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Chapter 5 Practice Questions (Human Anatomy)
Terms in this set (114)
In which layer are 10-25% of the cells melanocytes, a cell that is prone to cancer in the form of melanoma?
Choose the false statement.
A) Skin does not have a role in regulating body temperature.
B) Low pH protects the skin.
C)There are substances in sweat that can kill bacteria.
D) Skin acts as a biological barrier.
Skin does not have a role in regulating body temperature.
Which of the following structures are primarily responsible for fingerprints?
Friction ridges and sweat pores
Which letter represents where the stratum lucidum would be found in fingertips, palms, and the soles of the feet?
Which of the following is not a function of hair?
Hair provides a luxuriant source of warmth
Exposure to UV radiation may damage folate that circulates in the blood within skin. Folate is an important B vitamin that is important for the reduction in neural tube defects in pregnant women.
All of the following shield the body from UV rays except __________.
The acid mantle
Skin strata - Description: Stratum basale
Single row of cells mainly composed of keratinocyte stem cells.
Epidermal cell type - Function: Keratinocytes
Produce a tough fibrous protein that gives the epidermis most of its protective qualities
Match the following skin function with the mechanism that accomplishes it: Protection
Provides a chemical barrier and a physical barrier to ward off bacterial invasion and to provide "waterproofing"
An injection is administered through the skin using a hypodermic needle. Identify the first integumentary structure through which the needle will pass.
Epidermal cell type - Function: Merkel cells
Sensory receptors for touch
The epidermis is composed of which of the following tissues?
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue
Skin strata - Description: Stratum corneum
Many cell layers of dead keratinocytes filled with keratin (outermost epidermal layer)
Which of the following lists the layers of the epidermis in thick skin in the correct order from deep to superficial?
1) Stratum basale
2) Stratum spinosum
3) Stratum granulosum
4) Stratum lucidum
5) Stratum corneum
The most common (and least malignant) type of cancer arises the layer marked by which letter?
Cells - Function: Keratinocytes
Make a fibrous protein for skin protection
Which of the following epidermal components possesses a waterproofing glycolipid that functions in preventing water loss?
One main difference between thin skin and thick skin is that __________.
in thin skin, the stratum lucidum appears to be absent
Cells - Function: Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
Activate the immune system
Skin strata - Description: Stratum spinosum
Several cell layers thick, with intermediate filaments, keratinocytes and dendritic (Langerhans) cells
Keratinocytes are connected by desmosomes, especially in the stratum spinosum. Recall the function of desmosomes.
Desmosomes serve as anchoring junctions—mechanical couplings scattered like rivets along the sides of adjacent cells to prevent their separation.
Which of the following cells function as sensory receptors for touch?
Epidermal cell type -Function: Melanocytes
Responsible for skin pigmentation
Skin strata - Description: Stratum lucidum
A thin, translucent band consisting of a two to three rows of clear, flat, dead, keratinocytes
If dermal ridges were missing, then __________.
friction ridges would be absent
A sunburn is generally classified as being __________.
a first-degree burn
Which of the following cells would one not expect to find in the dermis?
The dermis is primarily composed of which tissue type?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Condition - Description: Impetigo
Fluid-filled, raised lesions, common around the mouth and nose, that develop a yellow crust and eventually rupture; contagious
Which of the following is not strictly a component of the integumentary system?
The region deep to the skin is the __________.
Which of the following layers of the skin relies on capillaries in the underlying connective tissue for its nutrients?
Which of the following is most important in determining skin coloration?
Match structure with its primary tissue type: Hypodermis
Adipose connective tissue
Skin condition: Jaundice
Yellowish to pale-green coloring of skin caused by an accumulation of bile pigments in blood
Match the following change in skin color with its associated clinical signs of disease: Bronzing
Addison's disease; hypofunction of adrenal cortex
A hematoma in the skin appears as __________.
black and blue marks
Condition - Description: Eczema
Skin rashes resulting from allergic reactions
Match structure with its primary tissue type: Papillary layer of the dermis
Areolar connective tissue
Match changes in skin color with their associated clinical signs of disease: Redness or erythema
Fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy
What is the primary function of melanin?
To provide protection against the sun's UV rays
Match pigment with its associated skin color: Carotene
Yellow to orange
Match condition with its description: Psoriasis
Autoimmune condition, resulting in an over proliferation of the epidermis, characterized by reddened epidermal papules covered with dry, silvery scales
Skin eruption produced by dilated small blood vessels of the face, especially on the nose and cheeks, is descriptive of which skin disorder?
Match change in skin color with its associated clinical signs of disease: Cyanosis
Possible heart failure; possible respiratory disorders
Match pigment with its associated skin color: Hemoglobin
Match pigment with its associated skin color: Melanin
Ranges from yellow to reddish to brown to brownish black
Match structure with its primary tissue type: Reticular layer of the dermis
Dense irregular connective tissue
Matcg hair follicle-associated structure with its description: Arrector pili
Bundle of smooth muscle tissue running from the superficial dermis to the hair follicle; responsible for producing goose bumps
Glands - Location: Apocrine sudoriferous sweat glands
Primarily confined to the axillary, anal, and genital regions
Which of the following is true of hair?
Hair's main function in humans is to sense insects on the skin before they bite or sting us.
Which of the following can lead to hair loss?
- Severe emotional trauma
- Excessive vitamin A
Match hair follicle-associated structure with its description: Hair bulb
The expanded, deep region of a hair follicle
Match glands with their secretion: Sudoriferous glands
Match hair feature with its description: Vellus hair
Body hair of children and adult females
Which of the following is untrue with regards to finger nails?
