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134 terms

Endocrinology Final

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vandenberg effect
female sexual maturation in mice is accelerated by the odor of a male
hormone that is also neurotransmitter
norepinephrine
the diffusion of a chemical messenger through extracellular spaces to its target cell is best described as being what type of delivery system
endocrine
the effect in which two hormones working together produce an effect that is equal to the sum of the effect of the two hormones working alone is best termed
additive
the endocrine methodology tht uses radioactively labelled hormones and a sensitive photographic emulsion to determine the anatomical location of hormones i
autoradiography
supernatentes in a radioimmunoassay is
inversly related to testosterone level
the response that is monitored in the bioassay for somatotropin is
width of the epiphysial plates
an increase in cAMP causes
smooth muscle relaxation
testostorone synthesis in the leydig cells of the testes is stimulated by a cAMP mediated activation of
cholesterol esterase
directly activates inactive cAMP dependent protein kinase
cAMP
in the cyclic nucleotide-second messenger mechanism of hormone action the amplification stage refers to
adenylate cyclase activation
one effect of caffeine is to
inhibit phosphodiesterase activity
protein kinase C is directly activated by
diacyglycerol
an increase in PGE2 causes
increae in cAMP
the portion of the pituitary gland that develops as a ventral growth from the floor of the dienephalon is the
pars nervosa
the sythesis and release of somatomedins from the liver is
somatotropin
acromegaly is a condition associated with
excess somatotropin release in an adult
what portion of the pituitary gland was derived from an inward evagination of the oral ectoderm known as rathkes pouch
adenohypophysis
identify the pair of hormones belong together in terms of the three defined structural categories of pituitary hormones
FSH and LH, GH and PRL, aMSH and bLPH and ACTH
the portion of the pituitary gland that is referred to as a neurohemal organ is the
pars nervosa
evidence indicates that the neurohormone that inhibits the release of prolactin from the pituitary is
dopamine
hormonal information is carried from the median eminence directly into the pars distalis via the
hypophysial portal system
hiparprolactiremia which is frequently associated with menstrual abnormalities can be treated with
dopamine agonists
pro-his-pro-NH2 is the structural formula for
GnRH
which hypothalamic neurohormone is useful in the treatment of such disorders as acromegala, diabetic retinopathy, juvanile diabetes and peptic ulcers
somatostatin
myometrial sensitivity to oxytocin and the number of onxytocin receptors increases when
the ratio of plasma estradiol to progesterone increases
oxytocin acts on the
myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands
under normal conditions any direct effect of arginine vasopressin on blood pressure
is pharmacological rather than physiological
the only structural differences in the nune identified neurohypophysial hormones occurs at positions
34 8
an increase in blood pressure
decreases the release of arginine vasopressin
melanocyte stimulating hormone mediates melanosome disperson
proceeds in the absence of calcium
the finding that blood calcium levels decreased within one hour after the perfusion of a high calcium medium into a blood vessel of the thyroparathyroid apparatus of a dog was important because it suggested
the existence of calcitonin
the polypeptide hormone that acts to inhibit osteoclast activity is
calcitonin
a gastrointestinal hormone that potentiates insulin release in the presence of glucose is
somatostatin
the release of enzymes from the exocrine pancreas occurs primarily in response to which of the following hormones
cholecystokinin
bassed on structural similarities which of the following gastrointestinal hormones are grouped correctly
glucagon, secretin, VIP , GIP
glucagon secretion from the alpha cells is stimulated by
arginine, epinephrine, hypoglycemia
injection of insulin results in a
decrease in blood glucose levels
the actions of insulin on target cells are beleived
not to be mediated by cAMP
hormones that stimulate gluconeogenesis
glucagon, cortisol, GH
insulin increases the activity of
lipoprotein lipase
the beta cells of the islets of langerhands can be selectively destroyed by administering
alloxan
treatment with tolbutamide and toher solfuonurea derivatives would
decrease blood glucose level
the mechanism whereby growth factors affect cell division invoves
raising cGMP levels
addition of serum from hypohysectomized animals treated with ACTH to cartilage explants would
have no effect on cartilage matrix synthesis and chondrocyte mitosis
the ratio of oxygen supply to oxyen need appears to determine the level of
arythropoietin
symptoms of hypothyroidism
elevated blood levels of t4 and t3, increased appetite, rapid pulse
the main intrthyroidal storage form of thyroid hormones
thyroglobulin
thyroxine can be converted to
triiodothyronine in athyreotic humans
during periods of short term overfeeding serum levels of triiodothyronine
increase
long term TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland
changes the shape of folicular cells from columnar to squamous
endocytosis of thyroglobulin into intrcellular colloid droplets occurs
at the apical embrane
sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervious system and adrenal chromaffin cells share a common
neuroectodermal origin
the reason why adrenergic beta receptor antagonists are used to treat individuals with hypertension or other cardiac problems is that
cardiac beta adrenergic response is contraction
isoproterenol produces stronger response when bound to
beta adrenoceptors than when bound to alpha adrenoceptors
sequence of catecholamines
phenylalanine tyrosine dopa dopamine norepinephrine epinephrine
the response of binding to alpha adrenoceptors tends to
maks the effects of bindingto beta adrenoceptors
the response of binding to alpha adrenoceptors is to
increase cGMP and decrease cAMP levels in many tissues where binding to beta adrenoceptors causes an increase in cAMP
the response of binding to alpha adrenoceptors is to stimulate smooth muscle contraction whereas binding to beta adrenoceptors
stimulates smooth muscle relaxation
in birds where corticosterone is the majorsteroid synthesized by adrenal steroidogenic tissue
17 alpha hydroxylation is not the major steroid biosynthetic pathway
the major glucocorticoid in humans is
cortisol
excessive sodium in the body increased potassium lossin the urine increased blood volume and hypertension are symptoms of
hyperaldosteronism
renin is produced in the
juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney
conditions that increase renin release
low levels of sodium in the kidney filtrate, low blood volume, incresed activity of the sympathetic nervious system
castrated male or female given testosterone during the indifferent stage of sexual development would subsequently have
both mulierian and wolffian duct derivatives
a deficienty in the amount or activty of 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydeogenase 11 beta hydroxylase and or 21 eta hydroxylase is associated with
congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia
testosterone is converted to estradiol via the action of
aromatase
the male prostate gland is most highly stimulated by
5 alpha dihydrotestosterone
the role of inhibin is the regulate the release of the following hormone via negative feedback control at the level fo the hypothalamus and pituitary
FSH
the most variable portion of the menstrual cycle is the
follicular phase
the proliferative or estrogenic portion of the menstrual cycle is
follicular phase
during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycel
plasma levels of FSH and LH are depressed
has a positive feedback effect on the brain or pituitary
estradiol
amenorrhea and anovulation are complicating sequalae of excessive secretion of
PRL
home pregnancy test kits are designed to detect
human chorionic gonadotropin
pitocin
synthetic oxytocin
the primary hormone responsible for preparation of the reproductive tract for implantation by the zygote and the subsequnt maintenance of the pregnancy is
progesterone
the blocking of pregnancy and the return of estrous behavior in a recently impregnated female mouse after she is exposed to a foreign male is termed
bruce effect
the N acetylation of serotonin by acetyltransferase is
greater at night than during the day
one role of light in the pineal function is to entrain or synchronize the pineal rhythm with the environment via an endogenous timekeeper believed to be located
in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
laron dwarfish
is beleived to be caused by hepatic unresponsiveness to circulating somatotropin
the hypophysiotropic area of the mammalian hypothalamus is the
media basal hypothalamus
an example of a hormone that released into the body by specialized neurosecretory neurons
epinephrine
the most potent natural inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation is
prostacyclin
the fact that high levels of insulin may decrease the number of insulin receptors is an example of
negative homospecific effect on receptor dynamics
the portion of the pituitary gland that develops as a ventral growth from the floor of the diencephalon is
pars nervosa
the ratio of oxygen supply to oxygen need appears to determine the level of which of the
erythropoietin
symptoms of diabetes mellitus
mobilization of and use of fat and protein for energy, increase in blood pH, accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood
hyperaldosteronism symptoms
alkalosis, excessive NA, hypertension
alloxan is used for
destory the beta cells of the islets of langerhands
steroid hormone receptor complex acts
as a transcription factor
formation of arachidonic acid is inhibited by
cortisol
primary plexus of the superior hypophysial artery is located
in the median eminence
the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor is located in the
beta chain
hormonal information is carried from the median eminence directly into the pars distalis via the
hypophysial portal system
smooth muscle contraction is correlated with
an increase in cGMP
migratory leukocytes function in local inflammatory response by releasing
leukotrienes
alpha-MSH is cleaved from
ACTH
the portion of the pituitary gland that is referred to as a neurohemal organ
pars nervosa
neurohormone that inhibits the release of prolactin from the pituitary
dopamine
G protein subunit that plays a key role in determining whether the G protein is stimulatory or inhibitory in action
alpha
hormone that is a 20 carbon fatty acid
prostaglandin E2
neurohormone that inhibits the release of growth hormone
somatostatin
changes in the size of the crop sac in pigeons is a bioassay for
prolactin
the pituitary gland of adult humans lacks
pars intermedia
an agonist to a particular hormone would be expected to
show hormonal like activity
the steroid synthesizing cells of the gonads and adrenal cortex are of
mesodermal origin
the genomic actions of cAMP are mediated by
cAMP responsive element binding proteins
one of the characteristic structural features of G protein coupled receptors is
seven stretches of hydrophobic conserved residues separated by hydrophilic segments
second messenger that directly causes an increase in intracellular free calcium
inositol triphosphate
a marked decrease in the activity of phosphodiesterase would
increase the effects of cAMP
the synthesis and releae of somatomedins from the liver is stimulated primarily by
somatotropin
diacylglycerol formed from the action of phospholipase on phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate directly
activates protein kinase C
aldosterone synthesis is stimulated by all of the following
angiotensis 2, potassium, cAMP
members of the secretin family of gastrointestinal hormones
gastric inhibitory peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin
asprinin and indomethacin inhibit
cyclooxygenase activity
if plasmal calcium levels in humans fall below 10/100 ml
PTH is released
high blood osmolality would
increase arginine vasopressin release
during the luteal phase
plasma levels of FSH and LH are depresed
serotonin levels
elevated during the day and depressed at night
absence of adequate amounts of insulin would cause
hypoglycemia
portion of the pituitary gland that was derived from an inward evagination of the oral ectoderm known as rathkes pouch
adenohypohysis
pyro-glu-his-pro-NH2
TRH
the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus synthesize
neurohypophysial neurohormones
glucagon
inhibits glycogen synthesis
growth factor most directly implicated as having a possible role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques is
platelet derived growth factor
graves thyrotoxicosis is associated with
myxedema
insulin secretion from the beta cells is stimulated by
arginine, growth hormone, glucagon
a decrease in phosphodiesterase would
increase effects of cAMP
the enzympe responsible for the termination of action of a catecholamine such as epinephrine is
catecholamine o methyltransferase
growth of new capillary vessels is induced most strongly by
angiogenin
white to brown pelage
increae in MSH
nerve browth factor has no effect on
cholinergic parasympathetic neurons
dopamine is a precursor molecule in the synthesis of
epinephrine