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Medical Terminology - chapt 9 - Urinary system

Surgical Technology 120
STUDY
PLAY
ablation*
the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function
acute renal failure (ARF)*
has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia
anuria*
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys
benign prostatis hypertrophy*
an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50
bladder retraining*
a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals
bladder ultrasound*
the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination
urinary catheterization*
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder
computed tomography*
used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system
cystalgia*
pain in the urinary bladder
cystectomy*
the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
cystitis*
an inflammation of the bladder
cystocele*
a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a fallen bladder
cystography*
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter
cystolith*
a stone located in the urinary bladder
cystopexy*
the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall
cystorrhaphy*
the surgical suturing of the bladder
cystoscopy*
the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope
dialysis*
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
diuresis*
the increased output of urine
digital rectal examination*
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer
diuretics*
medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt
dysuria*
difficult or painful urination
edema*
excessive fluid in the body tissues
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)*
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys
enuresis*
the involuntary discharge of urine
epispadias*
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)*
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel
female urethra*
approximately 1.5 inches long; urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; conveys only urine
glomerulonephritis*
a form of nephritis that involves primarily the glomeruli; also known as Bright's disease
glomerulus*
a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule
hemodialysis*
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys
hydronephrosis*
the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys
hydroureter*
the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked
hyperproteinuria*
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia*
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
hypospadias*
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is into the vagina
incontinence*
the inability to control excretory functions
indwelling catheter*
one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time
interstitial cystitis*
a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder
intravenous pyelogram*
a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to diagnose changed in the urinary tract
Kegel exercises*
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women
KUB (Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder)*
a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium
lithotomy*
a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder
male urethra*
approximately 8 inches long; urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen
meatotomy*
a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
medulla*
the inner region of the kidney
nephritis*
an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys
nephrolith*
a stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone
nephrolithiasis*
a disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney
nephrolithotomy*
the surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney
nephrologist*
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
nephrolysis*
the freeing of a kidney from adhesions
nephrons*
a functional unit of the kidney. THESE UNITS FORM URINE, by the process of FILTRATION, REABSORPTION, and SECRETION.
nephropathy*
any disease of the kidney including degenerative and inflammatory conditions
nephropexy*
the surgical fixation of a floating kidney
nephroptosis*
the prolapse of a kidney
nephropyosis*
suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney
nephrostomy*
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body
nephrotic syndrome*
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood
neurogenic bladder*
a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination
nocturia*
excessive urination during the night
nocturnal enuresis*
urinary incontinence during sleep
oliguria*
scanty urination
overactive bladder (OAB)*
occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active
percutaneous nephrolithotomy*
treatment of a kidney stone that is performed with a nephroscope inserted through a small incision in the back
peritoneal dialysis*
dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood
polycystic kidney disease*
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
polyuria*
excessive urination
prostate cancer*
one of the most common cancers among men
prostate gland*
part of the male reproductive system and surrounds the urethra
prostatectomy*
the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)*
blood test used to screen for prostate cancer
prostatism*
the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatis hypertrophy
prostatitis*
an inflammation of the prostate gland
pyelitis*
an inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis*
an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney
pyeloplasty*
the surgical repair of the renal pelvis
pyelotomy*
a surgical incision into the renal pelvis
renal*
pertaining to the kidneys
renal colic*
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passing of a kidney stone
renal cortex*
the outer region of the kidney
renal failure*
the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions
renal pelvis*
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla
renal transplantation*
the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys; a kidney transplant
retrograde urography*
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract
stone*
an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body; also known as a calculus
stress incontinence*
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing
suprapubic catheterization*
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
transurethral prostatectomy*
the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope
urea*
the major waste product of protein metabolism
uremia*
a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood
ureterectasis*
the distention of a ureter
ureterectomy*
the surgical removal of a ureter
ureterolith*
a stone located in a ureter
ureteroplasty*
the surgical repair of a ureter
ureterorrhagia*
the discharge of blood from the ureter
ureterorrhaphy*
the surgical suturing of a ureter
ureters*
two narrow tubes which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder
urethra*
the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body
urethral catheterization*
peformed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder
urethral meatus*
the external opening of the urethra
urethritis*
an inflammation of the urethra
urethropexy*
the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence
urethrorrhagia*
bleeding from the urethra
urethrorrhea*
an abnormal discharge from the urethra
urethrostenosis*
abnormal narrowing of the urethra
urethrostomy*
the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin
urethrotomy*
a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture
urinalysis*
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
urinary bladder*
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body
urinary hesitancy*
difficulty in starting a urinary stream
urinary incontinence*
the inability to control the voiding of urine
urinary tract infection (UTI)*
an infection that usually begins in the bladder but that can affect all or parts of the urinary system
urination*
the normal process of excreting urine
urochrome
the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color
urologist*
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females, and the genitourinary system of males
vesicovaginal fistula*
an abnormal opening between the bladder and vaginan that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
voiding cystourethrography*
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra
Wilms tumor*
a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children
urine*
a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
Filtration
process by which fluid from the blood filters into Bowman's capsule in the kidneys
Absorption
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
Secretion
occurs in the kidneys, it the discharge of wastes from the blood into the filtrate from the nephron tubules.
Bowman's capsule
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
Ascending loop of Henle
Portion of the nephron not permeable to water. A filtrate flows up the ascending limp through decreasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, Na+ is actively pumped out of the filtrate, decreasing filtrate concentration.
Descending loop of Henle
Portion of the nephron permeable only to water. The filtrate becomes more concentrated as water is reabsorbed while traveling through the descending limb due to the increasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, drawing water out.
Proximal convoluted tubule
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients
Distal convoluted tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium
ADH
Antidiuretic hormone, is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland - and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
ANH
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone, is secreted by the atria of the heart, this hormone lowers blood pressure by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys
aldosterone
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, "salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
Renal filtrate
the fluid formed from blood plasma by the process of filtration in the renal corpuscles; flows from bowmans capsuled through the renal tubules where most is reabsorbed; the filtrate that enters the renal pervis is called urine
Tubular reabsorption
moves useful substances back into the blood while keeping waste products in the nephron to be eliminated in the urine.
kidney
either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine, they are located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
urinary system
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
lithiasis
presence or formation of stones
renal tubule*
cup shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule
renal artery*
where blood enters the kidney through and flows into the nephrons
renal vein*
where the filtered blood containing protein and blood cells leave the kidney and return into the bloodstream through
ureteral orifices *
where urine drains through from the ureters into the bladder
urinate *
urge when bladder fills up with urine and pressure is placed on the base of the urethra
Chronic Kidney Disease*
progressive loss of renal function over months or years (also known as kidney failure)
urinary retention *
inability to completely empty the bladder when attempting to urinate
overflow incontinence *
continuous leaking from the bladder either because it is full or did not empty completely
ureteroscopy*
treatment for a nephrolith lodged in the ureter
neobladder*
replacement for the missing bladder created by using 20 in of the small intestine
ileal conduit*
the use of a small piece of intestine to convey urine to the ureters and the stoma in the abdomen
foley catheter*
most common type of indwelling catheter
intermittent catheter*
inserted as needed several times a day to drain urine from bladder
retrograde ejaculation *
when an orgasm results in semen flowing backward into the bladder instead of out through the penis