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Active listening

Involves listening with a purpose

automatic attention

the instinctive focus we give to stimuli signaling a change in our surroundings, stimuli that we deem important, or stimuli that we perceive to signal danger

critical listening

listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness and utility. Cant listen critically if you don't think critically

critical thinking

analyzing the speaker, the situation and the speaker's ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented


To clarify the writers emotions in things like chat rooms and email

empathetic listening

listening with a purpose and attempting to understand the other person

first-person observation

observations based on something that you personally have sensed


the act of receiving sound

information literacy

the ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and effectively use the information needed.

lecture cues

verbal or nonverbal signals that stress points or indicate transitions between ideas during a lecture

lecture listening

the ability to listen to, mentally process, and recall lecture information


the active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken an/or nonverbal messages. It involves the ability to retain information, as well as to react empathetically and/or appreciatively to spoken and/or non verbal message

listening for enjoyment

situations involving relaxing, fun or, emotionally stimulating information

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences, images of people, and smells


Organizational filing systems form thoughts held in long-term memory

second-person observation

a report of what another person observed

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

short-term memory

a temporary storage place for information
It is the least efficient form of memory, and is limited in the quantity of information stored and the length of time information is retained. Its limited to about 20 seconds

source credibility

Perceived competence and trustworthiness of a speaker or writer that affects how the message is received

working memory

the part of our consciousness that interprets and assigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention to. It looks for shortcuts when processing information and recognizes patterns of letters quickly and assigns meaning. looks for connections between newly heard information and information stored in long-term memory

chronological resume

a document that organizes your credentials over time

communication networks

patterns of relationships through which information flows in an organization

cover letter

a letter you send with your resume to provide more information about you.

downward communication

Communication that flows downward from a manager to employees

economic orientation

organizations that manufacture products and/or offer services for consumers ex: target

emotional labor

jobs in which employees are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations

formal communication

messages that follow prescribed channels of communication throughout the organization

functional resume

a document that organizes your credentials by type of function performed

horizontal communication

communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level

hostile work environment sexual harassment

conditions in the workplace that are sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile and that affect an individual's ability to perform his or her job

informal communication

any interaction that does not generally follow the formal structure of the organization but emerges out of natural social interaction among organization members

integration orientation

Have a prime task of mediating and dissolving disputes between people. Example: churches/courts

job description

a written description of the basic tasks, duties, and responsibilities required of an employee holding a particular job

objective statement

an articulation of your goals


Collections of people who work together and coordinate their actions to achieve a wide variety of goals, or desired future outcomes.

organizational communication

the ways in which groups of people both maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual actors the freedom to accomplish their goals

pattern-maintenance orientation

Organizations that promote cultural and educational regularity and development within society (families, religious groups)

political orientation

organizations that generate and distribute power and control within society

quid pro quo sexual harassment

Asking for or forcing an employee to perform sexual favors in exchange for receiving some reward or avoiding negative consequences

sexual harassment

unwelcome sexual behavior by a supervisor toward an employee

upward communication

communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization


an intricate web of contacts and relationships designed to benefit the participants


communication behaviors intended to create perceptions of psychological closeness with others

strategic ambiguity

the purposeful use of symbols to allow multiple interpretations of messages

supportive communication

listening with empathy, acknowledging others' feelings, and engaging in dialogue to help others maintain a sense of personal control

interaction management

establishing a smooth pattern of interaction that allows a clear flow between topics and ideas

collaborative style

People coming together to build trust, cooperation, and communication as they work toward a shared vision and common goals.

customer service encounter

The moment of interaction between the customer and the firm


drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect

bibliographic references

complete citations that appear in the "references" or "works cited" section of your speech outline

celebrity testimony

statements made by a public figure who is known to the audience

common ground

The background, knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and philosophies that are shared by audience members and the speaker (also called co-orientation)


the degree to which the speaker is perceived as skilled, reliable, experienced, qualified, etc.. (an aspect of credibility)


determinations of meaning through description, simplification, examples, analysis, comparison, explanation, or illustration


the perception of a speaker as confident, decisive, and enthusiastic


specific instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement

expert testimony

The opinion of someone who is an acknowledged expert in the field under discussion


clarification of what something is or how it works

incremental plagiarism

the intentional or unintentional use of information from one or more sources without fully divulging how much information is directly quoted

internal references

brief notations indicating a bibliographic reference that contains the details you are using in your speech

Lay testimony

A report of personal observation, experience, or opinion on a topic not requiring special expertise

personal experience

use of your own life as a source of information


a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work

reference librarian

library specialist whose job is to help you find research information

search engine

a program on the internet that allows users to search for information

sleeper effect

The Finding that, over time, people separate the message from the messenger

source credibility

the audience's perception of your effectiveness as a speaker


the collection and classification of data that are in the form of numbers

supporting materials

The materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony.


studies in which a limited number of questions are answered by a sample of the population to discover opinions on issues

testimonial evidence

written or oral statements of others' experience used by a speaker to substantiate or clarify a point


an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest

two-sided argument

an argument that presents one's argument along with an opposing argument for the purpose of discrediting the opposing view

verbal citations

oral explanations of who the source is, how recent the information is, and what the source's qualifications are

communication orientation

your focus as a speaker is to achieve your communicative goals

extemporaneous delivery

Speech that are researched and planned ahead of time, although the exact wording is not scripted and will vary from presentation to presentation

impromptu delivery

a speech that has little or no preparation time and is made up along the way


identify specific elements of a graphic slide

manuscript delivery

a speech that is written word-for-word using a tone and language that are appropriate for speaking rather than reading

memorized delivery

a speech is written as a manuscript and then delivered from memory


verbal mistakes such as false starts, mispronunciations or excessive ah's and um's

performance orientation

seeing your presentation as a performance and your audience as critics


describe the general focus of a graphic slide

visual aids

aids used within a speech to visually augment the main points being made by the speaker. They come in the form of PowerPoint Presentations, video/dvd, posters, objects, pictures, graphs or charts, and sometimes may include the speaker's body

vocalized pauses

filler words such as "um" and "ah"


used to create presentations

"B" key

push to go to black

flip charts

tablets you prepare in advance or create on the spot; turn to a new page or tear off and display pages as you finish them

overhead transparencies

useful to show development (can be overlaid), can be changed quickly and easily


represents an idea, event, or object to help people better understand it.

black slides

A slide that displays at the end of a slide presentation indicating the end of the slide show.

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