Nails are primarily used to protect the capillary beds in the tip of the fingers and toes.
Match nail structure with its description: Nail bed
Epidermis on which the nail rests
Which of the following is untrue with regards to sweating?
Sweat is a hypertonic solution compared to plasma, containing high amounts of sodium.
Hirsutism is a condition characterized by __________.
Glands - Location: Mammary glands
Found only in the pectoral region
Condition - Description: Alopecia areata
A rare condition where hair follicles are attacked by the immune system, causing the hair to fall out in patches
Match nail structure with its description: Free edge
Distal edge of the nail
Glands - Functions: Eccrine sweat glands
Secrete a hypotonic filtrate of the blood (99% water with traces of salt, vitamin C, antibodies, metabolic wastes, and lactic acid)
Match hair feature with its description: Alopecia
Loss of hair
Apocrine sweat glands __________.
begin functioning at puberty
Which of the following human integumentary system glands is believed to be analogous to the sexual scent glands of an animal?
Apocrine sudoriferous gland
Glands - Location: Sebaceous glands
Found all over the body except the palms and soles
Match nail structure with its description: Lunule
White, crescent-shaped area under the nail's proximal region
The role of ceruminous glands is to __________.
Match nail structure with its description: Nail matrix
Actively growing part of the nail
Terminal hair is located in all of the following areas, except the __________.
body hair of females
If an individual was unable to produce sebum, what problem would they most likely develop?
They would have brittle, more easily broken hair
Which structure represents lines that are important to surgeons because when an incision is made parallel to these lines, the skin gapes less and heals more readily?
Which of the following is the most immediate threat to life from a serious burn?
Loss of body fluids
Which structure contribute to our sense of touch by amplifying vibrations detected by the large lamellar corpuscles in the dermis?
Which of the following is not true concerning sun exposure?
It temporarily stimulates the immune system
Which structure represents when skin cannot slide easily to accommodate joint movement causing the dermis to fold and crease?
Identify the following type of skin cancer indicated by C in the photographs below.
Melanoma is particularly dangerous because __________.
it grows rapidly and metastasizes
Type of burn - Description: Third-degree burn
Entire thickness of the skin is consumed, resulting in the burned area appearing white, red, or blackened
Which structure represents tearing of the dermis, leaving silvery white scars called striae?
Match skin functions with the mechanism that accomplishes them: Metabolic functions
Synthesis of vitamin D; destruction of cancer-causing chemicals; activation of some steroid hormones
Squamous cell carcinoma
Identify the following type of skin cancer indicated by B in the photographs below.
Which of the following is not a function of the skin?
Respiratory gas exchange
Type of burn - Description: First-degree burn
Damage to only the epidermis that results in redness, swelling, and pain
Cells - Function: Tactile cells
ABCDE rule for recognizing melanoma with its description - Description: Diameter
Larger than 6 mm
Skin cancer - Description: Melanoma
The "most dangerous form" of skin cancer because it is highly metastatic; can originate wherever there is pigment, but often arises from existing moles, metastasizing rapidly into surrounding circulatory vessels
Type of burn -Description: Second-degree burn
Injury to the epidermis and the superficial region of the dermis resulting in redness, swelling, pain, and blisters
ABCDE rule for recognizing melanoma with its description: Evolution
Changes with time
ABCDE rule for recognizing melanoma with its description: Border irregularity
Pigmented spot possesses notches and indentations
What type of mole or pigmented spot on the skin would be the most concerning?
A spot with varying colors and irregular borders.
Match skin functions with the mechanism that accomplishes it: Blood reservoir
Potential to hold about 5% of the body's blood volume in numerous blood vessels
Match skin function with the mechanism that accomplishes it: Rising body temperature regulation
Dilation of blood vessels and secretion of sweat that evaporates from body surface
Skin appendages like hair and hair follicles, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands each plays a unique role in which of the following?
Basal cell carcinoma
Identify the following type of skin cancer indicated by A in the photographs below.
Which of the following is not considered a critical burn?
First-degree burns on 30% of the body
Why does your skin remain red after a bad sunburn?
Inflammation causes increased blood flow
Why would a third-degree burn be less painful than a first- or second-degree burn involving the same body area?
destruction of underlying pain receptors
Which layer is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue?
areolar connective tissue
Layer B is composed primarily of __________.
to supply cells to replace those lost from the epidermis
Which of these is NOT a function of the layer at D?
to lubricate hair and prevent infection
What is the function of the secretion from A?
C - Eccrine gland
Which structure is a type of sweat gland?
The main structural features of the skin epidermis
The skin is permeable to organic solvents, such as acetone or turpentine, because they ________.
can dissolve the lipid bilayers of epidermal and dermal cell plasma membranes
The source of the fluid that accumulates in a blister is________.
the plasma of the blood flowing through the numerous dermal blood vessels
During cold weather, blood vessels located in the dermis undergo vasoconstriction restricting blood flow into the skin. This produces additional body heat by routing blood to what effector organ?
A Caucasian patient with pale skin is treated for low blood pressure with medication that elevates the blood pressure; however, the skin's pallor does not change. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the pallor in this patient?
If a large number of whiteheads appear on the skin of the forehead, which of the following would result?
- Fine hairs on the forehead would become brittle.
- The forehead's skin would become dry.
- Bacteria on the forehead's skin would grow and multiply freely.
ABCD Melanoma Checklist
A - Asymmetry: Irregular shape; when shape doesn't match normal mole shape.
B - Borders: Irregular borders; Borders that are uneven.
C - Color: There are multiple colors.
D - Diameter: Larger than 1/4 an inch.
E - Evolving: Changing in size, shape, and color.
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