NAME ONE MONOSACCHARIDE, ONE DISACCHARIDE AND ONE POLYSACCHARIDE
Besides for the order in which amino acids are arranged, what else is necessary for a Protein to function in a specific way?
What is the name given to the bonds that link amino acids together? What type of bond are they?
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
And what are it's components?
What are the 5 different bases? And which bases pair with which other bases?
Describe the types and location of the different bonds in molecules of RNA and DNA
Sugar-phosphate backbone: Covalent
Base pairing: hydrogen
How are lipids different from the other molecules we've studied?
Not considered macromolecules
-not made up of repeating monomers
What makes phospholipids arrange the way they do in a double membrane?
it was a picture so feel free to look at it
Why is it important for life on Earth that floats on top of water.
Why does water do this anyways?
As water freezes each molecule forms stable hydrogen bonds with it's neighbors
Holds neighbors at "arms length"
Creates structure that is less compact than if it was in water form (LESS DENSE)
Explain Transpiration, cohesion and Adhesion
Cohesion- Tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
Adhesion-Clinging of one substance to another
Transpiration-evaporation on surface of leaves causes water to be pulled up the trunk
List 4 unique properties of water due to it's polarity
What reaction breaks a polymer into monomers?
What do you have to add to the reaction?
What are the differences between Starch, glycogen and cellulose?
Starch- storage polysaccharide in plants (potatoes, wheat, rice, corn)
Glycogen- Animals store glycogen in liver and muscle cells
Cellulose- cell walls in plants
Which of the following bonds are arranged from strongest to weakest in a biological system?
covalent, ionic, hydrogen
When hot, many mammals sweat to control their body temperature. Evaporation plays an important role, but the direct effect is due to _____.
the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
Proteins are an important class of molecules because of the functions they perform. Proteins can _____.
act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication
Peptide bonds are formed between _____. However, it is the properties of the _____ that determine the overall shape of the protein
amino and carboxyl groups ... R group
The primary structure of a protein is like the arrangement of beads on a string. In this analogy, the beads are _____, of which there are _____ different kinds.
amino acids ... 20
A protein's alpha helices and beta sheets fold together to create an overall shape at the _____ level of protein structure.
What happens to the shape and function of a protein if one of the amino acids is replaced with a different type of amino acid?
It depends on the role of the amino acid that is altered. One amino acid might be replaced with no measurable effect on the protein's function; replacing another might cause a total loss of function.
Large proteins, like DNA polymerase and hemoglobin, are often composed of several polypeptides that are linked together. The _____ level of protein structure describes how the polypeptides are joined to create a larger complex.
The reaction that joins two monomers to form a polymer is known as a _____ reaction. The molecule of water formed is due to the interaction between _____ and a hydrogen ion.
dehydration ... a hydroxyl group
A polysaccharide called starch consists entirely of glucose molecules. During early stages of starch digestion, starch would be broken down into _____.
What do phospholipids and cholesterol have in common?
Both are important components of cell membranes.
When calorie intake is low, proteins are the last resource the body uses for fuel. Which statement below gives the best reason for this?
When the body uses proteins as fuel, it is breaking down substances vital to its structure and essential functions.
Correct. Proteins are essential to every activity of the body, from the cellular to the organismal level.