What reaction makes a monomer into a polymer What is the byproduct?
Dehydration Reaction Water
What reaction breaks a polymer into monomers? What do you have to add to the reaction?
What are the differences between Starch, glycogen and cellulose?
Starch- storage polysaccharide in plants (potatoes, wheat, rice, corn) Glycogen- Animals store glycogen in liver and muscle cells Cellulose- cell walls in plants
Describe 2 different proteins we discussed in class
this one didnt have an answer slide with it
How are ionic bonds formed?
In ionic bonds, one atom gives up an electron to a second atom.
Which of the following bonds are arranged from strongest to weakest in a biological system?
covalent, ionic, hydrogen
When hot, many mammals sweat to control their body temperature. Evaporation plays an important role, but the direct effect is due to _____.
the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
What is the main sugar used by cells for energy?
The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.
none of them dissolves in water
Proteins are an important class of molecules because of the functions they perform. Proteins can _____.
act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication
Peptide bonds are formed between _____. However, it is the properties of the _____ that determine the overall shape of the protein
amino and carboxyl groups ... R group
The primary structure of a protein is like the arrangement of beads on a string. In this analogy, the beads are _____, of which there are _____ different kinds.
amino acids ... 20
A protein's alpha helices and beta sheets fold together to create an overall shape at the _____ level of protein structure.
What happens to the shape and function of a protein if one of the amino acids is replaced with a different type of amino acid?
It depends on the role of the amino acid that is altered. One amino acid might be replaced with no measurable effect on the protein's function; replacing another might cause a total loss of function.
Large proteins, like DNA polymerase and hemoglobin, are often composed of several polypeptides that are linked together. The _____ level of protein structure describes how the polypeptides are joined to create a larger complex.
The reaction that joins two monomers to form a polymer is known as a _____ reaction. The molecule of water formed is due to the interaction between _____ and a hydrogen ion.
dehydration ... a hydroxyl group
A polysaccharide called starch consists entirely of glucose molecules. During early stages of starch digestion, starch would be broken down into _____.
What do phospholipids and cholesterol have in common?
Both are important components of cell membranes.
When calorie intake is low, proteins are the last resource the body uses for fuel. Which statement below gives the best reason for this?
When the body uses proteins as fuel, it is breaking down substances vital to its structure and essential functions. Correct. Proteins are essential to every activity of the body, from the cellular to the organismal level.
DNA nucleotides are composed of _____.
deoxyribose sugars, which are bonded to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base