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91 terms

communication chapter 5, 8, 11, 13

STUDY
PLAY
Active listening
Involves listening with a purpose
automatic attention
the instinctive focus we give to stimuli signaling a change in our surroundings, stimuli that we deem important, or stimuli that we perceive to signal danger
critical listening
listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness and utility. Cant listen critically if you don't think critically
critical thinking
analyzing the speaker, the situation and the speaker's ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented
emotican
To clarify the writers emotions in things like chat rooms and email
empathetic listening
listening with a purpose and attempting to understand the other person
first-person observation
observations based on something that you personally have sensed
hearing
the act of receiving sound
information literacy
the ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and effectively use the information needed.
lecture cues
verbal or nonverbal signals that stress points or indicate transitions between ideas during a lecture
lecture listening
the ability to listen to, mentally process, and recall lecture information
listening
the active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken an/or nonverbal messages. It involves the ability to retain information, as well as to react empathetically and/or appreciatively to spoken and/or non verbal message
listening for enjoyment
situations involving relaxing, fun or, emotionally stimulating information
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences, images of people, and smells
schema
Organizational filing systems form thoughts held in long-term memory
second-person observation
a report of what another person observed
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
short-term memory
a temporary storage place for information
It is the least efficient form of memory, and is limited in the quantity of information stored and the length of time information is retained. Its limited to about 20 seconds
source credibility
Perceived competence and trustworthiness of a speaker or writer that affects how the message is received
working memory
the part of our consciousness that interprets and assigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention to. It looks for shortcuts when processing information and recognizes patterns of letters quickly and assigns meaning. looks for connections between newly heard information and information stored in long-term memory
chronological resume
a document that organizes your credentials over time
communication networks
patterns of relationships through which information flows in an organization
cover letter
a letter you send with your resume to provide more information about you.
downward communication
Communication that flows downward from a manager to employees
economic orientation
organizations that manufacture products and/or offer services for consumers ex: target
emotional labor
jobs in which employees are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations
formal communication
messages that follow prescribed channels of communication throughout the organization
functional resume
a document that organizes your credentials by type of function performed
horizontal communication
communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level
hostile work environment sexual harassment
conditions in the workplace that are sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile and that affect an individual's ability to perform his or her job
informal communication
any interaction that does not generally follow the formal structure of the organization but emerges out of natural social interaction among organization members
integration orientation
Have a prime task of mediating and dissolving disputes between people. Example: churches/courts
job description
a written description of the basic tasks, duties, and responsibilities required of an employee holding a particular job
objective statement
an articulation of your goals
organizations
Collections of people who work together and coordinate their actions to achieve a wide variety of goals, or desired future outcomes.
organizational communication
the ways in which groups of people both maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual actors the freedom to accomplish their goals
pattern-maintenance orientation
Organizations that promote cultural and educational regularity and development within society (families, religious groups)
political orientation
organizations that generate and distribute power and control within society
quid pro quo sexual harassment
Asking for or forcing an employee to perform sexual favors in exchange for receiving some reward or avoiding negative consequences
sexual harassment
unwelcome sexual behavior by a supervisor toward an employee
upward communication
communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization
network
an intricate web of contacts and relationships designed to benefit the participants
immediacy
communication behaviors intended to create perceptions of psychological closeness with others
strategic ambiguity
the purposeful use of symbols to allow multiple interpretations of messages
supportive communication
listening with empathy, acknowledging others' feelings, and engaging in dialogue to help others maintain a sense of personal control
interaction management
establishing a smooth pattern of interaction that allows a clear flow between topics and ideas
collaborative style
People coming together to build trust, cooperation, and communication as they work toward a shared vision and common goals.
customer service encounter
The moment of interaction between the customer and the firm
analogy
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect
bibliographic references
complete citations that appear in the "references" or "works cited" section of your speech outline
celebrity testimony
statements made by a public figure who is known to the audience
common ground
The background, knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and philosophies that are shared by audience members and the speaker (also called co-orientation)
competence
the degree to which the speaker is perceived as skilled, reliable, experienced, qualified, etc.. (an aspect of credibility)
definitions
determinations of meaning through description, simplification, examples, analysis, comparison, explanation, or illustration
dynamism
the perception of a speaker as confident, decisive, and enthusiastic
examples
specific instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement
expert testimony
The opinion of someone who is an acknowledged expert in the field under discussion
explanation
clarification of what something is or how it works
incremental plagiarism
the intentional or unintentional use of information from one or more sources without fully divulging how much information is directly quoted
internal references
brief notations indicating a bibliographic reference that contains the details you are using in your speech
Lay testimony
A report of personal observation, experience, or opinion on a topic not requiring special expertise
personal experience
use of your own life as a source of information
plagiarism
a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work
reference librarian
library specialist whose job is to help you find research information
search engine
a program on the internet that allows users to search for information
sleeper effect
The Finding that, over time, people separate the message from the messenger
source credibility
the audience's perception of your effectiveness as a speaker
statistics
the collection and classification of data that are in the form of numbers
supporting materials
The materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony.
surveys
studies in which a limited number of questions are answered by a sample of the population to discover opinions on issues
testimonial evidence
written or oral statements of others' experience used by a speaker to substantiate or clarify a point
trustworthiness
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest
two-sided argument
an argument that presents one's argument along with an opposing argument for the purpose of discrediting the opposing view
verbal citations
oral explanations of who the source is, how recent the information is, and what the source's qualifications are
communication orientation
your focus as a speaker is to achieve your communicative goals
extemporaneous delivery
Speech that are researched and planned ahead of time, although the exact wording is not scripted and will vary from presentation to presentation
impromptu delivery
a speech that has little or no preparation time and is made up along the way
labels
identify specific elements of a graphic slide
manuscript delivery
a speech that is written word-for-word using a tone and language that are appropriate for speaking rather than reading
memorized delivery
a speech is written as a manuscript and then delivered from memory
non-fluencies
verbal mistakes such as false starts, mispronunciations or excessive ah's and um's
performance orientation
seeing your presentation as a performance and your audience as critics
titles
describe the general focus of a graphic slide
visual aids
aids used within a speech to visually augment the main points being made by the speaker. They come in the form of PowerPoint Presentations, video/dvd, posters, objects, pictures, graphs or charts, and sometimes may include the speaker's body
vocalized pauses
filler words such as "um" and "ah"
PowerPoint
used to create presentations
"B" key
push to go to black
flip charts
tablets you prepare in advance or create on the spot; turn to a new page or tear off and display pages as you finish them
overhead transparencies
useful to show development (can be overlaid), can be changed quickly and easily
models
represents an idea, event, or object to help people better understand it.
black slides
A slide that displays at the end of a slide presentation indicating the end of the slide show.