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vandenberg effect

female sexual maturation in mice is accelerated by the odor of a male

hormone that is also neurotransmitter


the diffusion of a chemical messenger through extracellular spaces to its target cell is best described as being what type of delivery system


the effect in which two hormones working together produce an effect that is equal to the sum of the effect of the two hormones working alone is best termed


the endocrine methodology tht uses radioactively labelled hormones and a sensitive photographic emulsion to determine the anatomical location of hormones i


supernatentes in a radioimmunoassay is

inversly related to testosterone level

the response that is monitored in the bioassay for somatotropin is

width of the epiphysial plates

an increase in cAMP causes

smooth muscle relaxation

testostorone synthesis in the leydig cells of the testes is stimulated by a cAMP mediated activation of

cholesterol esterase

directly activates inactive cAMP dependent protein kinase


in the cyclic nucleotide-second messenger mechanism of hormone action the amplification stage refers to

adenylate cyclase activation

one effect of caffeine is to

inhibit phosphodiesterase activity

protein kinase C is directly activated by


an increase in PGE2 causes

increae in cAMP

the portion of the pituitary gland that develops as a ventral growth from the floor of the dienephalon is the

pars nervosa

the sythesis and release of somatomedins from the liver is


acromegaly is a condition associated with

excess somatotropin release in an adult

what portion of the pituitary gland was derived from an inward evagination of the oral ectoderm known as rathkes pouch


identify the pair of hormones belong together in terms of the three defined structural categories of pituitary hormones

FSH and LH, GH and PRL, aMSH and bLPH and ACTH

the portion of the pituitary gland that is referred to as a neurohemal organ is the

pars nervosa

evidence indicates that the neurohormone that inhibits the release of prolactin from the pituitary is


hormonal information is carried from the median eminence directly into the pars distalis via the

hypophysial portal system

hiparprolactiremia which is frequently associated with menstrual abnormalities can be treated with

dopamine agonists

pro-his-pro-NH2 is the structural formula for


which hypothalamic neurohormone is useful in the treatment of such disorders as acromegala, diabetic retinopathy, juvanile diabetes and peptic ulcers


myometrial sensitivity to oxytocin and the number of onxytocin receptors increases when

the ratio of plasma estradiol to progesterone increases

oxytocin acts on the

myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands

under normal conditions any direct effect of arginine vasopressin on blood pressure

is pharmacological rather than physiological

the only structural differences in the nune identified neurohypophysial hormones occurs at positions

34 8

an increase in blood pressure

decreases the release of arginine vasopressin

melanocyte stimulating hormone mediates melanosome disperson

proceeds in the absence of calcium

the finding that blood calcium levels decreased within one hour after the perfusion of a high calcium medium into a blood vessel of the thyroparathyroid apparatus of a dog was important because it suggested

the existence of calcitonin

the polypeptide hormone that acts to inhibit osteoclast activity is


a gastrointestinal hormone that potentiates insulin release in the presence of glucose is


the release of enzymes from the exocrine pancreas occurs primarily in response to which of the following hormones


bassed on structural similarities which of the following gastrointestinal hormones are grouped correctly

glucagon, secretin, VIP , GIP

glucagon secretion from the alpha cells is stimulated by

arginine, epinephrine, hypoglycemia

injection of insulin results in a

decrease in blood glucose levels

the actions of insulin on target cells are beleived

not to be mediated by cAMP

hormones that stimulate gluconeogenesis

glucagon, cortisol, GH

insulin increases the activity of

lipoprotein lipase

the beta cells of the islets of langerhands can be selectively destroyed by administering


treatment with tolbutamide and toher solfuonurea derivatives would

decrease blood glucose level

the mechanism whereby growth factors affect cell division invoves

raising cGMP levels

addition of serum from hypohysectomized animals treated with ACTH to cartilage explants would

have no effect on cartilage matrix synthesis and chondrocyte mitosis

the ratio of oxygen supply to oxyen need appears to determine the level of


symptoms of hypothyroidism

elevated blood levels of t4 and t3, increased appetite, rapid pulse

the main intrthyroidal storage form of thyroid hormones


thyroxine can be converted to

triiodothyronine in athyreotic humans

during periods of short term overfeeding serum levels of triiodothyronine


long term TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland

changes the shape of folicular cells from columnar to squamous

endocytosis of thyroglobulin into intrcellular colloid droplets occurs

at the apical embrane

sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervious system and adrenal chromaffin cells share a common

neuroectodermal origin

the reason why adrenergic beta receptor antagonists are used to treat individuals with hypertension or other cardiac problems is that

cardiac beta adrenergic response is contraction

isoproterenol produces stronger response when bound to

beta adrenoceptors than when bound to alpha adrenoceptors

sequence of catecholamines

phenylalanine tyrosine dopa dopamine norepinephrine epinephrine

the response of binding to alpha adrenoceptors tends to

maks the effects of bindingto beta adrenoceptors

the response of binding to alpha adrenoceptors is to

increase cGMP and decrease cAMP levels in many tissues where binding to beta adrenoceptors causes an increase in cAMP

the response of binding to alpha adrenoceptors is to stimulate smooth muscle contraction whereas binding to beta adrenoceptors

stimulates smooth muscle relaxation

in birds where corticosterone is the majorsteroid synthesized by adrenal steroidogenic tissue

