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benign prostatis hypertrophy*
an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50
the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
digital rectal examination*
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer
medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)*
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)*
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel
approximately 1.5 inches long; urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; conveys only urine
a form of nephritis that involves primarily the glomeruli; also known as Bright's disease
a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is into the vagina
a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to diagnose changed in the urinary tract
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women
KUB (Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder)*
a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium
approximately 8 inches long; urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen
the surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
a functional unit of the kidney. THESE UNITS FORM URINE, by the process of FILTRATION, REABSORPTION, and SECRETION.
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood
a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination
treatment of a kidney stone that is performed with a nephroscope inserted through a small incision in the back
dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood
polycystic kidney disease*
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatis hypertrophy
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passing of a kidney stone
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla
the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys; a kidney transplant
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope
a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood
the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body
urinary tract infection (UTI)*
an infection that usually begins in the bladder but that can affect all or parts of the urinary system
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females, and the genitourinary system of males
an abnormal opening between the bladder and vaginan that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
occurs in the kidneys, it the discharge of wastes from the blood into the filtrate from the nephron tubules.
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
Ascending loop of Henle
Portion of the nephron not permeable to water. A filtrate flows up the ascending limp through decreasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, Na+ is actively pumped out of the filtrate, decreasing filtrate concentration.
Descending loop of Henle
Portion of the nephron permeable only to water. The filtrate becomes more concentrated as water is reabsorbed while traveling through the descending limb due to the increasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, drawing water out.
Proximal convoluted tubule
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients
Distal convoluted tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium
Antidiuretic hormone, is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland - and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone, is secreted by the atria of the heart, this hormone lowers blood pressure by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, "salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
the fluid formed from blood plasma by the process of filtration in the renal corpuscles; flows from bowmans capsuled through the renal tubules where most is reabsorbed; the filtrate that enters the renal pervis is called urine
moves useful substances back into the blood while keeping waste products in the nephron to be eliminated in the urine.
either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine, they are located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
where the filtered blood containing protein and blood cells leave the kidney and return into the bloodstream through
Chronic Kidney Disease*
progressive loss of renal function over months or years (also known as kidney failure)
overflow incontinence *
continuous leaking from the bladder either because it is full or did not empty completely
the use of a small piece of intestine to convey urine to the ureters and the stoma in the abdomen
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