91 terms

Art History 1 | Study Guide 3

Art History test 3 terms and definitions
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polis
Greek word for city-state
deme
political subdivision of the polis (territorial unit like a precinct or ward)
Titans
The Elder Gods; children of the heaven and earth
sanctuaries
places of worship
Hellenistic
relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civilization
cella or naos
a central room often surrounded by a row of columns with a porch in front
pronaos
the space, or porch, in front of the cella, or naos, of an ancient Greek temple
peristyle
a colonnade surrounding a building or enclosing a court
peripteral temple
a temple having columns on all sides
dipteral temple
a temple surrounded by double rows of columns
entasis
a swelling in the middle of the shafts on a column
adyton
innermost sanctuary of a building housing the place where, in a temple with an oracle, the orcale's message was delivered
fillets
A curved surface formed at the interior intersection of two or more surfaces of an object.
caryatids
a sculpture of a draped female figure acting as a column supporting an entablature
frieze
an architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice
pediment
a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof
symmetria
Greek, "commensurability of parts." Polykleitos's treatise on his canon of proportions incorporated the principle of symmetria.
rhythmos
rhythm
contrapposto
put all weight on one leg, causes hips to shift and shoulders to counter balance, which sets up potential for natural pose
agora
the marketplace in ancient Greece
meander
to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course
concrete
a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water
groin vault
formed at the point at which 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles
exedrae
a semicircular bay or niche
tablinum
study
insula
apartment building
verism
true to natural appearance
techne
art, skill
dado
a rectangular groove cut into a board so that another piece can fit into it
frieze
ornamental horizontal band on a wall
pilasters
., flat rectangular columns attached to a wall
Pompeian red
Evenly spaced columns subdivide the running narrative into scenes.
composite order
a Roman order that combines the Corinthian acanthus leaves with the spiral scrolls of the Ionic order
herm statue
a bust on a quadrangular pillar
tondo
a circular painting or relief sculpture
basilica
a huge marble government building in ancient Rome
rotunda
a building having a circular plan and a dome
Phoenicians
located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform
Solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
Peisistratos
Nestor's son who accompanies Telemachus to Sparta.
Cleisthenes
An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped from Athenian democracy
Perikles
Leader in Athens during its Golden Age, patron of the arts encouraging public images of peace, prosperity, and power. Convinced the people to rebuild the Acropolis to honor Athena.
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Augustus
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
Vespasian
Emperor of Rome and founder of the Flavian dynasty who consolidated Roman rule in Germany and Britain and reformed the army and brought prosperity to the empire
Sky Gods
Children of Earth and Sky
Zeus (Jupiter)
god of gods
Hera (Juno)
goddess of women and marriage
Hestia
goddess of the hearth and its fire
Poseidon
god of the sea and earthquakes
Hades
god of the underworld
Ares (Mars)
god of war
Hephaistos
god of fire and metal-working
Aphrodite
goddess of love and beauty and daughter of Zeus
Artemis (Diana)
goddess of the hunt and the moon
Apollo (Phoebus)
god of the sun, art, music
Hermes (Mercury)
messenger and herald of the gods
Athena (Minerva)
goddess of wisdom and war
Demeter (Ceres)
goddess of grain and agriculture
Persephone (Proserpina)
goddess of the underworld
Dionysos (Bacchus)
god of wine and ecstasy
Eros (Cupid)
god of love
Eos (Aurora)
goddess of the dawn
Ge
goddess of the earth
Asclepius (Aesculapius)
god of medicine
Amphitrite
goddess of the sea
Pan
god of fields, woods, shepherds, and flocks
Nike
winged goddess of victory
The Sanctuary of Hera and Zeus near Olympia
site dedicated to the worship of Zeus, in whose honour Pan-Hellenic Games were held every four years from 776 BCE to 393 CE.
The Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi
an oracle Pythian Games
Pompeii
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
Herculaneum
an ancient Roman city that was destroyed by a volcano
Boscoreale
a comune and town in the province of Naples, Campania, located in the Parco Nazionale del Vesuvio under the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, known for the fruit and vineyards of Lacryma Christi del Vesuvio.
cult of Dionysus
cult based on Dionysus, had many rituals involving orgies and drinking, later transitioned to a more civilized cult
Tarquins
Ruling Etruscan family of Rome, Very cruel, enslaved people to make their lives comfortable
Punic Wars
a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance in the western Mediterranean
Pottery shapes:
amphora
pelike and stamnos
krater
oinochoe
hydria
kylix
kantharos
skyphos
lekythos
aryballos
olpe
The three main types of Greek painted vase decoration are called:
black-figure
red-figure
white-ground
Slips
mixture of clay and water
Gloss
metallic pigments mixed with slip
tempera
a paint made from egg yolks, water and pigments
"Wild goat style"
modern term describing vase painting produced in the east of Greece, namely the southern and eastern Ionian islands, between circa 650 to 550 BCE.
cella or naos
a central room often surrounded by a row of columns with a porch in front
"in antis"
term used to describe the position of columns set between two walls as in a portico or cella
prostyle
columns are only in front of the cella and not on the sides or back
amphiprostyle
columns are placed across both the front and back but not the sides
peripteral
peristyle row of columns all around the building
dipteral
double rows of columns around the cell
patricians
powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society
plebeians
farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population
The "Good Emperors"
Nerva (ruled 96-98 AD)
Trajan (ruled 98-117 AD)
Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD)
Antoninus Pius (ruled 138-161 AD)
Marcus Aurelius (ruled 161-180 AD)