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39 terms

Scientists Who Studied Atomic Structure

Honors Chemistry, Harrison; Chapters 3 & 4: Atomic Structure/Electron Configuration
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Democritus
Scientist/philosopher from about 400 B.C.
Democritus
Atomos: indivisible particles
1
Democritus
John Dalton
Early 1800s
John Dalton
Discovered first modern atomic theory
John Dalton
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms
John Dalton
All atoms of the same element are identical, but they differ from those of any other element
John Dalton
Atoms unite in definite ratios to form compounds
John Dalton
Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms; the atoms themselves are not changed
2
John Dalton
J. J. Thomson, Robert Millikan, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr
Early 1900s
J. J. Thomson
Cathode ray tube/Crooke's tube
J. J. Thomson
Cathode rays are negatively charged particles
electrons
Cathode rays were eventually figured out to be ___
J. J. Thomson
First person to really discover the electron
J. J. Thomson
Speed of the electron
e/m=k
Charge/mass ratio for the electron
amount of charge on the electron
In the ratio e/m=k, e stands for ___
mass of the electron
In the ratio e/m=k, m stands for ___
constant
In the ratio e/m=k, k stands for ___
coulomb
Unit that measures electricity
k was the same no matter what metal was used for the cathode
How were all electrons discovered to be the same?
J. J. Thomson
Created "Plum/Rice Pudding Theory" of the atom
3
J.J. Thomson
Robert Millikan
Oil drop apparatus
Robert Millikan
Experimentally found charge of electrons
Robert Millikan
Using the equation e/m=k, he calculated the mass of the electron
4
Robert Millikan
Ernest Rutherford
Fired alpha particles/helium nuclei/positively charged particles at gold foil
Ernest Rutherford
Deflection of particles led to discarding the "rice pudding" theory
Ernest Rutherford
Created the nuclear/planetary model of the atom
Ernest Rutherford
Center of atom is a sphere of positive charge
Ernest Rutherford
Electrons orbit the nucleus in 3-D space
Ernest Rutherford
Most of the atom is empty space
Ernest Rutherford
Predicted the existence of neutrons
5
Ernest Rutherford
Niels Bohr
Modified Rutherford's model of the atom
Niels Bohr
Stated that electrons must occupy SPECIFIC orbits around the nucleus
6
Niels Bohr