Band Disappears
A patient who is suffering from leukocyte adhesion deficiency will have a/an
Annually, more than two million people in the United States have elected to be injected with botulinum toxin A in order to diminish frown lines and make their facial skin appear smoother and younger looking. The toxin paralyzes the injected facial muscles because it
interferes with the release of acetylcholine
A 42-year-old patient presents with Huntington chorea. Which of the following neurotransmitter-producing cells is believed to be missing?
gamma-aminobutyric acid 3
A very slim 82-year-old female patient is brought to the emergency department with severe back pain that radiates to the sides of the lower thoracic region. She has been losing height for the past few years, and she has developed a "dowager's hump." A possible diagnosis is
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