17 alpha hydroxylation is not the major steroid biosynthetic pathway

the major glucocorticoid in humans is


excessive sodium in the body increased potassium lossin the urine increased blood volume and hypertension are symptoms of


renin is produced in the

juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney

conditions that increase renin release

low levels of sodium in the kidney filtrate, low blood volume, incresed activity of the sympathetic nervious system

castrated male or female given testosterone during the indifferent stage of sexual development would subsequently have

both mulierian and wolffian duct derivatives

a deficienty in the amount or activty of 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydeogenase 11 beta hydroxylase and or 21 eta hydroxylase is associated with

congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia

testosterone is converted to estradiol via the action of


the male prostate gland is most highly stimulated by

5 alpha dihydrotestosterone

the role of inhibin is the regulate the release of the following hormone via negative feedback control at the level fo the hypothalamus and pituitary


the most variable portion of the menstrual cycle is the

follicular phase

the proliferative or estrogenic portion of the menstrual cycle is

follicular phase

during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycel

plasma levels of FSH and LH are depressed

has a positive feedback effect on the brain or pituitary


amenorrhea and anovulation are complicating sequalae of excessive secretion of


home pregnancy test kits are designed to detect

human chorionic gonadotropin


synthetic oxytocin

the primary hormone responsible for preparation of the reproductive tract for implantation by the zygote and the subsequnt maintenance of the pregnancy is


the blocking of pregnancy and the return of estrous behavior in a recently impregnated female mouse after she is exposed to a foreign male is termed

bruce effect

the N acetylation of serotonin by acetyltransferase is

greater at night than during the day

one role of light in the pineal function is to entrain or synchronize the pineal rhythm with the environment via an endogenous timekeeper believed to be located

in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

laron dwarfish

is beleived to be caused by hepatic unresponsiveness to circulating somatotropin

the hypophysiotropic area of the mammalian hypothalamus is the

media basal hypothalamus

an example of a hormone that released into the body by specialized neurosecretory neurons


the most potent natural inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation is


the fact that high levels of insulin may decrease the number of insulin receptors is an example of

negative homospecific effect on receptor dynamics

the portion of the pituitary gland that develops as a ventral growth from the floor of the diencephalon is

pars nervosa

the ratio of oxygen supply to oxygen need appears to determine the level of which of the


symptoms of diabetes mellitus

mobilization of and use of fat and protein for energy, increase in blood pH, accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood

hyperaldosteronism symptoms

alkalosis, excessive NA, hypertension

alloxan is used for

destory the beta cells of the islets of langerhands

steroid hormone receptor complex acts

as a transcription factor

formation of arachidonic acid is inhibited by


primary plexus of the superior hypophysial artery is located

in the median eminence

the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor is located in the

beta chain

hormonal information is carried from the median eminence directly into the pars distalis via the

hypophysial portal system

smooth muscle contraction is correlated with

an increase in cGMP

migratory leukocytes function in local inflammatory response by releasing


alpha-MSH is cleaved from


the portion of the pituitary gland that is referred to as a neurohemal organ

pars nervosa

neurohormone that inhibits the release of prolactin from the pituitary


G protein subunit that plays a key role in determining whether the G protein is stimulatory or inhibitory in action


hormone that is a 20 carbon fatty acid

prostaglandin E2

neurohormone that inhibits the release of growth hormone


changes in the size of the crop sac in pigeons is a bioassay for


the pituitary gland of adult humans lacks

pars intermedia

an agonist to a particular hormone would be expected to

show hormonal like activity

the steroid synthesizing cells of the gonads and adrenal cortex are of

mesodermal origin

the genomic actions of cAMP are mediated by

cAMP responsive element binding proteins

one of the characteristic structural features of G protein coupled receptors is

seven stretches of hydrophobic conserved residues separated by hydrophilic segments

second messenger that directly causes an increase in intracellular free calcium

inositol triphosphate

a marked decrease in the activity of phosphodiesterase would

increase the effects of cAMP

the synthesis and releae of somatomedins from the liver is stimulated primarily by


diacylglycerol formed from the action of phospholipase on phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate directly

activates protein kinase C

aldosterone synthesis is stimulated by all of the following

angiotensis 2, potassium, cAMP

members of the secretin family of gastrointestinal hormones

gastric inhibitory peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin

asprinin and indomethacin inhibit

cyclooxygenase activity

if plasmal calcium levels in humans fall below 10/100 ml

PTH is released

high blood osmolality would

increase arginine vasopressin release

during the luteal phase

plasma levels of FSH and LH are depresed

serotonin levels

elevated during the day and depressed at night

absence of adequate amounts of insulin would cause


portion of the pituitary gland that was derived from an inward evagination of the oral ectoderm known as rathkes pouch




the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus synthesize

neurohypophysial neurohormones


inhibits glycogen synthesis

growth factor most directly implicated as having a possible role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques is

platelet derived growth factor

graves thyrotoxicosis is associated with


insulin secretion from the beta cells is stimulated by

arginine, growth hormone, glucagon

a decrease in phosphodiesterase would

increase effects of cAMP

the enzympe responsible for the termination of action of a catecholamine such as epinephrine is

catecholamine o methyltransferase

growth of new capillary vessels is induced most strongly by


white to brown pelage

increae in MSH

nerve browth factor has no effect on

cholinergic parasympathetic neurons

dopamine is a precursor molecule in the synthesis of


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