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47 terms

Bio Study Guide 2

STUDY
PLAY
Name of the monomer or polymer of a carbohydrate
monosaccharide and polysaccharide
WHAT IS THE SUFFIX ASSIGNED TO MANY SUGARS
-ose
What is the function of carbohydrates?
Fuel for Cellular work
WHAT is a word used to describe glucose and fructose
Isomers
NAME ONE MONOSACCHARIDE, ONE DISACCHARIDE AND ONE POLYSACCHARIDE
MONOSACCHARIDE: GLUCOSE

DISSACCHARIDE: SUCROSE

POLYSACCHARIDE: STARCH
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Amino Acids
Besides for the order in which amino acids are arranged, what else is necessary for a Protein to function in a specific way?
Protein Shape
What is the name given to the bonds that link amino acids together? What type of bond are they?
Peptide bond.
Covalent.
Name the 4 different parts that make up an amino acid
Amino Group, Carboxyl group, R group
Explain Prion disease
A disease caused by misshapen proteins in the brain
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
And what are it's components?
Nucleotides
sugar
Phosphate
base
What is the function of a nucleic acid?
Stores genetic information
What are the 5 different bases? And which bases pair with which other bases?
Adenine
Thymine
Uracil
Cytosine
Guanine
Name the elements that are present in nucleic acids
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
phosphorus
Describe the types and location of the different bonds in molecules of RNA and DNA
Sugar-phosphate backbone: Covalent
(phosphodiester btw)

Base pairing: hydrogen
What are the three main types of lipids
1)Fats
2)Phopholipids
3)steroids
How are lipids different from the other molecules we've studied?
Not considered macromolecules
-not made up of repeating monomers
Describe the components of a fat
Glycerol + Fatty acid
What type of atoms do you find in lipids
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Nitrogen
What makes phospholipids arrange the way they do in a double membrane?
it was a picture so feel free to look at it
Describe Polarity and why water has this property
another pic
How many hydrogen bonds can water form?
4
Why is it important for life on Earth that floats on top of water.
Why does water do this anyways?
As water freezes each molecule forms stable hydrogen bonds with it's neighbors

Holds neighbors at "arms length"

Creates structure that is less compact than if it was in water form (LESS DENSE)
Explain Transpiration, cohesion and Adhesion
Cohesion- Tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together

Adhesion-Clinging of one substance to another

Transpiration-evaporation on surface of leaves causes water to be pulled up the trunk
List 4 unique properties of water due to it's polarity
Surface Tension
Cohesion
adhesion
Universal Solvent
Name the four types of molecules we studied
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic acids
Lipids
How many bonds does Carbon Form and why?
4 because it has 4 Valence electrons
What reaction makes a monomer into a polymer
What is the byproduct?
Dehydration Reaction
Water
What reaction breaks a polymer into monomers?
What do you have to add to the reaction?
Hydrolysis

Add water
What are the differences between Starch, glycogen and cellulose?
Starch- storage polysaccharide in plants (potatoes, wheat, rice, corn)
Glycogen- Animals store glycogen in liver and muscle cells
Cellulose- cell walls in plants
Describe 2 different proteins we discussed in class
this one didnt have an answer slide with it
How are ionic bonds formed?
In ionic bonds, one atom gives up an electron to a second atom.
Which of the following bonds are arranged from strongest to weakest in a biological system?
covalent, ionic, hydrogen
When hot, many mammals sweat to control their body temperature. Evaporation plays an important role, but the direct effect is due to _____.
the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
What is the main sugar used by cells for energy?
glucose
The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.
none of them dissolves in water
Proteins are an important class of molecules because of the functions they perform. Proteins can _____.
act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication
Peptide bonds are formed between _____. However, it is the properties of the _____ that determine the overall shape of the protein
amino and carboxyl groups ... R group
The primary structure of a protein is like the arrangement of beads on a string. In this analogy, the beads are _____, of which there are _____ different kinds.
amino acids ... 20
A protein's alpha helices and beta sheets fold together to create an overall shape at the _____ level of protein structure.
third
What happens to the shape and function of a protein if one of the amino acids is replaced with a different type of amino acid?
It depends on the role of the amino acid that is altered. One amino acid might be replaced with no measurable effect on the protein's function; replacing another might cause a total loss of function.
Large proteins, like DNA polymerase and hemoglobin, are often composed of several polypeptides that are linked together. The _____ level of protein structure describes how the polypeptides are joined to create a larger complex.
fourth
The reaction that joins two monomers to form a polymer is known as a _____ reaction. The molecule of water formed is due to the interaction between _____ and a hydrogen ion.
dehydration ... a hydroxyl group
A polysaccharide called starch consists entirely of glucose molecules. During early stages of starch digestion, starch would be broken down into _____.
maltose
What do phospholipids and cholesterol have in common?
Both are important components of cell membranes.
When calorie intake is low, proteins are the last resource the body uses for fuel. Which statement below gives the best reason for this?
When the body uses proteins as fuel, it is breaking down substances vital to its structure and essential functions.
Correct. Proteins are essential to every activity of the body, from the cellular to the organismal level.
DNA nucleotides are composed of _____.
deoxyribose sugars, which are bonded to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base